Annals of Clinical and Medical Case Reports

Annals of Clinical and Medical Case Reports (ISSN 2639-8109)

Case reports are characterized as the logical documentation of a solitary clinical perception and have a long-established and rich custom in medication and logical distribution. Case reports are important assets of surprising data that may prompt new research and advances in clinical and clinical practice. Case studies give an indicate of the decision-making process so that other physicians can apply lateral thinking to their own cases. These speak to a significant, opportune and significant examination configuration in propelling clinical logical information, particularly of uncommon illnesses. The publication of latest and emerging information in such a way to pave the platform for reporting of unique, unusual and rare cases enhance understanding of the disease process.

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Table of Contents

Introduction, conclusions, acknowledgements, disclosure of interest.

Gluvic Z, Lackovic M, Samardzic V, Mitrovic B, Mladenovic V, et al. (2019) Management of Non-Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Pregnant Woman - Non-Referral Center Experience-Case Report. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 6:257.

CASE REPORT | OPEN ACCESS DOI: 10.23937/2378-3656/1410257

Management of non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia in pregnant woman - non-referral center experience- case report, zoran gluvic 1 , milena lackovic 1 , vladimir samardzic 1 , bojan mitrovic 1 , violeta mladenovic 2 , milan obradovic 3 , danimir jevremovic 4 and esma r isenovic 3*.

1 Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Zemun Clinical Hospital, University of Belgrade, Serbia

2 Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Clinic for Endocrinology, University of Kragujevac, Serbia

3 Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, University of Belgrade, Laboratory of Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, Serbia

4 Faculty of Stomatology in Pancevo, University Business Academy, Serbia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with mutations in genes involved in cortisol and aldosterone production. Based on overall 21-OHase activity, CAH is divided into classic (C-CAH) and non-classic (NC-CAH). Females who suffered from NC-CAH have had increased infertility rates and higher miscarriage susceptibility. The treatment of CAH in pregnancy is still debatable.

We present 22 years old pregnant female (seventh week of gestation), who is currently under dexamethasone (DEX) since almost seven years for NC-CAH. At presentation, she is normotensive, non-obese, with no signs of hirsutism and Cushing syndrome. Seven days after the first visit, an endocrinologist makes informative talk with the patient and her mother about NC-CAH, pregnancy, and drugs-associated risks. Current Clinical Practice Guideline for CAH treatment suggests the use of protocols approved by Institutional Review Boards at Centers experienced in CAH treatment.

In women with CAH who are planning a pregnancy, a close relationship between endocrinologist, reproductive gynaecologist and molecular biologist is of great interest. Prenatal management with DEX is advised in particular circumstances. In remaining, the switch from DEX to other glucocorticoids that do not penetrate placenta is advised.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Miscarriage, Pregnancy, Glucocorticoids, Dexamethasone, Hydrocortisone

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) represents a group of inherited diseases, caused by autosomal recessive mutation of genes involved in adrenal cortex hormone synthesis: glucocorticoids (GC) and mineralocorticoids (MC) [ 1 , 2 ]. The predominant mutations in CAH individuals are located in gene encoding 21OH-ase (CYP21A2) [ 3 ]. CAH can be divided into classic CAH (C-CAH) and non-classic CAH type (NC-CAH) with 2 , 4 ]. In comparison to C-CAH, NC-CAH is more common (about 1:1000 to 1:2000 births), especially in certain ethnic groups, such as Ashkenazy Jews (1 in 27 to 1 in 30 cases) [ 5 ]. Approximately 70% of patients with NC-CAH have a point mutation of Val281Leu at exon 7, and 27-76% of patients have a severe mutation [ 6 , 7 ]. If both partners are the carriers of the severe mutation, the child of them could inherit C-CAH [ 6 ].

Clinical presentation of NC-CAH in adult women is very diverse, from asymptomatic to one presented as hirsutism, menstrual disorders, acne, infertility and rarely primary amenorrhea and virilization [ 8 ]. In males, NC-CAH is usually asymptomatic but can be the cause of impaired fertility [ 8 ]. The diagnostic procedure for NC-CAH involves measurement of 17-OHP, ACTH stimulation test, and genetic testing for CYP21A2 mutation [ 7 , 9 ]. Genetic testing is preferably performed in symptomatic NC-CAH. Most of screening programs do not detect individuals with NC-CAH because of the majority of individuals with NC-CAH experience normal growth, puberty, and reproduction [ 10 ].

Treatment of NC-CAH is recommended in symptomatic individuals with the aim to reduce clinically apparent hyperandrogenism. Hydrocortisone (HC) in children and glucocorticoids (GCs) other than HC (prednisone, prednisolone, and DEX) are preferable treatment options [ 7 , 11 ].

We present a case of a woman with NC-CAH and unexpected pregnancy, who was already under treatment with DEX. Its use in pregnancy is still debatable, because of mothers' and fetus' short- and long term risks.

Biochemistry analyses were performed by DxC 800 and DXI-600 Beckman Coulter devices. Reference intervals for biochemical parameters: glycaemia, sodium and potassium were 3.5-5.5 mmol/L, 138-149 mmol/L, and 4.0-5.0 mmol/L, respectively. Reference intervals for measured hormones: testosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were 0.5-2.6 nmol/L, 10-80 pg/ml, follicular phase and ovulation < 1.3 and < 4.5 mcg/L, as well as 0.35-5.5 mIU/ml respectively. Noninvasive prenatal diagnostics was done by Tranquility test (Genoma Swiss Biotechnology, Geneva, Switzerland). It is capable of recognizing the most frequent numeric aberrations and fetal gender in early pregnancy (10 weeks of gestation) by analyzing mother's blood.

Written informed consent was obtained from the patient, and the Ethical Committee of Zemun Clinical Hospital approved the study.

We present 22-years-old pregnant female (seventh week of gestation), who is currently under DEX treatment began since almost seven years for NC-CAH (0.25 mg on working days, 0.5 mg on weekdays), diagnosed during the evaluation of secondary amenorrhea. She did not carry out any advised genetic counselling. At presentation, she is normotensive, slim (Body Mass Index 19.5 kg/m 2 ), with no hirsutism (Ferriman-Lorenz-Gallway scale of hirsutism < 16) and clinical signs of Cushing syndrome. Previous and current results are shown in Table 1. Seven days after the first visit, an endocrinologist makes informative talk with the patient and her mother about NC-CAH and pregnancy, drugs and associated risks. DEX was switched to HC (20 mg/bid). Prenatal genetic testing was done (tenth week of gestation) and revealed the female gender of the fetus with no gross quantitative chromosomal abnormalities. HC treatment was succeeded,and regular follow-up of mother and fetus was continued, with no visible changes in fetal morphology.

Table 1: The results' cross-section of biochemical and hormonal analyses and administered drugs. View Table 1

Infertility affects about 13% of women with NC-CAH but can be improved with HC treatment [ 6 , 12 ]. Women with NC-CAH who have a desire to be pregnant must bear in mind the risk of C-CAH in infant [ 13 ]. In the study of Bidet, et al. 1.5% of the infants were born with C-CAH from the population of mothers with NC-CAH [ 6 ]. Another study reported a higher risk of C-CAH in newborns (2.5%), and that about 15% of offspring would have NC-CAH [ 14 ]. Predicted risk of having a child with C-CAH of NC-CAH parents is 1:240. According to the fact that the vast majority of NC-CAH parents are heterozygous compound carriers of severe and mild mutations, further predicted incidence is about 1:360 [ 7 , 15 ].

Pregnancies with NC-CAH are thought as high-risk, because of higher rates of miscarriages, predominantly in those who are not covered with GCs (26.3 vs. 6.5%) [ 6 ]. According to the report that the administration of HC before and during the pregnancy period reduced miscarriage rates [ 6 ], the women with CAH who were under treatment with GCs before pregnancy will continue the treatment during pregnancy, but with GCs that do not cross the placenta, such as HC, prednisone, and prednisolone administered in the doses used in secondary adrenocortical failure [ 9 ]. So, the recommended daily dose of those treated with HC was 20-25 mg from the beginning of pregnancy [ 6 ]. On the contrary, the women with NC-CAH who were not managedwith GCs before the pregnancy are not candidates for GCs introduction during pregnancy [ 16 ].

The reasons for DEX use in pregnancy are the prenatal treatment of female fetus that is at risk of C-CAH-associated virilization, the need for fetus reconstructive surgery and anxiety control of parents who might have a child with ambiguous genitalia [ 11 , 15 , 16 ]. According to all, DEX must be introduced just after pregnancy confirmation (at six weeks), because fetal genital virilization begins six to seven weeks after conception [ 16 ]. The recommended DEX use is 20 mcg/kg of maternal body weight divided into three doses. DEX is not inactivated by 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II, so it passes the placenta and suppresses fetal ACTH secretion [ 17 ]. If the prenatal diagnostics are suggestive to a male fetus, DEX treatment is discontinued [ 17 ].

Regarding delayed results of genetic testing in individuals who underwent chorionic villous biopsies (performed at ten to twelve weeks), all pregnancies at risk for fetal C-CAH are treated even though the only 1 of 4 is affected, and 1 in 8 affected fetuses is female [ 15 , 18 ]. As the prenatal treatment of CAH is still experimental, the best approach is to introduce DEX treatment in specialized and referral centres with relevant Ethical Committee, after the mother signed written informed consent [ 9 ]. Except in already mentioned reasons, current Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline suggests avoiding of prenatal DEX exposure of mother and fetus and consequent potential harmful effects of DEX use, that are not thoroughly examined [ 11 ].

DEX is classified as B category drug regarding safety in pregnancy, which means that safety in pregnancy, is not established. So its prescription for prenatal treatment of CAH is off-label in USA and EU [ 11 ]. Both fetus and mother are exposed to the risk of DEX use in pregnancy. The fetus risk associated with GCs use in early pregnancy includes orofacial clefts, reduction in short-term, non-verbal and verbal working memory [ 15 , 19 , 20 ]. In mothers, GCs-induced hypercortisolism could be the consequence of GCs treatment [ 21 ]. Additionally, significance of collaboration between gynaecologists and reproductive endocrinologist must be stressed in regards to DEX use in assisted reproductive technologies. According to that, the reduction of prenatal use of DEX will reduce long-term cognitive disorders in treated healthy female fetuses [ 4 ].

We present a case of unexpectedly pregnant young women, who was already under the DEX treatment because of NC-CAH-induced secondary amenorrhea seven years. Taking into account that she was not sure about pregnancy continuation, her mental condition, the refuse of partner to undergo genetic test regarding CAH detection, as well as the fact that DEX was already changed into HC, the multidisciplinary team approved further HC use and thorough follow-up.

In conclusion, switching of DEX to other GCs that do not penetrate placenta is of great importance in early pregnancy, before the virilization of fetuses begins. The use of modern prenatal genetic testing can additionally help the clinician in deciding on further use of GCs during pregnancy. The use of DEX is appropriate in strongly recommended cases. It is suggested that the introduction and surveillance of DEX treatment in pregnant women with NC-CAH is reserved for referral and experienced centres.

This work is supported by the grants No. 173033 (to E.R.I.) from the Ministry of Science, Republic of Serbia.

The authors report no conflict of interest.

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clinical medical reviews and case reports

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Calcific bursitis of the Gruberi bursa: a case report

  • Nikhil N. Patel   ORCID: 1 ,
  • Jean Jose 1 &
  • Cristina Pravia 1  

Journal of Medical Case Reports volume  18 , Article number:  58 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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Bursitis is the inflammation of a synovial bursa, a small synovial fluid-filled sac that acts as a cushion between muscles, tendons, and bones. Further, calcific bursitis results from calcium deposits on the synovial joint that exacerbates pain and swelling. The Gruberi bursa is located dorsolaterally in the ankle, between the extensor digitorium longus and the talus. Despite limited literature on its pathophysiology, the aim of this case is to discuss the bursa’s association with calcific bursitis and its management via a case presented to our clinic.

Case presentation

A 47-year-old Caucasian female with no past medical or family history presents with acute right ankle pain following a minor injury 3 months prior with no improvement on analgesic or steroid therapy. Imaging demonstrated incidental calcium deposits. The day prior to presentation, the patient stated she used 1-pound ankle weights that resulted in mild swelling and gradual pain to the right dorsoanterior ankle. Physical exam findings displayed a significant reduction in the range of motion limited by pain. Imaging confirmed calcification within the capsule of the talonavicular joint, consistent with Gruberi bursitis. Initial management with prednisone yielded minimal improvement, requiring an interventional approach with ultrasound-guided barbotage that elicited immediate improvement.

The presented case report highlights a rare and unique instance of acute ankle pain and swelling caused by calcific Gruberi bursitis in a young female. Although the Gruberi bursa is a relatively new discovery, it contains inflammatory components that may predispose it to calcification and should be considered in the differential of ankle swelling. Therefore, utilizing a systematic approach to a clinical presentation and considering all differential diagnoses is essential.

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Ankle pain and swelling is a common clinical presentation resulting from various conditions, including sprains, gout, and calcific periarthritis. A synovial bursa is a small sac filled with synovial fluid that acts as a cushion between muscles, tendons, and bones [ 1 ]. Bursitis is a common musculoskeletal presentation of an irritated, swollen, or infected bursa capsule that elicits pain and reduces range of motion [ 2 , 3 ]. The four most common locations for bursitis are prepatellar, olecranon, trochanteric, and retrocalcaneal; typically, these respond to non-surgical management [ 4 ]. Calcific bursitis is the build-up of calcium deposits in soft tissue, which can result in painful swelling of the bursa in synovial joints such as the shoulder, elbow, fingers, wrist, hip, knee, and, less commonly, the ankle [ 5 ]. In this report, we present a case of acute onset ankle pain and swelling secondary to calcific Gruberi bursitis requiring interventional non-operative management.

First described by Alexander Monro (1825), the Gruberi bursa is located between the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) tendon and talus [ 6 ]. The Gruberi bursa is found on the dorsolateral ankle. There is limited literature describing its pathophysiology and its relationship with calcific bursitis.

A 47-year-old Caucasian female with no past medical or family history presented to the clinic for evaluation and treatment of 1-day acute right ankle pain. The patient stated that she sustained a minor injury 3 months prior when she tripped and fell, hyper-plantarflexing the right ankle; she endorsed pain toward the base of her toes rather than her ankle. A plain X-ray of the right ankle in anteroposterior (AP) and lateral noted “incidental calcium deposits over the talonavicular region” (Fig. 1 ).

figure 1

A 1.4 × 0.9 × 1.1 cm focus of soft tissue calcification, with juxta-articular deposits of calcium hydroxyapatite along the dorsal aspect of the talus (arrows)

Subsequently, she went to a pilates class and used 1-pound ankle weights for the first time. The next day, she woke up with mild swelling and gradual, progressive pain to the right dorsoanterior ankle. She was unable to ambulate or bear weight on that foot within 24 hours of the pilates session. The patient denied fevers, chills, rashes, or previous history of rheumatological disorders. Upon physical exam, the right ankle showed noticeable swelling to the anterior aspect without erythema or warmth. Dorsalis pedis was palpable, and strength was 4/5 in all muscle groups of the right leg. The pain was localized predominantly to the anterior aspect of the ankle centrally and over the talonavicular region and tender at the extensor digitorum commonness. The Achilles, posterior ankle, tibialis anterior, and extensor hallux longus tendons were non-tender. Sensation was intact to light touch. Range of motion was severely limited by pain.

Repeat X-ray at this acute presentation demonstrated no evidence of fracture or osteochondral pathology but again showed a calcification dorsal to the talonavicular region. This appeared different than an ossicle or osteophyte, providing concern for acute calcific periarthritis. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her ankle did not show any soft tissue masses but confirmed calcification within the capsule of the talonavicular joint without involvement of the extensor tendons. Using the MRI findings, the precise anatomical location was determined to be consistent with Gruberi bursitis (Fig. 2 ). She was prescribed prednisone 40 mg daily for 4 days without significant improvement.

figure 2

( A ) Sagittal Short Tau Inversion Recovery, ( B ) Sagittal T1, and ( C ) Axial Proton Density Magnetic Resonance Images demonstrate a calcified soft tissue mass with surrounding inflammatory changes along the dorsal aspect of the talus, involving the inferior extensor retinaculum (frondiform ligament) as it passes along the extensor digitorum tendons, reflecting calcific Gruberi bursitis (arrows)

Upon consultation with interventional radiology, an ultrasound (US)-guided barbotage was performed (Fig. 3 ). The inflamed right ankle Gruberi bursa was identified, and amorphous calcifications were noted dorsally to the talus, measuring 1.4 × 0.6 × 1.8 cm, consistent with calcific bursitis (Fig. 4 ). A 20-gauge needle was advanced into the right foot, and a mixture of lidocaine and saline was injected with multiple passes through the amorphous calcifications, breaking them down enough to be lavaged out. Subsequently, a mixture containing 1 cc (40 mg) of Kenalog and lidocaine was injected into the area of calcific bursitis. Within minutes, the ankle pain significantly improved [Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NRS) pain pre-procedure 10/10 and post-procedure 2/10], and the patient immediately returned to baseline ambulation. Rest, ice, and anti-inflammatories were recommended on discharge. Upon 6-month follow-up, this patient is endorsing no pain in her ambulation nor at rest.

figure 3

( A ), ( B ) Longitudinal grayscale ultrasound images of the ankle demonstrate ultrasound-guided calcific bursitis lavage using a 20-gauge spinal needle (arrows)

figure 4

( A ) Longitudinal grayscale and ( B ) color Doppler ultrasound images of the ankle demonstrate hyperechoic foci with acoustic posterior shadowing, internal calcific content, and no appreciable internal vascularity (arrows)

Despite mentions of this anatomical bursa in early twentieth-century anatomy textbooks and multiple reports using MRI or US, extensive debate exists on whether the Gruberi bursa communicates with the talonavicular joint, the tibiotalar joint, and the EDL tendon [ 1 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ].

In this report, we present a unique case of Gruberi bursitis as a rare cause of acute dorsolateral ankle pain and swelling in a young female. While calcific bursitis can affect various bursae in the body, no such literature exists, with only Ragab et al. discussing MRI findings of Gruberi bursitis [ 1 ].

Calcific bursitis presents with localized pain, swelling, tenderness, and reduced range of motion that can worsen with activity, repetitive trauma, or chronic irritation and deposit formation [ 11 , 12 ]. Common management includes rest, immobilization, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and physical therapy to reduce pain and inflammation [ 13 ]. Ice and compression can further alleviate associated symptoms. In consultation with orthopedic surgery, operative management, including arthroscopic removal of the calcific deposit, excision of the bursa, or performing a bursectomy, can be considered if conservative treatment fails to improve the bursitis. Interventional radiology measures, as in our case, can also be performed to aspirate the calcification and inject corticosteroids for pain and inflammation management. Barbotage is a low-risk procedure requiring local anesthesia and relatively quick recovery. The improvement seen in this patient thus supports the belief that inflammatory bursitis to the Gruberi bursa due to calcific involvement exists.

A common differential diagnosis for calcific bursitis is acute calcific periarthritis [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. Although periarthritis is also caused by calcium deposits within soft tissue, resulting in rapid onset monoarticular pain, swelling, erythema, or fever, the cardinal difference is the involvement of tendons [ 14 , 17 , 18 , 19 ]. Similarly, calcific periarthritis is found in big joints such as the shoulder and is self-resolving or requires conservative treatment [ 15 ]. Our case represents a unique presentation in the ankle that required alternative therapy. Despite high doses of oral steroids, the patient was non-ambulatory for at least 1 week before the barbotage. Thus, this case is significant in providing support for ultrasound-guided barbotage for patients who do not respond to conservative medical management. Patients of any age who endorse severe pain at rest or ambulation would benefit from this therapy.

Furthermore, it is important to utilize a systematic approach to the clinical presentation due to high misdiagnosis rates for infective or inflammatory pathophysiology, arthropathies, or neoplasia [ 20 , 21 , 22 ]. Diagnosis, including gout, pseudogout, or infectious etiologies such as osteomyelitis, must be considered in acute ankle pain presentations. Laboratory tests such as C-reactive protein, complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and diagnostic imaging such as MRI or US should be considered [ 23 ]. Although our case lacked laboratory testing due to an emergent presentation, it is imperative to consider all differentials.

While it is a relatively new discovery, the Gruberi bursa does contain inflammatory components that predispose it to calcification, as presented in this case. Further research is needed to determine the pathophysiology of calcification in the talonavicular region. Additionally, studies should be performed to identify inclusion criteria and compare the efficacy of ultrasound-guided barbotage to other treatments of calcific Gruberi bursitis. This report demonstrates the value of enhanced MRI and significant improvement using ultrasound-guided barbotage after failed conservative medical management.

Availability of data and materials

The data and materials supporting the findings of this study are available upon reasonable request from the corresponding author.


Extensor digitorum longus


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The clinical case report: a review of its merits and limitations

  • Trygve Nissen 1 , 2 &
  • Rolf Wynn 1 , 3  

BMC Research Notes volume  7 , Article number:  264 ( 2014 ) Cite this article

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The clinical case report has a long-standing tradition in the medical literature. While its scientific significance has become smaller as more advanced research methods have gained ground, case reports are still presented in many medical journals. Some scholars point to its limited value for medical progress, while others assert that the genre is undervalued. We aimed to present the various points of view regarding the merits and limitations of the case report genre. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed and select textbooks on epidemiology and medical research for articles and book-chapters discussing the merits and limitations of clinical case reports and case series.

The major merits of case reporting were these: Detecting novelties, generating hypotheses, pharmacovigilance, high applicability when other research designs are not possible to carry out, allowing emphasis on the narrative aspect (in-depth understanding), and educational value. The major limitations were: Lack of ability to generalize, no possibility to establish cause-effect relationship, danger of over-interpretation, publication bias, retrospective design, and distraction of reader when focusing on the unusual.


Despite having lost its central role in medical literature in the 20th century, the genre still appears popular. It is a valuable part of the various research methods, especially since it complements other approaches. Furthermore, it also contributes in areas of medicine that are not specifically research-related, e.g. as an educational tool. Revision of the case report genre has been attempted in order to integrate the biomedical model with the narrative approach, but without significant success. The future prospects of the case report could possibly be in new applications of the genre, i.e. exclusive case report databases available online, and open access for clinicians and researchers.

Throughout history the clinical case report and case report series have been integral components of medical literature[ 1 ]. The case report genre held a strong position until it was sidelined in the second half of the 20 th century[ 2 , 3 ]. New methodologies for research articles paved the way for evidence-based medicine. Editors had to make space for these research articles and at the same time signaled less enthusiasm for publishing case reports[ 4 ]. This spurred some heated debates in medical journals as readers were worried that the traditional case report was in jeopardy[ 5 , 6 ]. Those who welcomed the new trend with fewer case reports being published pointed mainly to their low quality and inclination to emphasize mere curiosa[ 7 – 9 ]. Some of the proponents of the genre claimed that the case report had been and still was indispensible for furthering medical knowledge and that it was unique in taking care of the detailed study of the individual patient as opposed to the new research methods with their “…nomothetic approach [taking] precedence…”[ 5 ]. Still, the case report got a low ranking on the evidence hierarchy. After a decline in popularity a new interest for the case report emerged, probably beginning in the late 1990s[ 2 ]. A peer-reviewed ‘Case reports’ section was introduced in the Lancet in 1995[ 10 ]. In 2007, the first international, Pubmed-listed medical journal publishing only case reports was established[ 11 , 12 ]. In the following years, several similar journals, for the most part online and open-access, have been launched.

The present debate is not so much focused on whether case reporting is obsolete or not. Some of the discussions after the turn of the century have been about adapting the case report genre to new challenges. One example is the suggestion of incorporating the narrative, i.e. “… stressing the patient’s story”, in the case report[ 13 ]. The authors termed their initiative “The storied case report”. Their endeavor was not met with success. In analyzing the causes for this, they wondered if “… junior trainees find it too hard to determine what is relevant and senior trainees find it too hard to change their habits”[ 13 ]. A similar attempt was done when the editors of the Journal of Medical Case Reports in 2012 encouraged authors to include the patients’ perspectives by letting patients describe their own experiences[ 14 ].

Notwithstanding, we feel there is much to be gained from having an ongoing discussion highlighting the indications and contraindications for producing case reports. This can to some degree be facilitated by getting an understanding of the merits and limitations of the genre. The objective of this article is to present the merits and limitations of case reports and case series reports.

We adopted Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary’s definition of the case report : “A formal summary of a unique patient and his or her illness, including the presenting signs and symptoms, diagnostic studies, treatment course and outcome”[ 15 ]. A case report consists of one or two cases, most often only one. The case series or case series report usually consists of three to ten cases[ 16 ]. (In the following we use the term case report to denote both case reports and case series report). Case reports are most often naturalistic and descriptive. Sometimes, however, they can be prospective and experimental.

As literature specifically dealing with the case report genre seemed harder to elicit from the databases than the vast amount of particular case reports, we performed iterative searches. We searched Google Scholar and PubMed using the search terms ‘case report(s)’, ‘case series’, ‘case series report(s)’, ‘case reporting’ in various combinations with ‘clinical’, ‘medical’, ‘anecdotal’, ‘methodology’, ‘review’, ‘overview’, ‘strengths’, ‘weaknesses’, ‘merits’, and ‘limitations’. Further references were identified by examining the literature found in the electronic searches. We also consulted major textbooks on epidemiology[ 17 , 18 ], some scholars of medical genres[ 19 , 20 ] and a monograph on case reporting by the epidemiologist M. Jenicek[ 16 ]. We delimited our review to the retrospective, naturalistic, and descriptive case report, also labeled the “traditional” or “classic” case report, and case series including such reports. Thus we excluded other types, such as the planned, qualitative case study approach[ 21 ] and simulated cases[ 22 – 24 ]. Finally, we extracted the relevant data and grouped the merits and limitations items in rank order with the items we judged to be the most important first.

New observations

The major advantage of case reporting is probably its ability to detect novelties[ 16 ]. It is the only way to present unusual, uncontrolled observations regarding symptoms, clinical findings, course of illness, complications of interventions, associations of diseases, side effects of drugs, etc. In short, anything that is rare or has never been observed previously might be important for the medical community and ought to be published. A case report might sensitize readers and thus facilitate detection of similar or identical cases.

Generating hypotheses

From a single, or preferably several single case reports or a case series, new hypotheses could be formulated. These could then be tested with formal research methods that are designed to refute or confirm the hypotheses, i.e. comparative (observational and experimental) studies.

There are numerous examples of new discoveries or major advancements in medicine that started with a case report or, in some cases, as humbly as a letter to the editor. The first concern from the medical community about the devastating side effect of thalidomide, i.e. the congenital abnormalities, appeared as a letter to the editor in the Lancet in 1961[ 25 ]. Soon thereafter, several case reports and case series reports were published in various journals. Case reporting is thus indispensable in drug safety surveillance (pharmacovigilance)[ 26 ].

Sometimes significant advancements in knowledge have come not from what researchers were pursuing, but from “accidental discoveries”, i.e. by serendipity. The story of Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin in 1928 is well known in the medical field[ 27 ]. Psychiatry has profited to a large degree from this mode of advancing medical science as many of the drugs used for mental disorders have been discovered serendipitously[ 27 ]. One notable example is the discovery of the effect of lithium on manic episodes in patients with manic-depressive disorder[ 28 ]. A more recent discovery is the successful treatment of infantile hemangiomas with systemic propranolol. This discovery was published, as a case series report, in the correspondence section in New England Journal of Medicine [ 29 ]. However, the evidence for the effect of this treatment is still preliminary, and several randomized trials are under way[ 30 , 31 ].

Clear and operational entities are prerequisites for doing medical research. Descriptions must come before understanding. Clinical observations that lead to new disorders being described are well suited for case reporting. The medical literature is replete with case-based articles describing new diseases and syndromes. One notable example is the first description of neurasthenia by G. Beard in Boston Medical and Surgical Journal in 1869[ 32 ].

Researching rare disorders

For rare disorders randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can be impossible to run due to lack of patients to be enrolled. Research on drug treatment and other kinds of interventions must therefore be based on less rigorous methodologies, among them case series and case reports. This would be in accordance with the European Commission’s recommendation to its members to improve health care for those with rare disorders[ 33 ].

Solving ethical constraints

Case reporting can be valuable when ethical constraints prohibit experimental research. Take as an example the challenge of how to manage the side effects of accidental extravasation of cytotoxic drugs. As RCTs on humans seem unethical in this clinical situation the current guidelines rest on small observational studies, case reports and animal studies[ 34 ]. Or another example: Physical restraint is sometimes associated with sudden, unexpected death. The cause or causes for this are to some degree enigmatic, and it is hard to conceive of a controlled study that could be ethical[ 35 , 36 ]. Case reports and case series being “natural experiments” might be the only evidence available for guiding clinical practice.

In-depth narrative case studies

Case reporting can be a way of presenting research with an idiographic emphasis. As contrasted to nomothetic research, an idiographic approach aims at in-depth understanding of human phenomena, especially in the field of psychology and psychiatry. The objective is not generalizable knowledge, but an understanding of meaning and intentionality for an individual or individuals. Sigmund Freud’s case studies are relevant examples. This usage of case reports borders on qualitative research. Qualitative studies, although developed in the social sciences, have become a welcome contribution within health sciences in the last two decades.

Educational value

Clinical medical learning is to a large degree case-based. Typical case histories and vignettes are often presented in textbooks, in lectures, etc. Unusual observations presented as published case reports are important as part of doctors’ continuing medical education, especially as they demonstrate the diversity of manifestations both within and between medical diseases and syndromes[ 37 , 38 ]. Among the various medical texts, the case report is the only one that presents day-to-day clinical practice, clinicians’ diagnostic reasoning, disease management, and follow-up. We believe that some case reports that are written with the aim of contributing to medical knowledge turn out to be of most value educationally because the phenomena have already been described elsewhere. Other case reports are clearly primarily written for educational value[ 37 ]. Some journals have regular sections dedicated to educational case reports, e.g. The Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital in the New England Journal of Medicine and the Clinical Case Conference found in the American Journal of Psychiatry.

The cost of doing a case report is low compared to planned, formal studies. Most often the necessary work is probably done in the clinical setting without specific funding. Larger studies, for instance RCTs, will usually need an academic setting.

Fast publication

The time span from observation to publication can be much shorter than for other kinds of studies. This is obviously a great advantage as a case report can be an important alert to the medical community about a serious event. The unexpected side effects of the sedative-antinauseant thalidomide on newborn babies is a telling story. The drug had been prescribed during pregnancy to the babies’ mothers. After the first published observation of severe abnormalities in babies appeared as a letter to the editor of the Lancet in December 16 th , 1961[ 25 ], several case reports and series followed[ 39 , 40 ]. It should be mentioned though that the drug company had announced on December 2 nd , 1961, i.e. two weeks before the letter from McBride[ 25 ], that it would withdraw the drug form the market immediately[ 41 ].

Flexible structure

Riaz Agha, editor of the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports suggests that the case report, with its less rigid structure is useful as it “… allows the surgeon(s) to discuss their diagnostic approach, the context, background, decision-making, reasoning and outcomes”[ 42 ]. Although the editor is commenting on the surgical case report, the argument can be applied for the whole field of clinical medicine. It should be mentioned though, that other commentators have argued for a more standardized, in effect more rigid, structure[ 43 ].

Clinical practice can be changed

Case reporting can lead to or contribute to a change in clinical practice. A drug might be withdrawn from the market. Or a relabeling might change the attitude to and treatment of a condition. During Word War I the shell shock syndrome was labeled and described thoroughly in several articles in the Lancet , the first of them appearing in February 1915[ 44 ]. The author was the British captain and military doctor Charles S. Myers. Before his efforts to bring good care and treatment to afflicted soldiers there had been a common misconception that many of these dysfunctional soldiers were malingerers or cowards.

Exercise for novice researchers

The case report format is well suited for young doctors not yet trained as researchers. It can be an opportunity for a first exercise in authoring an article and a preparation for a scientific career[ 37 , 45 , 46 ].

Communication between the clinical and academic fields

Articles authored by clinicians can promote communication between practicing clinicians and academic researchers. Observations published can generate ideas and be a trigger for further studies. For instance, a case series consisting of several similar cases in a short period can make up the case-group for a case–control study[ 47 ]. Clinicians could do the observation and publish the case series while the case–control study could be left to the academics.


Some commentators find reading case reports fun. Although a rather weak argument in favor of case reporting, the value of being entertained should not be dismissed altogether. It might inspire physicians to spend more time browsing and reading scientific literature[ 48 ].

Studying the history of medicine

Finally, we present a note on a different and unintended aspect of the genre. The accumulated case reports from past eras are a rich resource for researching and understanding medical history[ 49 , 50 ]. A close study of old case reports can provide valuable information about how medicine has been practiced through the centuries[ 50 , 51 ].

  • Limitations

No epidemiological quantities

As case reports are not chosen from representative population samples they cannot generate information on rates, ratios, incidences or prevalences. The case or cases being the numerator in the equation, has no denominator. However, if a case series report consists of a cluster of cases, it can signal an important and possibly causal association, e.g. an epidemic or a side effect of a newly marketed drug.

Causal inference not possible

Causality cannot be inferred from an uncontrolled observation. An association does not imply a cause-effect relationship. The observation or event in question could be a mere coincidence. This is a limitation shared by all the descriptive studies[ 47 ]. Take the thalidomide tragedy already mentioned as an example; Unusual events such as congenital malformations in some of the children born to mothers having taken a specific drug during pregnancy does not prove that the drug is the culprit. It is a mere hypothesis until further studies have either rejected or confirmed it. Cause-effect relationships require planned studies including control groups that to the extent possible control for chance, bias and confounders[ 52 ].

Generalization not possible

From the argument above, it follows that findings from case reports cannot be generalized. In order to generalize we need both a cause-effect relationship and a representative population for which the findings are valid. A single case report has neither. A case series, on the other hand, e.g. many “thalidomide babies” in a short time period, could strengthen the suspicion of a causal relationship, demanding further surveillance and research.

Publication bias could be a limiting factor. Journals in general favor positive-outcome findings[ 53 ]. One group of investigators studying case reports published in the Lancet found that only 5% of case reports and 10% of case series reported treatment failures[ 54 ]. A study of 435 case reports from the field of dentistry found that in 99.1%, the reports “…clearly [had] a positive outcome and the intervention was considered and described as successful by the authors”[ 55 ].


Overinterpretation or misinterpretation is the tendency or temptation to generalize when there is no justification for it. It has also been labeled “the anecdotal fallacy”[ 56 ]. This is not a shortcoming intrinsic to the method itself. Overinterpretation may be due to the phenomenon of case reports often having an emotional appeal on readers. The story implicitly makes a claim to truth. The reader might conclude prematurely that there is a causal connection. The phenomenon might be more clearly illustrated by the impact of the clinician’s load of personal cases on his or her practice. Here exemplified by a young doctor’s confession: “I often tell residents and medical students, ‘The only thing that actually changes practice is adverse anecdote.’”[ 57 ].

Emphasis on the rare

As case reporting often deals with the rare and atypical, it might divert the readers’ attention from common diseases and problems[ 58 ].


Journals today require written informed consent from patients before publishing case reports. Both authors and publishers are responsible for securing confidentiality. A guarantee for full confidentiality is not always possible. Despite all possible measures taken to preserve confidentiality, sometimes the patient will be recognized by someone. This information should be given to the patient. An adequately informed patient might not consent to publication. In 1995 in an Editorial in the British Journal of Psychiatry one commentator, Isaac Marks, feared that written consent would discourage case reports being written[ 59 ]. Fortunately, judged form the large number of reports being published today, it seems unlikely that the demand for consent has impeded their publication.

Other methodological limitations

Case reports and series are written after the relevant event, i.e. the observation. Thus, the reports are produced retrospectively. The medical record might not contain all relevant data. Recall bias might prevent us from getting the necessary information from the patient or other informants such as family members and health professionals.

It has also been held against case reporting that it is subjective. The observer’s subjectivity might bias the quality and interpretation of the observation (i.e. information bias).

Finally, the falsification criterion within science, which is tested by repeating an experiment, cannot be applied for case reports. We cannot design another identical and uncontrolled observation. However, unplanned similar “experiments” of nature can be repeated. Several such observations can constitute a case series that represents stronger indicative evidence than the single case report.

The major advantages of case reporting are the ability to make new observations, generate hypotheses, accumulate scientific data about rare disorders, do in-depth narrative studies, and serve as a major educational tool. The method is deficient mainly in being unable to deliver quantitative data. Nor can it prove cause-effect relationship or allow generalizations. Furthermore, there is a risk of overinterpretation and publication bias.

The traditional case report does not fit easily into the qualitative-quantitative dichotomy of research methods. It certainly shares some characteristics with qualitative research[ 16 ], especially with regard to the idiographic, narrative perspective – the patient’s “interior world”[ 60 ] – that sometimes is attended to. Apart from “The storied case report” mentioned in the Background-section, other innovative modifications of the traditional case report have been tried: the “evidence-based case report”[ 61 ], the “interactive case report”[ 62 ] and the “integrated narrative and evidence based case report”[ 63 ]. These modifications of the format have not made a lasting impact on the way case reports in general are written today.

The method of case reporting is briefly dealt with in some textbooks on epidemiology[ 17 , 18 ]. Journals that welcome case reports often put more emphasis on style and design than on content in their ‘instruction to authors’ section[ 64 ]. As a consequence, Sorinola and coworkers argue for more consensus and more consistent guidance on writing case reports[ 64 ]. We feel that a satisfactory amount of guidance concerning both style and content now exists[ 12 , 16 , 65 , 66 ]. The latest contribution, “The CARE guidelines”, is an ambitious endeavor to improve completeness and transparency of reports[ 66 ]. These guidelines have included the “Patient perspective” as an item, apparently a bit half-heartedly as this item is placed after the Discussion section, thus not allowing this perspective to influence the Discussion and/or Conclusion section. We assume this is symptomatic of medicine’s problem with integrating the biomedical model with “narrative-based medicine”.

In recent years the medical community has taken an increased interest in case reports[ 2 ], especially after the surge of online, exclusive case report journals started in 2007 with the Journal of Medical Case Reports (which was the first international, Pubmed-listed medical journal publishing only case reports) as the first of this new brand. The climate of skepticism has been replaced by enthusiasm and demand for more case reports. A registry for case reports, Cases Database, was founded in 2012[ 67 ]. On the condition that it succeeds in becoming a large, international database it could serve as a register being useful for clinicians at work as well as for medical research on various clinical issues. Assuming Pamela P. Powell’s assertion that “[a]lmost all practicing physicians eventually will encounter a case worthy of being reported”[ 60 ] is valid, there should be no shortage of potential cases waiting to be reported and filed in various databases, preferably online and open access.

Limitations of this review

There are several limitations to this study. It is a weakness that we have not been able to review all the relevant literature. The number of publications in some way related to case reports and case report series is enormous, and although we have attempted to identify those publications relevant for our purpose (i.e. those that describe the merits and limitations of the case report genre), we might have missed some. It was difficult to find good search terms for our objective. Still, after repeated electronic searches supplemented with manual searches in reference lists, we had a corpus of literature where essentially no new merits or limitations emerged.

As we point out above, the ranking of merits and limitations represents our subjective opinion and we acknowledge that others might rank the importance of the items differently.

The perspective on merits and limitations of case reporting has been strictly medical. As a consequence we have not analyzed or discussed the various non-medical factors affecting the publication of case reports in different medical journals[ 2 ]. For instance, case reports are cited less often than other kinds of medical research articles[ 68 ]. Thus they can lower a journal’s impact factor, potentially making the journal less attractive. This might lead some high-impact journals to publish few or no case reports, while other journals have chosen to specialize in this genre.

Before deciding on producing a case report or case series based on a particular patient or patients at hand, the observant clinician has to determine if the case report method is the appropriate article type. This review could hopefully assist in that judgment and perhaps be a stimulus to the continuing debate in the medical community on the value of case reporting.

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Professor Department of Pharmacology Laboratory of Cardiac and Vascular Phenomics Center for Molecular Medicine University of Nevada School of Medicine

Dario Marchetti

Jack L. Titus Professor Department of Pathology & Immunology Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology Director CTC Core Facility Baylor College of Medicine

Sho-ichi Yamagishi

Professor and Chairman Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications Kurume University School of Medicine

Maria Hernández Finch

Assistant Professor Educational Psychology Ball State University

Gerald M. Higa

Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Clinical Professor of Medicine (adjunct) Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine West Virginia University

Sangeeta Singg

Professor of Psychology Angelo State University

Ospan A. Mynbaev

Adjunct-Professor Moscow Institute of Physics & Technology Professor Peoples' Friendship University of Russia

Dieudonne Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo

Professor University of Kinshasa

Firas H. Kobeissy

Assistant Professor Department of Psychiatry McKnight Brain Institute University of Florida

Kristen M. Carney

Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology Associate Director of Clinical Training Illinois Professional School of Psychology Argosy University

Diane Blanchard

Professor School of Nursing Alcorn State University

Stephen E. Berger

Associate Professor Department of Psychology Argosy University

Fred L. Miller III

Associate Professor Exercise Science Department of Kinesiology Anderson University

Assistant Professor Tuskegee University

Director, Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology Professor of Pathology Banner University Medical Center- Tucson Campus

Carlos Martin Ardila

Biomedical Stomatology Group Universidad de Antioquia Colombia

Vural Fidan

Otorhinolaryngologist Yunus Emre Goverment Hospital

Selahattin Ozyurek

Associate Professor Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Aksaz Military Hospital

Megan O’Banion

Director of Clinical Training & Associate Professor American School of Professional Psychology Argosy University, San Francisco Bay Area Clinical Psychology Program

Jon Ver Halen

Associate Program Director Plastic Surgery Residency School of Medicine Texas A&M University

Jungeun “Jay” Lee

Clinical Associate Professor Department of Psychological, Health, and Learning Sciences University of Houston

Massimo Tusconi

Psychiatrist Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine Psychiatry Unit, University of Cagliari Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Center for Translational Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center

Saurabh Dahiya

Clinical Associate Tufts University School of Medicine USA

Ciro Rinaldi

Clinical Director - Consultant Haematologist United Lincolnshire Hospital NHS Trust Visiting Professor of Biomedical Science University of Lincoln United Kingdom

German Pihan

Staff Pathologist Chief, Diagnostic Hematopathology Service Director, Hematopathology Felloship Training Program Department of Pathology Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center USA

Govind R Rajan

Professor Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Care Director-Clinical Affairs Chief Liaison: Surgical Services UCI Medical Center USA

John Giannios

Professor President at International Academy of Precision Medicine and Oncology Greece

Michael J. Gonzalez

Professor School of Public Health University of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico

Paolo Campioni

Associate Professor Radiology Department University of Ferrara Italy

Professor Head of the School of Health Science Waterford Institute of Technology Ireland

Farnad Imani

Professor Department of anesthesiology and pain medicine Rasoul Akram Medical Center Tehran University of Medical Sciences Iran

Associate Professor Perelman School of Medicine Director GU subdivision and TMA laboratory Department of Pathology Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania USA

Steven Boggs

Director of the OR and Chief of the Anesthesia Service James J. Peters VA Medical Center Associate Professor of Anesthesiology Icahn Medical School at Mount Sinai USA

Piergiorgio Calò

Professor Department of Surgical Sciences University of Cagliari Italy

Douglas Coldwell

Professor of Radiology Director of Vascular and Interventional Radiology University of Louisville USA

Cagatay Ulucay

Associate Professor Departmant of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Yeditepe Medical University Turkey

Marcus Quek

Robert C. Flanigan Endowed Professor of Urology Stritch School of Medicine Loyola University USA

Harris Politis

Visiting Professor of Medical Law European University of Cyprus Greece

Süleyman Ersin ÜNLÜ

Ankara Training and Research Hospital Pediatrics Clinic Turkey

Tal Salamon

Vascular and General surgeon HaEmek medical center Israel

Giorgos Skarpas

Orthopaedic Surgeon, Sports Medicine Medical School University of Athens Greece

Reuben Matalon

Director, Clinical Biochemical/Molecular Genetics Professor of Pediatrics and Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology UTMB Galveston USA

Pietro Iaffaldano

Assistant Professor of Neurology University of Bari Aldo Italy

Jimmie Stewart

Associate Professor Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology University of Minnesota Medical Center USA

Sheila L. Ryan

Director of Clinical Research Pediatric Urology at Texas Children's Hospital/Baylor College of Medicine USA

Mark A. Reynolds

Professor and Dean School of Dentistry University of Maryland USA

Jimmie Stewart III

Associate Professor Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology University of Minnesota USA

Ramnath Santosh Ramanathan

Research Scientist/Clinical Neurologist Akron Neurology Inc. USA

Marco Fiore

Department of Anesthesiological Surgical and Emergency Sciences Second University of Naples Italy

Pietro Ruggieri

Professor and Chair Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Oncology Director of Residency Program - Orthopedics and Traumatology Director of the Scientific Center for Research on Musculoskeletal Tumors "Mario Mercuri" University of Padova Italy

Salah A. Mohamed

Associate Professor Department of Cardiac and Thoracic Vascular Surgery University of Luebeck Germany

Leonid I. Nefyodov

Professor Department of Biochemistry Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno Belarus

Senior Research fellow Institute of Medical Biology Adjunct assistant professor Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine Singapore

Vaia D. Raikou

Nephrologist Department of Medicine National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Greece

Leonardo Roever

Department of Clinical Research Federal University of Uberlândia(UFU), Brazil

Lloyd Reeve-Johnson

Professor of One Health Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering University of Sunshine Coast Australia

Gopal Nambi

Assistant Professor Department of Physical therapy and Rehabilitation Medicine Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University Saudi Arabia

Frédéric J. Deschamps

Professor Department of Occupational Medicine and Occupational Pathologies University Hospital of Reims France

Judit Szabó

Associate Professor Department of Medical Microbiology University Debrecen Hungary

Tzerkovsky Dmitry

Head of the Department Laboratory of Photodynamic Therapy and Hyperthermia with Chemotherapy Group NN Alexandrov National Cancer Centre of Belarus Republic of Belarus

Dongming Hou

Visiting Professor Cardiology Department of the 10th Hospital, Tongji Univ.(Shanghai) Cardiology Department of the 2nd Hospital, Harbin Med Univ.(Harbin) Distinguished Corporate Fellow R&D Boston Scientific USA

Adel Ekladious

Clinical Associate professor of medicine University of western Australia

Carotid-subclavian bypass and endovascular aortic repair of Kommerell’sdiverticulum with aberrant left subclavian artery: A case report and literature review

Akilu Wajeehullahi Yi Feng Zhangqiang Zhu Li Shi Liang XianTao Ma Wei Xiang Cheng Cai

Case Report -Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

Current Issue

Volume 9, issue 1, right nasal alar clear cell sclerotic basal cell carcinoma: an unusual case report.

Wang Yi-Xin Wang Yan Zhang Qian Zhang Run-Dong

Case Report-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

Treatment modalities employed for remission-reinduction in relapsed/refractory AML – A review of current evidence

Mohamed Zakee Mohamed Jiffry Vincent Rella Kamila Bakirhan Prabasha Weeraddana Meagan Josephs

Imaging features of acellular dermal matrix in the reconstructed breast after breast cancer

Agni Chandora MD Stefanie Zalasin MD Stefanie Woodard DO R Jobe J Fix MD Valeria Dal Zotto MD Junlin Zhang MD JeongMi Park MD

Case Series-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

clinical medical reviews and case reports

  • March 2023 Issue 1
  • December 2022 Issue 3
  • August 2022 Issue 2
  • April 2022 Issue 1

Assessment of the impact of the information on anxiety in preoperative care

Hasnaa Sine Hanane Hababa Hajar Balaouad Asmaa Bouhaimi Fatima Zahra Elmezoued Ahmed Kharbach Mohamed Boukrim Hayat Sine Youssef Bouchriti Mohamed Baba Amine Aziz Naciri Abderrahmane Achbani

The role of circulating miR-20b-5p in diabetes

Songtao Yang Jie Cao Li Yuan

Total knee arthroplasty in a patient with Klippel Trenaunay Weber syndrome

Jiaxi Li Xin Xin Wei Yan Jie Zhao Jinsong Li

Repurposing PACE day center in response to the novel coronavirus pandemic

Marjorie M. Almeda Theodore T. Suh

Esophageal Actinomycosis: A rare cause of dysphagia

Chen KC Mai K Suraweera A Arul I Cernosek S Thangaratnam S Sharma S Kansal P Perumalsamy K Tyagi V Suraweera D

January 25, 2022

  • September 2021 Issue 3
  • June 2021 Issue 2
  • March 2021 Issue 1

Pseudohyponatremia in a neuroblastoma patient with obstructive jaundice and review of literature

Marta Bassi Carla Manzitti Shana Montalto Serena Giglio Massimo Conte Fabio Facco Loredana Amoroso

April 27, 2021

Spontaneous rupture of subcapsular liver hematoma in sudden onset severe preeclampsia

Shikha Rani Reeti Mehra Sunita Dubey Shefali Wadhwani Kumar Abhishek

April 10, 2021

An Infant with Sandhoff disease: A case report

Zahra sabzi Negarin abkari Seraj aldin Arefnia

May 11, 2021

Case report of Hemophagocytic Syndrome complicated by septic shock

López-Cabrera Yessica Aguilar-Silva Andres Del Carpio Orantes Luis Chavez Aguilar Cecilia Cerda Mendez Carlos Ivan Onofre Aquino Raquel

February 04, 2021

Obstructive sleep apnea in a case of ehlers-danlos syndrome

Stephanie J Mitri Alain M Sabri M-L M Coussa-Koniski

February 08, 2021

Progressive cavitational leukoencephalopathy: An enigma

García Divahia Martinez Natalia Lanau Sara Espinosa Eugenia

February 09, 2021

Enterocolitis with fulminate sepsis in a newborn with tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome: A case report

Diane E. Lorant Kok Lim Kua

March 05, 2021

An antioxidant approach directed to non-healing wounds activation - A case report study

Juan Francisco Jiménez-García Gabriel Aguilera-Manrique Laura Parra-Anguita Joan Enric Torra-Bou Irene Villegas-Tripiana Francisco Pedro García-Fernández

February 25, 2021

Study of new energy-based noninvasive therapies for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Miachon MD Chavantes MC

A rare cause of agranulocytosis

Helena Luís Carolina Barros Mauro Fernandes Sofia Granito

Gastrointestinal symptom and stress recall survey in frontline healthcare workers after consumption of a combined quebracho/conker tree/M. balsamea willd extract during the COVID-19 pandemic

Kenneth Brown Brandi Scott-Hoy Bruce P. Burnett

March 27, 2021

  • December 2020 Issue 4
  • September 2020 Issue 3
  • June 2020 Issue 2
  • March 2020 Issue 1

Low-dose cyclophosphamide-induced hyponatremia in primary breast cancer

Yasutaka Tono Toshiro Mizuno Hiroyasu Oda Mikiya Ishihara Kanako Saito Yoshiki Yamashita Kazunori Nakase

October 15, 2020

Intravenous iron – personal experience of 1000 consecutive infusions

November 06, 2020

Real-world experience with tramadol plus dexketoprofen fixed-dose combination in postoperative pain management: A series of case studies from Asia

Kok Yuen Ho Edward H Wang Jose Antonio Salud Chi Wai Cheung Ferdinand Syfu Keen Wai Chong

December 04, 2020

Local progression of needle tract metastases during neo-adjuvant chemotherapy after core biopsy in breast carcinoma: A case report

Judith Lamberigts Karin Leunen

December 21, 2020

Biweekly cladribine and rituximab in a patient with hairy cell leukemia and severe renal failure

Ena Ranković Snježana Dotlić Pavle Rončević Marijo Vodanović Igor Aurer

July 29,2020

Objective tinnitus due to essential palatal myoclonus

Daryus Heydari Levent Eker Hakan Kayali

September 28, 2020

A rare presentation of subarachnoid hemorrhage: Vertical gaze palsy – A case report

Gülşah CI Seda D Hikmet SC Yunsur C

September 09, 2020

Chemical pneumonitis secondary to chlorine dioxide consumption in a patient with severe Covid 19

Andrés Aguilar Silva

September 22, 2020

Extra-mucosal laryngectomy for the treatment of radiation-induced non-functional larynx

Salim Bouayed Andrea Avagnina Bassel Hallak

Infrarenal mycotic aortic pseudoaneurysm

Steven Miles Maher Khazem MS

September 30, 2020

Zika virus infection in the Brazilian Amazon: A case report

Cheila Maria Lins Bentes Marcos do Nascimento Bentes Kátia Cilene Godinho Bertoncello Jussara Gue Martini Fernanda Beduschi Antoniolli Neves Maria de Lourdes de Souza

April 13,2020

MEK inhibition with trametinib is a successful therapy in ganglioglioma

Eliza Baird Daniel BA Douglas E Ney Jean M Mulcahy Levy

May 08,2020

Introducing covid-19 as an evolutionary metabolic infectious disease (EMID). The prime cause and representing alternative treatment for Covid-19 (SARS-cov-2)

Sorush Niknamian

May 19,2020

Occlusal analysis and management of a patient with headache and temporomandibular joint sound: A case report

Kengo Torii

May 26,2020

The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Pakistani population: Managing challenges through mental health services

Khunsa Junaid Hassan Ali Maryam Khalid

May 28,2020

Repair of the left ventricular wall pseudoaneurysm following myocardial infarction (simple modified dor technique)

Mahmood hosseinzadeh Maleki Nahid Azdaki Mohammad Reza Rezvani Alireza Rahmani Motlaq

June 30,2020

Fever, abdominal pain, and lymphocytic ascites in a young immigrant from western Africa

Antonio Faraone Domenico Tomasi Alberto Fortini

June 09,2020

Metastatic choriocarcinoma with tumour lysis syndrome

Birthe Osorio Heidrun Männle Karsten Münstedt

March 16,2020

Association of lupus and a frontal fibrosing alopecia: A case report

Jihane Ziani Sara Eloudi Selma Benkirane Hanane Baybay Zakia Douhi Fatima Zahra Mernissi

May 16, 2020

Perforating granuloma annulare in children: A case report

March 16, 2020

Isolated tuberculosis of liver & spleen: A rare presentation

Zubin PS Divya S Ravindra S Santosh Y

May 18, 2020

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people

Vivek Kamath

Short Communication-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

May 19, 2020

Health care suggestions for COVID 19 pandemic crisis

  • December 2019 Issue 4
  • September 2019 Issue 3
  • June 2019 Issue 2
  • March 2019 Issue 1

Adult outset of IgA vasculitis with pulmonary and renal involvement

Sharif Muhammad Khalid Moddathir Mohmmed Manal Shahid Muhammad Haris shah Reem Abbas

August 29, 2019

Cramp Fasciculation Syndrome in Athletes: A Report of Two Cases

Daniel A. Rubin Jocelyn R. Gravlee Robert L Hatch

September 20, 2019

Pancreatitis Caused by Tigecycline: A Rare Case Report

Yinyin Guo Laiyuan Li Xia Song Hui Zhao

October 07,2019

Case report: Cardio-renal syndrome with concomitant cardio-hepatic syndrome in a severe aortic stenosis patient

Hung Manh PHAM Quang Ngoc NGUYEN Hanh Duc VAN

December 02, 2019

Thyroid Storm Complicated by Multisystem Organ Failure Requiring Plasmapheresis to Bridge to Thyroidectomy: A Case Report and Literature Review

Rabail Soomro Natasha Campbell Stuart Campbell Christopher Lesniak Michael Sullivan Raquel Ong Jennifer Cheng Mohammad A. Hossain

December 03, 2019

Unusual manifestation of brucellosis

Ranjbar Mitra

November 21, 2019

Anastrozole induced irreversible hepatotoxicity: Frailty and adverse drug reactions

Rawan Khuwaileh Timothy Green Subramaniam Nagasayi

December 13, 2019

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: pitfalls of T2 shine through in MRI

Taichi Omachi Tomohiko Shimo Takahide Nakano Masaya Takahashi Junji Takaya

July 01, 2019

Exercise training in multifocal motor neuropathy - a case report study

Lars K. Markvardsen Kristian Overgaard John Vissing Henning Andersen

July 11, 2019

Suboptimal care in a case of severe hyponatremia in an elderly male patient in the emergency department. A three-question guide for basic assessment and treatment of hyponatremia

Jordi Liesveld

July 18, 2019

Complex Cancer Pain - When Intrathecal Analgesia Is Not Enough

Woong Liling Natalie

July 26, 2019

Left main coronary artery from the right coronary cusp: 2 cases of different courses and literature review

Ahmad Houjeiri

Giant Inguino-scrotal swelling

Meghna Kinjalk

Clinical Image-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

August 26, 2019

Management of Total Dyspnea

Lee Guozhang

May 10, 2019

Ringworm on the Legs of a Patient after Long-term Intensive care Unit Residency

Muhammad Ali MD Angelos G. Rigopoulos Mammad Mammadov Marios Matiakis Michel Noutsias MD

May 24, 2019

Post-Vaccination Inflammatory Syndrome: a new syndrome

Giannotta G Giannotta N

May 25, 2019

Iron Deficiency Without Anemia – Common, Important, Neglected

June 10, 2019

Preliminary result of randomized trial of an oral thrombolytic agent for deep venous thrombosis, cardiac emboli and carotid atheromatous plaques in patients with infarctive stroke: a report of three (3) cases

Obiako OR Awwal AM Abubakar SA Oguike WE Hassan A Igashi BG Jamoh B Chukwuma P Ibinaiye PO Muktar HM Azuh P

June 14, 2019

Hungry bone syndrome after parathyroidectomy: Incidence and predictive factors

Sameh Mezri Sameh Sayhi Hadhemi Ben chikha Rania Ben M'hamed khemaies Akkari

June 24, 2019

Sarcoidosis induced interstitial nephritis. A case series with literature review

Huzaif Qaisar Shreya Gor Anmol Cheema Alireza Amirpour Avais Masud Diana Currasmartin Mohammad A. Hossain Arif Asif

January 18, 2019

Use of nanotechnology to increase the lifetime of blood's donor by stabilizing the molecular structure of the proteins and lipids bonds of membranes of preserved erythrocytes

Andrey Belousov Elena Malygon Vadim Yavorskiy Ekateryna Belousova

January 25, 2019

Systemic lupus or HIV: The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb

Hala. I. El Gendy EGehad G Maghraby

January 21, 2019

A case of selective straight sinus thrombosis (SST): sudden onset and evolution

Sergiacomi G Pugliese L Cola G Sancesario G Mercuri N Floris R

New Syndrome: Partially Ectodermal Growth Deficiency (Fidan Syndrome)

  • December 2018 Issue 9
  • October 2018 Issue 8
  • August 2018 Issue 7
  • June 2018 Issue 6
  • May 2018 Issue 5
  • April 2018 Issue 4
  • March 2018 Issue 3
  • February 2018 Issue 2
  • January 2018 Issue 1

Using social media and random-generation methods for crowd-sourcing data in nursing research: a pilot project

Fäke URA Name P Power M Bourneville N Gato GW Gato HH Gerbo F Rael UN Farm BIG Green TR Cal AM

December 15, 2018

Multiple metastases from myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) for which Whole Body MRI (WB-MRI) was useful for their detection

Katsuyuki Nakanishi Yoshinori Imura Shigenori Nagata Akio Tsukabe Norifumi Naka Shinichi Nakatsuka Noriyuki Tomiyama

December 10, 2018

Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report and immunohistochemical study

Takeshi Takayama Katsuhiko Hayashi Hiroyuki Akiyama Yuri Kirihara Akihiro Ikai

January 05, 2019

Infantile sporadic epidermolytic hyperkeratosis: a case report

Ghita Senhaji Ouiame El Jouari Sara Elloudi Zakia Douhi Hanane Bay Bay Fatima Zahra Mernissi

Unexpected healings in Lourdes catholic sanctuary: an epidemiological review on the cases canonically acknowledged

Gerardo Iuliano

January 24, 2019

Meconium aspiration: Case report

Marinković N Aleksić I

October 29, 2018

Orthopaedic surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome

Georgi P. Georgiev Vesselin Karabinov Martin Apostolov

Mini Review-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

October 17, 2018

Rupture of umbilical cord at birth: an unusual case of acute neonatal haemorrhage

Laura De Petris Maria Rita Sabatini Ermanno Ruffini

October 30, 2018

Coronary Sinus Aneurysm: Incidental discovery during coronary artery bypass grafting

Arjun Balakumar Fahad Athar Louis Samuels

October 25, 2018

Management of senile atopic dermatitis in geriatric outpatient clinic Dermatovenereology Department Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in 2011-2015

Marsha Bianti

Asymptomatic hyponatremic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis: An unusual initial presentation of Cystic Fibrosis in an infant

Upma, Suneja Akhila Mandadi Lil Rodriguez George Vermenton Jayendra Sharma

Is mycobacterial vaccination a risk for septic arthritis in pediatric age? A Case report

Chico-Carpizo Fernando Colmenares-Bonilla Douglas Casimiro Guzman Leticia Leon Espitia Jose Osorio Guzman Monica Angel Cruz Luis Dominguez Gasca Luis Gerardo Tovar-Cardona Mayra

August 20, 2018

Rare complication: Persistent hiccups

Ebru Tarıkçı Kılıç Mehmet Salim Akdemir Haluk Kılıç

August 28, 2018

Acute spinal cord ischemia secondary to hypovolemic shock related to acute myocardial Infarction

Monique Boukobza Jean-Pierre Laissy

Permanent coma patient re-learned to speak via coordination dynamics therapy

Giselher Schalow

August 25, 2018

A single case report of Vulval Stenosis and its management

Bowa K Chalwe M Kandonga B

Molar Pregnancy-Case report

Marina Yuabova

August 29, 2018

A 59-year-old Female Post Bariatric Surgery with Severe Vitamin D Deficiency and Severe Hypocalcemia Induced by Denosumab Injection for Osteoporosis

John Beal Soemiwati W Holland Krishna Chalasani Mohammad A. Hossain

June 25, 2018

Rectus sheath hematoma presenting as an abdominal mass

Kinagabran Sivananthan Karthigesu Aimanan Senthilvasan Kanthasamy Azlanudin Azman Ramesh Thangaratnam Chew Loon Guan

Role of Case Reports in Modern Medical Education

Aftab Merchant Paul Chastain II

June 30, 2018

Massive Splenomegaly: A Case Report of Visceral Leishmania and Schistosomiasis Co-infection and a Review of Infectious Causes of Massive Splenomegaly

Refractory hhv-6 encephalitis in a patient treated with anti-cd20 monoclonal antibody therapy.

Jennifer C Massey

Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperpasia

Irulandy Ponniah

Epstein - Barr virus Infection in a Patient with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder and Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Justin B. Levinson Milena Rodriguez Alvarez Kristaq Koci Aleksander Feoktistov Isabel M. McFarlane

May 31, 2018

Pancreatic Insulinoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Fatemeh Amiri Leila Moradi

May 20, 2018

Extent IEPs for Students under Categories of Disability have Behavior Intervention Plans Based on FBAs

Cindy Serfass John W. Maag Reece L. Peterson

May 25, 2018

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma presenting with Cardiac Tamponade- A Rare Case report and Review of the literature

Apoorva Jayaranagaiah Pramod Theetha Kariyanna Naga Koteshwari Sucharitra Chidella Navneet Singh Jason Green Moro O. Salifu Samy I. McFarlane

May 30, 2018

Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma with an Unknown Primary in a Living Donor Kidney Transplant Recipient

Ahmed Elfadaly Nelish Ardeshna Obinna Ekwenna Jorge Ortiz

Case Study-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

May 28, 2018

Case ReportA case of asynchronous bilateral cancer of the oral commissure

Imaizumi T Ooishi M Irie H Inoue T Narisawa Y Yamaguchi Y

Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation of ureter

Seok Kwan Hong Chin Fong Wong Yee Mun Lee

Intramyocardic needle in a man with auto-aggressive behavior

Giraldo Fabian Hernandez Guillermo Hernandez Jessica

June 20, 2018

Mindfulness, Death Anxiety, and Grief in a Patient with Metastatic Cancer

April 10, 2018

Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency

William L. Nyhan

Elderly Care Services in the Netherlands and Projection for the Future in Turkey

Yasemin Kavlak

April 15, 2018

The use of the superior gluteal artery perforator flap to cover sacral defects

Fazlur Rahman M Aleezay Haider Muhammad Asif Ahsan

April 20, 2018

Surgical management of gastrointestinal perforation by ingested chicken bone: A case report

Hanzhang Dong Xuhui Chen Yanfei Jiang YHao Chen Mingyi Wu Haijun Li

Experience of thyroid surgery at tertiary referral centers in Jazan Hospitals, Saudi Arabia

Fahd Alharbi Mohammed Rifaat Ahmed

April 28, 2018

Recurrent infective endocarditis in a drug addict

Menafra G Pingitore A Gurgo A Magri D Pagannone E Testa M Volpe M

April 30, 2018

Leishmaniasis of the ear treated successfully by photodynamic therapy

Hanane Bay Bay Sara Elloudi Selma Benkirane Zakia Douhi Salim Gallouj Fatima Zahra Mernissi

Cauda equina involvement in newly diagnosed myeloma patient

Demet Cekdemir Nur Soyer Halil Gulluoglu Gulgun Yilmaz Ovali Mahmut Tobu

March 23, 2018

Iatrogenic root fracture secondary to extraction of impacted mandibular third molar that is mVasked by severe inflammation in the maxillofacial region – a case report

Stanimir Kisselov Tasho Gavrailov Petia Pechalova Desislava Konstantinova

March 26, 2018

Prepatellar bursitis caused by group G streptococcus

Altunay E Bayrak ZŞ Çalışkan E Toker Önder İ Öcal D Çağatay M Saltaş H Erdem G

Alternative strategy for treating deep sternal wound infection following coronary artery bypass grafting with retention of the sternal plating system, systemic antibiotics, and vacuum assisted closure system: A case report

Fahad Athar Louis Samuels

March 28, 2018

Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with Migraine

Rajesh Verma Sagarika Mahapatro Anirudda More

The peroneocalcaneus internus tendon: case report of a rare cause of posterior ankle impingement treated by arthroscopy

Liselore Maeckelbergh Giovanni Matricali Sander Wuite

March 29, 2018

Recurrent stroke in Neurosyphilis treated with intravenous fibrinolysis

Claudia Marando Sara Mastrocola David Giannandrea Silvia Cenciarelli Stefano Ricci

Editorial-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

Eculizumab and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for the treatment of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria associated to Aplastic Anemia

González-Rodríguez AP Seila Lorenzo-Herrero Palomo Pilar González Huerta Ana Julia Zanabilli Joud González Muñiz Soledad

March 31, 2018

Monozygotic twinning

Gary Steinman

Letter to Editor-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

February 12, 2018

Wide complex tachycardia in ischemic heart disease patient: What is the rhythm?

Ghaliah Al Mohani

February 19, 2018

A rare cause of infertility: Uterine isthmocele

Mustafa Koplay Nusret Seher Emine Uysal Hakan Cebeci

February 22, 2018

Fetal ultrasound of type 2 and 3 Chiari malformation

Aysegul Altunkeser Turgay Kara

Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as generalized chorea: case report and review of literature

Mohamed O Abdalla Ahmad O Ahmad Husam A AlTahan Ibrahim A AlOraini Abdulrahman M AlTahan

February 25, 2018

Life-threatening right atrial thrombus in a premature newborn successfully treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

Wendy Dewals Abraham Benatar

February 26, 2018

CT Diagnosis of Fahr disease, a case report

Antonio Gligorievski

"Decompression and paraspinous tension band" Versus “minimal access”: Lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis

February 27, 2018

Coma and spinal cord injury recovery achieved via coordination dynamics therapy

January 19, 2018

Second thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) within three days and the use of tirofiban to stop microembolisation before Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA)

Bander Dallol

Lymphoblasts expressing surface IgM in the absence of kappa and lambda in Philadelphia positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Philadelphia chromosome positive transitional pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Merve Pamukcuoglu Kadir Acar Gülsan Türköz Sucak

Letter to the Editor-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

January 20, 2018

Occurrence of granulocytic sarcoma after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Pamukcuoglu M Pepeler MS Ulkuden B Gocun PU Akyurek N Akı SZ Sucak GT

January 26, 2018

A pilot study of narrative approach for terminally ill cancer patient at home hospice

Michiyo Ando Mayumi Yamamoto Yasuyoshi Ninosaka Kazuhisa Okamura

January 27, 2018

Hypertension and Hypertensive Heart Disease in Children and Adolescents

Manal Fuad Elshamaa

January 29, 2018

An Exploration of the Inflammation-Cancer Association- PART I

Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos Dareioti Nikolitsa

Taking tobacco control for a lap and lunch: Lessons learned from tobacco control initiatives and the impact on the uptake of obesity management strategies

T.S. Nagpal M.J. Fagan H. Prapavessis

January 25, 2018

  • December 2017 Issue 10
  • November 2017 Issue 9
  • October 2017 Issue 8
  • September 2017 Issue 7
  • August 2017 Issue 6
  • July 2017 Issue 5
  • June 2017 Issue 4
  • May 2017 Issue 3
  • April 2017 Issue 2
  • February 2017 Issue 1

A therapeutic dilemma: symbolic versus literal approach whilst working with adolescent patients, shown with the use of clinical examples

Maria Teresa Aydemir Maria Barbara Lokaj

Case Review-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

November 30, 2017

Trends in epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Greece. Review of the major epidemiological studies

Chariclia V. Loupa Mariolis-Sapsakos Sofia Kalantzi Alkiviadis Maris

December 18, 2017

Excision of an intramuscular hemangioma within the anterior muscle compartment of the leg in a thirteen-year-old female: A case report

Jason Snyder Mark Mendeszoon Elizabeth Sanders

December 19, 2017

Osteoporosis and Associated Factors among Thalassemia Patients Referred to Bone Mineral Density Screening -Dubai Hospital, 2014-2017

Massoumeh M.H. Zadeh Hamid Y. Hussain Waleed Al Faisal Muhammed Muhasin

December 23, 2017

Platypnea orthodeoxia syndrome in a patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension

T. Sinanis U. Krüger W.H. Schöls

Hemorrhage under antivitamins K: a location like no other

Amine Salmi

December 26, 2017

Psychological aspects of pregnancy denial in a 13-year-old girl

Oddo-Sommerfeld S Schulze S Sommerlad S Kämpf AK Cholemkery H

December 29, 2017

Peritoneal dissemination of recurrent small intestine primary GIST, successfully diagnosed by diffusion-weighted imaging

Junichiro Tanaka Katsuyuki Nakanishi Katsuhito Takahashi Noriyuki Tomiyama

Universal health care coverage: healthcare financing and access to health care services in Kenya

Phidiliah Rose Mwaambi

The direct relation between safe hemorrhoidectomy and anal canal anatomy

Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos George Skarpas Arhontoula Xifara Maria Zarokosta Theodoros Piperos Menelaos Zoulamoglou Ioannis Papapanagiotou

November 18, 2017

Pyoderma gangrenosum as the first clinical manifestation of primary Sjögren disease: A case report and review of literature

A Malek J Saliba J Choucair C Irani

The effect of PCL to knee proprioception in TKA: A prospective study

G. A. Skarpas K. Karzis Arhontoula Xifara Maria Zarokosta Menelaos Zoulamoglou Theodoros Piperos Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos I. V. Michos K. Kazakos

November 24, 2017

Fragile chromosome x syndrome: Sequelae in feet and a case report

Lafuente G Domínguez G Reina M Munuera PV

A rare cause of acute abdomen: Spontanous uterine rupture

Bulent Sultanoglu Kenan Demirbakan Elif Eygi

November 25, 2017

Rare case of Fanconi anemia associated with polydactly

Ghaida bakoar alahmadi ibrahim alharbi Imtinan kh.Alsahafi Bilqis Ahmed albarakati Shahad M aldor

November 28, 2017

A case report of giant chondroma arising at pharynx nasalis

Jun Feng Jiumei Yang Li Li Tao Peng

Retinal epithelitis as ocular side effects of oral biphosphonates

Giuseppe Lo Giudice Valerio Crepaldi Anton Giulio Catania Alessandro Galan

October 25, 2017

“Not enough, or too much Growth hormone? Both!”

Christophe Le Pommelet Martin Dupuy Stephan Gaillard

Concomitant struma ovarii with serous cystadenoma in a background of tuberculosis: A rare and interesting presentation

Swati Bhardwaj Surbhi Goyal Amit Kumar Yadav Achala Batra Ankur Goyal

An experience of successful treatment of Rhodococcus equi infective endocarditis in a non-HIV patient with linezolid

Lim KY Ab Rahman AK Abdullah FH

October 27, 2017

Appropriate terminology in the nomenclature of the color vision deficiency


Bulging fontanelle in a term newborn: A case report

Eirini Koutsounaki Xenia Bitouni Kaliopi Drakaki Anastasia Kapetanaki George Liosis Iraklis Salvanos

October 30, 2017

A rare association between Edward syndrome and unilateral intranasal congenital dacryocystocele with respiratory distress in a newborn

Ahmad Al Kurdi Abdullah Noman Kamal Atawi Mohammed Abdullah Khalil Altawil

October 31, 2017

Tetraplegia secondary to lumbar epidural punture: A case report

R. Sergi F. Bertolotto L. Losio S. Gamba S. Moretto C. Oggerino A. Massone

September 18, 2017

Primary segmental omental infarction as a rare cause of acute abdominal pain in childhood – considerations on 2 cases and review of literature

Tepeneu NF Tarmann R Sinzig M Fasching G

September 19, 2017

First reported case of moyamoya disease in an indigenous Australian patient

Willem Henskens Lysandra Katelaris Christopher Levi

September 21, 2017

A review of liver disorders in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Niraj James Shah Nitin K Gupta Brian B Borg

Metabolic correction therapy for the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer: A case report

Jomaris Centeno Marilís Navarrete Miguel J. Berdiel Michael Gonzalez

September 22, 2017

Psychological utility of art therapy for patients with advanced cancer

Michiyo Ando Shigeru Hayashida

September 28, 2017

Do financial difficulties make it harder to deal with pain and loneliness ?

Ami Rokach Eyal Rosenstreich Galina Istaharov Itay Goor Aryeh Silviu Brill

March 24, 2017

An examination of adolescent mental and physical well-being in Scottish school children: A cross-sectional study

Michael T. McKay Eyal Rosenstreich Jon C. Cole John L. Perry

Surgical and aesthetic rehabilitation for traumatic maxilla

Pelin Ozkan P. Sema Aka Fikret Genc Ahmet Keskin Ayhan Gurbuz

July 31, 2017

Decisive tools of breast cancer: Advances in technologies

Vanita S. Bhat Basavaraj Madhusudhan

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a patient with influenza and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis – A case report

Schouten MGJ van der Hoeven JG

August 28, 2017

Post MI pericarditis or recurrent infarction-Diagnostic dilemma

Sachin Sondhi Kunal Mahajan Ayushi Mehta Munish dev

August 26, 2017

Bakarat syndrome: A case study

Mra Aye Jason Cabot

Primary Lymphoma of Bone: A case report and brief review of literature

Mra Aye Jason Cabot Zulkimi Roslly Chiew Junloong

Coexistence of coeliac, systemic lupus erythematosus and familial mediterranean fever in the same patient

Azar Abiyev Orhan Zengin Mustafa Erkut Onder Sibel Arslan

August 30, 2017

Presentation of chronic myeloid leukemia as promyelositic blastic transformation: A case report and literature review

Minimal invasive beating heart tricuspid valve repair in the presence of a severely calcified ascending aorta.

Mahmut Ay Andreas Zierer Thomas Schachner

July 10, 2017

Cerebral cavernomatosis

Panos Ioannidi Dimitris Parissis Theodora Afrantou Georgios Psimmenos

Image Article-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

Pleural plaques: markers of asbestos exposure or independent risk factor for pleural mesothelioma? A case report of mesothelioma developed on a pleural plaque in a worker with occupational asbestos exposure

d’Hauw G Sisinni AG Romeo R Paolucci V Sartorelli P

July 13, 2017

Primary laryngeal tuberculosis-“The great masquerader”

Pirabu Sakthivel Chirom Amit Singh Suresh Chandra Sharma Anupam Kanodia Bhinyaram Jat Madhu Rajeshwari

July 15, 2017

Solitary osteochondroma of the Scapula: an uncommon localization

Sara El rharras Rachid Fara Hanane El Haoury Halim Saidi Imane El Bouchti

July 17, 2017

Buddy microcatheter technique: Could it be the solution for complex coronary lesions?

Suleyman Sezai Yildiz Serhat Sigirci Kudret Keskin Kadriye Kilickesmez

July 20, 2017

Schistosomiasis complications in tropical neurology: A review

Soumaila Boubacar Ibrahima M Diallo Ousmane Cisse Patrice Ntenga Yacouba Kaba Maouly Fall Anna M Basse Moustapha Ndiaye Amadou G Diop Mouhamadou M Ndiaye

Review-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

July 22, 2017

Neonatal thrombocytopenia, maternal SLE related or flu like syndrome?

Eirini Koutsounaki Kaliopi Drakaki Xenia Bitouni Anastasia Kapetanaki Margarita Tzaki Heraklis Salvanos

July 25, 2017

Spontaneous resolution of syringohydromyelia in a case of spinal Perimedullary Arteriovenous fistula (Type IVA) associated with low lying tethered cord

Vivek Singh Shamick Biswas Suprava Naik Phadke RV a Zafar Neyaz

July 27, 2017

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome with Rhabdomyolysis in a Patient with Newly-Onset Diabetes: One Case Report and Literature Review

Xin Hu Juan Wang Shuang Liang Yueting Zhao Shuhang Xu Chao Liu

case Report-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

June 30, 2017

Changes in assumption of care and primary drug use in substance use in pregnancy service

Duong C Drury A Perry N Brown A Ling S Lawson D Byrne J Keats J Nean M Dunlop AJ

A failed case of acupuncture therapy for malignant bowel obstruction

Sinan Tian Yingfan Chen Jifu E Shi Shu

June 24, 2017

Lingual abscess in a heavy smoker

Ilker Akbas Abdullah Osman Kocak Fatma Cakmak Burak Katipoglu

June 26, 2017

Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis: A rare cause of painless diarrhea

Adam Zayac Komal Akhtar Arundeep Kahlon Jalaluddin Umar Viveksandeep Thoguluva Chandrasekar Tanya George

Determination of postmortem interval by decomposition changes: An ambiguous phenomenon

Abhishek Yadav Arijit Dey Ramesh P Anuragi Hemant Kanwar

June 27, 2017

Unilateral Linear Capillaritis: A Case and Summary of the literature 25 years on from its original description

Noha Elshimy Benjamin Walker

June 28, 2017

GABA agonists truly helping sleep or is it just a dream?

María Robles-Martínez Gustavo Añez Sturchio

Commentary-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

June 29, 2017

Acute coronary syndrome secondary to paradoxical bronchospasm due to nebulized ipratropium bromide

Ramón Baeza-Trinidad Jose-Daniel Mosquera-Lozano

Extragenital bullous and hemorrhagic Lichen sclerosus in a 58-year-old woman - A case report

Stoyan Ivanov Pavlov Dimitra Petrova Nikiforova Silvi Vicheva Georgieva Penka Liobenova Kolova-Peneva

Persistent immune-tolerance to non-inherited maternal antigen (NIMA) allows successful kidney transplantation in regraft patient: Case report

Rabab A Al Attas Abdelhamid Liacini

May 03, 2017

Ventricular fibrillation after inadvertent intravascular injection of ropivacaine

Márcio Galindo Kiuchi Guilherme Miglioli Lobato Luis Marcelo Rodrigues Paz Shaojie Chen

May 08, 2017

Dual-chamber ICD-CRT implantation in a patient with persistent left superior vena cava: testing skills

Márcio Galindo Kiuchi Guilherme Miglioli Lobato Shaojie Chen

An in vitro study of the effect of blood and saliva contamination on the bond strength of self-etch and total-etch adhesive systems to dentine

Hussa ALHussain Kaltham ALUmairi Maha ALZahrani Tagreed bin Salman Shibu Mathew

May 20, 2017

Long term response with abiraterone without lhrh analogs in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer

Dellavedova Tristan Malizia Reynoso Enzo Quinteros Leandro Nobile Raul Ponzano Rolando Sarria Juan Pablo Olmedo Jose Minuzzi Federico

May 22, 2017

The ego ideal and the hidden damage of diagnosis and treatment

Stephen Soreff

May 23, 2017

Celiac disease presenting with recurrent pyrexia and lobular panniculitis: a case report and review of literature

Tunde Maiyaki Ibrahim Abdullah Al-allawi Robert Henry Feiler Ritoo Chowdary

May 29, 2017

Duodenal heterotopia in the distal ileum

Tarun Kumar Rajpal Singh Punia Robin Kaushik Simrandeep Singh

Tissue doppler imaging in cardiology nowadays: clinical applications

Antoine Kossaify

March 13, 2017

Executive function measured by Stroop test and mood for elderly people in a facility for the elderly

Michiyo Ando Hiroko Kukihara Nobu Ide

March 17, 2017

Chondrosarcoma of the larynx: Report of one case and review of the literature

Jawad Hasnaoui Said Anajar Lkhdim Mouna Reda Abada Sami Rouadi Mohammed Rouba Mohammed Mahtar

March 20, 2017

Urethral squamous cell carcinoma presenting as a Fourniere’s Gangrene

Adam Christie Nathan Lawrentschuk Ajay Chauhan Satish Warrier

March 21, 2017

A fatal case with multiple liver and splenic abscesses due to Streptococcus anginosus bacteremia in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis

Chien-Wen Yang Wasique Mirza Mladen Jecmenica Gagandeep Dhillon Mahesh Cheryala Ripudaman Munjal Qi Shi

March 23, 2017

Posttraumatic thoracic anterior epidural hematoma together with Posttraumatic T11-12 Disc Herniation: A case report

Hakan Kayali Hüseyin Sataloglu

Large choroidal malignant melanoma presenting as neovascular glaucoma

Berna Sahan Samuray Tuncer Ilgaz Yalvac

April 24, 2017

Inter-professional communication in palliative care: general practitioners and specialists in Switzerland

Brigitte Liebig Chiara Piccini

April 27, 2017

What do case reports have to do with population health?

Gregory M. Caputo

A case of colitis cystica profunda in a patient with diverticulosis

Mike M. Bismar Melissa D. Gordon Abdelkarim Waness

April 29, 2017

Ego-Dystonic Zoophilia: A case report with treatment plan and a critical look at the current state

January 19, 2017

Drug or disease - Differentiating and managing motor symptoms associated with late onset Huntington’s disease from extrapyramidal side-effects of antipsychotics

Seri Abraham Elspeth Guthrie Shahzada Nawaz David Craufurd

January 21, 2017

Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis: Case report

AlQahtani Raed Albdawe Hani Saad Abumelha

Laparoscopic liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: An Egyptian single center experience

Mohamed Ismail Seleem Nour Abdelmaksoud Ali

Healthcare workers and occupation driving

Frédéric J. Deschamps Julie Deschamps

February 24, 2017

Immobilization-induced hyperphosphatemia: successful therapy with biphosphonates

Duminda Suraweera Soma Wali Funmilola Fashola Nasser Mikhail

February 25, 2017

Collaborative (One Health) approaches to address emerging antimicrobial resistance

Editorial -Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

Infant valsalva retinopathy: A re-interpretation of the 1992 Sheffield study of eyes in Shaken Baby Syndrome cases

Talbert D.G

Commentary -Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

February 28, 2017

Persistent isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy

Austin Fletcher Adam Fletcher

  • Dec 2016 Issue 12
  • Nov 2016 Issue 11
  • Oct 2016 Issue 10
  • Sep 2016 Issue 9
  • Aug 2016 Issue 8
  • July 2016 Issue 7
  • June 2016 Issue 6
  • May 2016 Issue 5
  • Apr 2016 Issue 4
  • Mar 2016 Issue 3
  • Feb 2016 Issue 2
  • Jan 2016 Issue 1

Lyell's syndrome: a true medical emergency

Salmi A Ameur A Slimani M Messaif D

December 19, 2016

An unusual Guillain-Barré Syndrome mimic: a case of Spinal ADEM and review of the literature

Homayoun Roshanisefat Bimma Henderson Rayomand Press

December 22, 2016

Case report: a severe hypernatremia with multiple organ failure, about a clinical observation

Alpha Oumar BAH Mamadou Cellou BALDE Amadou BAH Alpha Oumar BARRY

December 23, 2016

Percutaneous retrieval of a broken umbilical vein catheter from left atrium in a premature newborn case report and literature review

Mohammed Habib Mohammed Hillis

December 24, 2016

Rhabdomyomatous mesenchymal hamartoma presenting as a polypoid mass in a neonate

Simi D. Cadmus Brett H. Keeling Chandra Krishnan Anthony C. Soldano

A rare encounter: Charcot marie tooth disease

December 29, 2016

Resting state fMRI connectivity analysis as a tool for detection of abnormalities in five different cognitive networks of the brain in MS patients

Siamak P. Nejad-Davarani Michael Chopp Scott Peltier Lian Li Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd Mei Lu Hassan Bagher-Ebadian John Budaj David Gallagher Yue Ding David Hearshen Quan Jiang Mirela Cerghet

July 30, 2016

No man is an Island: The silent struggle of invisible caregivers

Vibeke Lohne Tore Kr. Schjølberg Lillemor Lindwall Dagfinn Nåden

Orbital and adnexal involvement in angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE): A case series

Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro Hind M Alkatan Sahar M Elkhamary Azza Maktabi Silvana Schellini Augusto V Cruz

October 19, 2016

Late dislodgement syndrome, which was considered to be the Ratchet syndrome by the surgical removal: complex forces of three syndromes?

Haruyuki Kinoshita Hiroshi Sugino Katsunao Tanaka Takahiro Harada Kanako Yuasa Takashi Shimonaga Orie Ichikawa Toshiharu Oka Morihiro Matsuda

October 24, 2016

Unilateral impacted maxillary fourth molar associated with erupted third molar: Case report & line of management

Dalia Mostafa El-Naggar Mohamed Adel Raghib

October 25, 2016

Chronic thrombocytopenia and skeletal dysplasia in a 14-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis

Jan C. Thomassen Ilse J. Broekaert Friederike Körber Thorsten Simon Ernst Rietsche Silke van Koningsbruggen-Rietsche

November 15, 2016

Case report: Ovarian cortex and stroma on an endometrial sampling

Suzanne Cao Tina Paul Karen Noblett

November 17, 2016

Evaluation of mucosal healing in Small Bowel Crohn’s disease treated with Certolizumab Pegol assessed by wireless capsule endoscopy

Ira Shafran Patricia Burgunder Renee DePanicis Kara Fitch Sally Hewit Laurie Abbott

November 21, 2016

Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Ahmad El-Gamma Sara Alsudairi Rana Alwohaibi Wala Aldihan Sara Alsufiani Roqyah Fade Abdulaziz Almulhim Sarfraz Saleemi

November 22, 2016

Air below the diaphragm

Hester Beckmann-Stam Jan Pompe

November 26, 2016

“Making a Message Book” may contribute to peaceful death for terminally ill cancer patients

Michiyo Ando Yosuke Uchitomi Shigeru Hayashida Hiromi Minoda

Case Study -Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

November 29, 2016

Multiple sclerosis: Enigmatic factors and new controversies

Annabel Vila Amanda M Casabella Mirza Baig Carlos J Bidot Broderick C Jones

December 16, 2016

Idiopathic dilatation of the right atrium: A case report

Valentin Sinitsyn Elena Mershina Ekaterina Bazaeva Roman Myasnikov

A case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with “burned-out” apex of the left ventricle due to mid-ventricular obstruction

Elena Mershina Olga Blagova Valentin Sinitsyn Ekaterina Pershina

Multiple coronary fistulae into left ventricle as an uncommon cause of myocardial ischemia

Anastasia O. Averkova Kirill A. Savostyanov Dmitry V. Privalov Victoria A. Brazhnik Dmitry A. Zateyshchikov

Cor triventriculare sinistrum illustrated by cardiac MRI

Florian Sagmeister Karin Mild Thorsten Lieberknecht Meinrad Beer

October 18, 2016

Cardiac involvement in Becker-Kiener muscular dystrophy illustrated by cardiac MRI

Role of coronary cta and dual-energy ct in diagnosis of anomalous course of two coronary arteries in patient with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Sinitsyn VE Mershina EA Krylova NS Poteshkina NG Kovalevskaya EA Titov DV Vanyukov AE

Imaging of myocardial diseases: to the new horizons

Valentin Sinitsyn

Carotid atherosclerosis disease: A review of diagnosis, risk factors and simulations

Shahab Khakpour W.A.B Wan Abas N.A. Abd Razak N.A. Abu Osman

August 23, 2016

Treatment of children with epistaxis: A 3 year follow up

Gundula Thiel Paul Joice Mary-Louise Montague

August 29, 2016

Atypical recovery from stress induced cardiomyopathy in a patient with anorexia nervosa

Larisa Dzirlo Daniel Kiblboeck Johann Reisinger Stefan Eibl Martin Frömme Monika Graninger

August 03, 2016

The management of a patient presented with fournier’s gangrene associated with undiagnosed ulcerative colitis: A case report

Balci B Cetindag Demir HB Yardim S Calik B Akbulut G

September 08, 2016

Unilateral exophthalmus in an acute episode of MS

Brodoehl S Liebermann J Herfurth J Lobenstein S

September 16, 2016


Sara Vila Bedmar

September 19, 2016

Severe gas-forming necrotizing fasciitis of the right hip and thigh: Case presentation and review

Abdelkarim Waness

September 28, 2016

Cross-talk between glial cells and neurons: Relationship in Multiple Sclerosis

Genaro Gabriel Ortiz Luis Javier Flores-Alvarado Fermín Paul Pacheco-Moisés Mario A. Mireles-Ramírez Erika Daniela González-Renovato Angélica Lizbeth Sánchez-López Lorenzo Sánchez-Romero Juan Francisco Santoscoy Irma E. Velázquez Brizuela Víctor J Sánchez-González

Psammomatoid ossifying fibromas (POF) of the skull, a rare presentation: Case report and review of the literature

Wessam Bou-Assaly

September 30, 2016

Immunopathogenesis of pregnancy induced lymphomatoid papulosis

C. Lamar Hardy Jason Le Wilber C. DeLorme

July 28, 2016

Bilateral incomplete Tapia's syndrome after surgical drainage, with orotracheal intubation, of an inflammatory process of the neck

Baroni L Zuliani C Virgilio C

July 29, 2016

Unexpected schwannoma unmasked by the physiologic changes of pregnancy

Marijn C.T. Tacken Bart P. Ramakers Albert J.S. Idema Johannes G. Van der Hoeven

The beneficial effects of oral amitriptyline in anxiety-induced hyperventilation syndrome; a case series

Veronica A. Varney H Parnell G Quirke

August 02, 2016

Collet-Sicard syndrome as a complication of chronic middle ear infection

Katarina Blažina Danira Bažadona Maja Relja Danilo Gardijan

August 04, 2016

White-tailed spider bite over the posterior ankle causing significant reaction in the groin: Presenting in the UK

Onyebuchi-iwudibia Banks LN

August 12, 2016

Autism in a case of congenital myasthenic syndrome

Atoosa Azarang Samantha C. Cohen Randi J. Hagerman Ricardo A. Maselli

August 16, 2016

Case report on a unique case of intra-abdominal desmoid tumor

Chowdhury D Galea M, Malpani D Alishahi SM

August 15, 2016

Synovial sarcoma presenting as a neck mass, report of two cases and review of literature

Che-Wei Wang Chin-Fang Chang

August 19, 2016

Assessment of autonomic function in children using cell telephone

Blind oral intubation: a forgotten technique of intubation.

Magboul MA Magboul

July 12, 2016

Acute fatal interstitial lung disease in two cases under treatment of crizotinib

Ali Murat SEDEF Fatih Köse Ahmet Taner Sümbül Ahmet Sezer Hüseyin Mertsoylu Özgür Özyilkan

July 14, 2016

Systemic lupus erythematosus and hepatitis C are risk factors for cellulitis in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease

Thomas J. Marrie1 Gregory J. Tyrrell

July 19, 2016

Intraventricular glioblastoma

Hassan Baallal Mouhcine Salami Ali Akhaddar Miloud Gazzaz Brahim El Mostarchid

July 20, 2016

Sequential correction of caustic stricture of trachea and esophageal orifice

Ming-Ho Wu Han-Yun Wu

July 22, 2016

Lambl’s excrescences: A case report and review of the literature

Haroon Kamran Nirav Patel Gagandeep Singh Venu Pasricha Moro Salifu Samy I. McFarlane

July 25, 2016

Three dimensional imaging of arc of Buhler

Kemal Arda Halil Ibrahim

A resocialization intervention model: The Family: People Helping People Project

David F. Allen Keva Bethell Marie Allen-Carroll

Split cord malformation (SCM) associated with tight filum terminale: A case report

Iraj Lotfinia Taghi Imani

July 26, 2016

Topical analgesic creams and nociception in diabetic neuropathy: towards a rationale fundament

Jan Marius Keppel Hesselink David Jos Kopsky

Early stage breast cancer: a successful non-conventional treatment case – acupuncture: case report and review of literature

Alvaro Menendez Shuo Wang LuGuang Luo

May 30, 2016

Case study investigating two cases of neonatal salmonellosis

Williams P. Rocco LaSala Baqiyyah Conway

Risperidone-induced severe rhabdomyolysis: a case report

M.H. Castelijns L.M. Keeris J.H. van der Hoeven

June 03, 2016

Transfusion dependency after sex reassignment surgery in a patient with non-classical Diamond-Blackfan Anemia

Christianne Bourlon Jeffrey H. Lipton

June 06, 2016

High dose intravenous vitamin c treatment in a patient with lung cancer: A case report

Michael J. González Miguel J. Berdiel Jorge R. Miranda- Massari Desireé López Joshua L. Rodríguez-López Pedro A. Adrover-López Jorge Duconge

June 18, 2016

Can the EGFR inhibitors increase the immunomodulatory effects of standardized plant extracts (mistletoe lectin and arabonoxylan) with clinical benefit? Case report of a patient with lung adenocarcinoma

Tibor Hajto Anna Horváth Lilla Baranyai Monika Kuzma Pál Perjési

June 20, 2016

Perinatal and anesthetic management in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome with cleft lip and palate: a case report

Kunal Tewari Vishal Vishnu Tewari

June 23, 2016

Association of goldenhar syndrome with trisomy 18

Kadir Şerafettin Tekgündüz Yaşar Demirelli Mustafa Kara

June 27, 2016

Spinocerebellar ataxia 7 doesn’t have oculomotor abnormalities with 53 expansions of CAG repeats: a case report

Liang Gong Xiu Li XuDong Yang JiHua Wang

June 29, 2016

Spontaneous giant pseudoaneurysm in a renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex

Ranjit Meher Donboklang Lynser Akash Handique Taraprasad Tripathy Chhunthang Daniala Pranjal Phukan Stephen L. Sailo

Abdominal compartment syndrome – the decision to operate is not so easy

I.T.A. Janssen J.G. van der Hoeven

CCRR.1000230.-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

April 18, 2016

Sarcoidosis with combined kidney damage - kidney stones, granulomatous interstitial nephritis and acute kidney injury

Elena V Zakharova Ekaterina S Stolyarevich

Should women with postcoital bleeding be referred for colposcopy?- A review

Batish A, Jeyanthan K Sathiyathasan S

April 22, 2016

Anemia and thrombocytopenia after delivery: a case study of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Gatske M. Nieuwenhuyzen-de Boer Metteke A. Kamping Sabina Kersting Anneke Dijkman

Fracture treatment with the aid of the homeopathic remedy Symphytum officinale . A report of four cases

Dionysis Tsintzas George Vithoulkas

April 29, 2016

Bordelek hernia causing right ureteric obstruction with pyelonephritis

Masatomo Kanno Fumihiro Oshita Kuboi Yoriko Shinsuke Ueta Natsuki Kawata Yuichi Kurakami Mao Matsubayashi Keisuke Iwabuchi Yohsuke Kunishi Mitsuyasu Ohta Takeshi Watanabe Kohichiro Yoshie

May 17, 2016

A supposedly healthy athlete at high-risk of cardioembolic stroke

Massimo Bolognesi

May 19, 2016

A case report of recurrent syncope & transient ischaemic attack in elderly man

Paul GK Bari MS

May 28, 2016

February 15, 2016

TOPAS vs CASPAR: Applicability in expert dermatologists

Gutiérrez-Gonzalez Luis Arturo Macias, Eilen Otaiza, Franz Sandoval, Ricardo Páez, Erika

A case of metronidazole-induced central and peripheral nervous system complications

Ning Wu Joseph Nguyen Aiesha Ahmed

February 21, 2016

Recognising anterior spinal artery syndrome

Minesh Kooblall Liam Cormican

February 22, 2016

Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury secondary to rosuvastatin use

Miriam Hassani

Rhabdomyolysis induced by Isotretinoin

Gargantilla Madera Martín Cabrejas BM Pintor Holguín

An interesting misdiagnosed case of Crhon's disease: case report

Abeer S.Ali Sana'a R. Kelantan Balqees A.Albarakati Emtenan Kh.Alsahafi Ghaidaa B.Alahmadi Shahad M. Aldor

February 23, 2016

Treatment of a patient with lumbosacral and pelvic fractures due to a blast injury without surgical stabilization – a case report

Ioannis Spanos Anastasios Venetikidis Panagiotis Zogopoulos Georgios Vretakos Dimitrios Rologis

February 24, 2016

Report of a new educational programme to introduce dental students to special care dentistry

Janicke Liaaen Jensen Stefan Axelsson Kari Storhaug

Concurrent colon adenocarcinoma and hepatoid lung adenocarcinoma with normal serum level and negative immunostain of alpha-fetoprotein

Tyler Gutschenritter Lichao Zhao Chance Matthiesen Wajeeha Razaq Mohammad Razaq

February 25, 2016

Sphingolipid biology and its role in cancer development and therapy

Alejandro Carvajal Alvaro Menendez Wayne Bowen Harold Wanebo

March 04, 2016

Current aspects of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation

Naoki Kawagishi Susumu Satomi

March 08, 2016

Association between thrombophilia and ischemic stroke: when is work-up for hypercoagulable state indicated?

Kah Poh Loh Sheryl Ramdass Leslie Howard Saurabh Dahiya

March 18, 2016

The effects of growth hormone treatment on lipid parameters

March 21, 2016

12 q deletion with oculodentodigital dysplasia -like phenotype

Miguel Cano Joseph Trapasso Tabitha Trapasso Reuben Matalon

March 24, 2016

LGL1 lipid in myeloma: A greasy affair

Prabir K Chakraborty

Opinion-Clinical Case Reports and Reviews (CCRR)

An overview of bone augmentation techniques

Reham AL Jasser Sebastiano Andreana

March 26, 2016

Psychological, emotional and physical experiences of hospitalized children

Management of igg4-related sclerosing disease.

Rushabh Doshi Mica Bergman Jesse Berry

March 28, 2016

Tour of dental therapy in America

Lloyd A. Wallin

January 14, 2016

Treating male breast cancer: Role of Oncotype Dx in early stage male breast cancer patients. A case series and review of literature

Wajeeha Razaq Takemi Tanaka Mohammad A. Razaq

January 15, 2016

Systemic cholesterol embolism

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Asunción María Gonzálvez Paula Chacón Florentino García-Sánchez David Jiménez Meritxell Mellado5 Manuel Monreal

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Occupational stress among nurses in a Hospital Setting in Ghana

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February 08, 2016

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December 24, 2015

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January 07, 2016

Spontaneous resolution of hydrops fetalis due to nonfatal fetal renal vein thrombosis

Small M Ellestad S James AH

January 13, 2016

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Desmoid tumor following dorsal laminectomy: case report

R. Rispoli A. Di Chirico E. Tinella A. Peciarolo S. Ascani N. Caputo S. Carletti

November 07, 2015

Complete aortic sac shrinkage following endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (REVAR)

Mohamed Elsherif Wael Tawfick Murali Subramaniam Sherif Sultan

November 21, 2015

Rare find in the intensive care unit: Human rhinomyiasis

J. Swol S. Bockelmann A. Gurr Th. A. Schildhauer

November 23, 2015

How much worse can it get? Ventricular fibrillation complicating complete heart block with junctional escape rhythm

Bandar Al Ghamdi

November 25, 2015

Successful on-pump surgery for treatment of a life threatening cardiopulmonary oncologic mass

Sébastien Queron Patrick Van Ruyssevelt Marc Beauduin Marie-Odile Penny Luc Van Obbergh Servais M Edo wijtenburg Véry Coulic

November 30, 2015

The effect of taoist meditation on fatigue and physiologic stress in two people with multiple sclerosis: a case report

Linda Csiza

Toxic shock syndrome toxin-I producing Staphylococcus aureus in fulminant necrotizing fasciitis

December 03, 2015

Tacrolimus induced mania with psychosis- a case report

Shailesh Jain Yu Hsuan Liao Duy Li

Commentary on the preservation of human RBC, platelets, plasma clotting proteins and peripheral blood mononuclear hematopoietic stem cells by freezing and storage in a 80 C mechanical freezer

C.R. Valeri G. R. Giorgio

December 04, 2015

A study of bacterial growth on the skin surface after a basketball game

Nobuhiko Eda Hironaga Ito Kazuhiro Shimizu Satomi Suzuki Eunjae Lee Takao Akama

December 05, 2015

Complete spinal block after spinal anesthesia with low-dose bupivacaine in the elderly

Nguyen Trung Kien Nguyen Truong Giang Sinh Nguyen Nguyen Ngoc Thach Vo Van Hien

October 12, 2015

A rare case of segmental arterial mediolysis

B. Simons M. Simons J.G. van der Hoeven

October 17, 2015

The management of a positional default of atlas in a patient with cervicogenic headache: A case report

Rob Sillevis Karen Wyss

October 19, 2015

A phenomenology of communication and decision-making among head nurses and staff nurses in a managerial job-sharing unit

Nadia J. Malabi

October 22, 2015

A ground-glass opacity increasing in size over eight years diagnosed as lung adenocarcinoma: A case report

Dian Ren Ming Dong Zuoqing Song Jinghao Liu Renwang Liu hongyu Liu Jun Chen

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a possible complication in a patient with bladder cancer

S. Latifyan S. Sideris A. Papaleo L. Divano M. Malarme A. Georgala D. De Bels

October 23, 2015

Can a synergistic activation of pattern recognition receptors by plant immunomodulators enhance the effect of oncologic therapy? Case Report of a patient with uterus and ovary sarcoma

Tibor Hajto Lilla Baranyai Angelika Kirsch Monika Kuzma Pal Perjési

Clinical, laboratorial, and epidemiological evaluation of patients bitten by Bothrops erythromelas in campina grande, Paraíba, Brazil, from June to December, 2009

Karla Patrícia de Oliveira Luna

October 24, 2015

Treatment of clinically isolated syndrome with low dose naltrexone

M. Ludwig A.P. Turel I.S. Zagon P.J. McLaughlin

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The welfare model: A paradigm shift in medical decision-making

Brian YL Chan Joanne EY Chin Lalit Kumar Radha Krishna

September 10, 2015

Survival of a rhinocerebral mucormycosis in a ketoacidosis patient

Carlos Zamora R Sandoval AR

September 11, 2015

Intersex and gender controversies

Satyajit Patra Araromi Adewale Andrew

September 14, 2015

Osteoporosis pathophysiology: the updated mechanism

Hiroshi Kawaguchi

September 17, 2015

Stem cell therapies in multiple sclerosis – united we stand, divided we fail

Jagannadha R Avasarala

Intraoral melanoma located at the interproximal madibular teeth gingiva

Peraza Labrador Alberto

September 18, 2015

A rare case of Nocardia and non-tubercular mycobacteria co-infection of lung, bone and joints in a young female

Dipankar Pal Arindam Naskar Soumyadip Chatterji Manab Kumar Ghosh Shekhar Pal Dushyant Lahre Kumar Misra

Is gastroesophageal reflux disease influenced by duodenogastric reflux

Mihaela-Aura Mocanu Diculescu M Nicolae T Mona Dumitrescu

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Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or cobalamin deficiency? A case report and review

Neill Tuten Charles Bennett William Babcock

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Endoscopic submucosal dissection for a recurrent rectal tumor extending to the dentate line

Viale E Maselli R Notaristefano C Testoni PA

August 18, 2015

Parkinsonism as a clinical manifestation of MELAS syndrome

Hurtarte Sandoval AR Carlos Zamora R Gramajo Santizo JO Sáenz Alegría RA López Gutiérrez JR González Maza E

August 20, 2015

Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and prostate cancer: A bad luck case with a good outcome

Santos JC Rolim N Rodrigues T Lopes F Monteiro P Monteiro H

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Sublingual hematoma under oral anticoagulants

A. Salmi M. Slimani D. Messaif

A review of decision-making models in end-of-life care in Singapore

Jann Adriel Sy Mark MJ Tan Lalit Kumar Radha Krishna

August 25, 2015

Renal perivascular epitheliod cell tumour (PEComa) in a child: Case report and review of literature

Aziz DA Zarina AL Ismail MR Osman M Chia WY Isa NM Sehat SI

The effect of audio-visual education prior to coronary angiography on the state anxiety

Cengiz Basar Feyzullah Beşli Mesut Keçebaş Osman Kayapınar Yasin Turker

August 27, 2015

Processes and effects of correction with eyeglasses in a child with severe motor and intellectual disabilities: A case report

Daisuke Hirano Chihiro Minagawa Sachiko Umehara Kaori Hayashi Yuka Onose Hidenobu Sekimori Takamichi Taniguchi Yuko Komachi Hideo Shimoizumi Takahiro Niida

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Trigeminal sensory neuropathy and mixed connective tissue disease: A case report

Tadashi Nakamura Mitsuharu Ueda Hirokazu Takaoka Yukio Ando

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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after pulmonary embolectomy – A case report

S. Kilwinger J.G. van der Hoeven

July 10, 2015

The grey zone of physicians: Negative T waves on ECG's precordial leads

July 15, 2015

Posterior approach to the tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis utilizing an A3 intramedullary nail: A case report

John J. Tolli Guido A. LaPorta

July 22, 2015

Genes associated with metabolic syndrome and hyperuricemia: An overview

Shabnam Pokharel Sanjeev Acharya Abu Taiub Mohammed Mohiuddin Chowdhury

July 24, 2015

Comparative study of skull metastasis of thyroid carcinoma in Japan and Nigeria

Wilson Onuigbo

July 25, 2015

Improved outcomes on subcutaneous IgG in patients with humoral immunodeficiency and co-morbid bowel disease

Shaili N. Shah Krista Todoric Teresa K. Tarrant

July 28, 2015

Rosary nodules of the legs

Ahlam Abdou Ilham El Meknassi Nadia Ismaili Leila Benzekri Karima Senouci Badredine Hassam

“Frank’s sign” in a patient with pneumococcal pneumonia

Antonio Mirijello Alberto Tosoni Cristina d’Angelo Giulio Ventura Salvatore De Cosmo Raffaele Landolfi Giovanni Addolorato behalf of Internal Medicine Sepsis Study Group

July 30, 2015

Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the temporomandibular joint: A case study

Stephanie Tan Phillip Marsh Alistair Reid

June 22, 2015

Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis associated with neuroendocrine tumor of an unknown primary site: A case report

Caroline Souza dos Anjos Victor Domingos Lisita Rosa Antônio Carlos Cavalcante Godoy João Luiz Chichi Thomé Liane Rapatoni Fabiano P. Saggorio Luciano Neder Rodrigo de Oliveira Harley Francisco de Oliveira Fernanda Maris Peria

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) syndrome: A rare complication of anticoagulant therapy in a patient with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

Massimo Bolognesi Giampiero Pasini

June 23, 2015

Fordyce Spots

Alexander K. C. Leung Benjamin Barankin

June 24, 2015

Pica; A psychiatric syndrome with surgical consequences

Loudjedi S Bereksi A Toaba T Boughezzal F Bensenane M Dib F

June 26, 2015

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its complications: A case study

Salman Azeem Syed Wasif Gillani Vinci Poh Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman

Torsional saccadic oscillations

Marcello Cherchi

June 01, 2015

Is there a difference in outcome between top and side loading instrumentation systems used for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS)

Fallatah Salah

June 03, 2015

Salicylate intoxication during treatment for rheumatic fever complicated by endocarditis

Duraes AR Pollianna de Souza Roriz Rafael Ferreira da Silva Andre Mauricio de Souza Fernandez Juliana Queiroz Vasconcelos Muniz Roque Aras

June 04, 2015

Scleroderma renal crisis in tropical region, two senegalese cases

Cisse MM Daher AKO Seck SM Lemrabott AT Fall S Fall K Ka EF Niang A Diouf B

June 06, 2015

Renal cell carcinoma extending through inferior vena cava into right atrium removed with cardiopulmonary bypass support

Anusua Banerjee Sandeep Kumar Kar Chaitali Sen Dasgupta Anupam Goswami

June 07, 2015

A case of multiple giant primary bilateral lung hydatid cysts in a very young child

Manoj Kumar Gupta Dipankar Pal Tamalika Das Prabir Kumar Kundu Anandita Saha Santanu Kundu Pratik Bhowmik Wanheiky Sutnga

April 28, 2015

Severely food-allergic children die not having epinephrine at hand

Arnaldo Cantani

April 30, 2015

Pessary incarcerated in the bladder: A case presentation of vaginal pessary morcellation

Caroline E Foust-Wright G Sarah Napoe Milena M Weinstein

May 05, 2015

Endoscopic removal of accidentally ingested adult tooth brush

Sarfaraz Jasdanwala Avik Sarkar William Ferges Sita Chokhavatia

May 07, 2015

Therapeutic implications of the endocannabinoid system in neurodegenerative diseases

Panagiotis Zogopoulos Georgios Vretakos Dimitrios Rologis

May 08, 2015

Use of laryngeal mask airway in a patient with a large tongue cyst: A case report

Monica Tan Yee Yian Ong

May 10, 2015

Rituximab for treatment of rheumatoid hyperviscosity syndrome: Pulmonary arterial hypertension and post-partum cardiomyopathy cases

Aloice O. Aluoch Leyre Riancho-Zarrabeitia Heather Gladue

Anterior spinal artery as a collateral pathway in a case of unilateral vertebrobasilar occlusion: A case report and literature review

Ismail Ibrahim Ismail Ossama Yassin Mansour

May 14, 2015

Successful management of refractory ulcerative colitis with orally administered serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin therapy

Brian D. Beauerle Bruce P. Burnett Gerald W. Dryden

Unusual case of childhood anemia - Imerslund-grasbeck syndrome, a case report

Baliga Kiran Rajesh S.M Baliga B.S Kini Prashant

May 24, 2015

Calcified cutaneous metastatic deposits as an initial manifestation of adenocarcinoma stomach

Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay Adrija Hajra Partha Sarathi Karmakar Vijayan Ganesan

March 04, 2015

Lichen Striatus

February 19, 2015

Angiokeratoma of Fordyce

Psychosis and capgras delusions in a patient diagnosed with cogan’s syndrome, periorbital amyloid myoneuropathy: case report.

February 20, 2015

Beta blockers in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and reactive airway disease

Placenta accreata which is completed successfully with surgıcal procedure: case report.

February 22, 2015

Acne Keloidalis Nuchae

March 07, 2015

Successful removal of 36 fibroids from a uterus: case report

Temesgen Tilahun Bekabil

March 10, 2015

Asymptomatic ST-segment changes in athletes with myocardial bridge: unremarkable or dangerous?

March 12, 2015

Failed endoscopic “over-the-scope” clip repair following iatrogenic colon perforation during screening colonoscopy

Anna Kane Higham Winifred Lo Arvydas Vanagunas Marie Crandal

March 15, 2015

Arterial hypertension syndrome sustained by an unexpected association of pheochromocytoma and vesicoureteral reflux nephropathy

Sanda Mrabet DorraH’mida-Ben Brahim Amine Boukadida Mounir Trimeche Khaled Ben Mariem Dorsaf Zellama Yosra Guedri Wissal Sahtout Anis Belarbia Awatef Azzabi Safa Nouira Ali Saad Moncef Mokni Faouzi Mosbah Abdellatif Achour

March 18, 2015

A case report of dyslipidemia management in new-onset type 2 diabetic patient

Danish Mahmood

March 21, 2015

Postpartum pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema (Hamman’s Syndrome)

April 04, 2015

Preserve patient's confidentiality in primary care

Basem Abbas Al Ubaidi

April 05, 2015

Cardiac arrest during a sub-tenon block: a sign of acute lidocaine and bupivacaine toxicity

Luke Masha Eric Awtry

April 07, 2015

Dramatic methanol induced toxic optic neuropathy and dramatically response to erythropoietin: a case report

Majid Shams Seyed Mohammad Salar Zaheryany Reza Bidaki

April 10, 2015

Spinal epidural lipomatosis: presentation of two idiopathic cases and review of the literature

Emmanouel Chatzidakis George Barlas Panagiotis Zogopoulos Moschos Fratzoglou

April 12, 2015

Sarcoma arising from a popliteal artery aneurysm: historical case report

W. I. B. Onuigbo

April 13, 2015

Use of Reiki as a biofield therapy: An adjunct to conventional medical care

Aptil 10, 2015

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Special Issues

Controversies in multiple sclerosis.

Editor Affiliation:

Dr. Jagannadha Avasarala, MD, PhD University of South Carolina School of Medicine, USA

Submission date: May 30, 2016 Publication date: July 30, 2016

Description of the Special Issue: Controversies in multiple sclerosis (MS), like any other disease, are nothing new. Even after decades of understanding the disease process, fundamental differences exist in such mundane issues as how to define a relapse. Is it enough that a new symptom developed and has persisted for a few days, for example? Is there a consensus to define relapses as clinical and radiological events? If MRI is so sensitive, why not insist on every patient with a ‘relapse’ be screened radiologically and not rely on clinical evidence or lack thereof? Is it a cost issue? This is one such niggling issue that needs clarity.

Some of the topics included in this special edition are how to define secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and how radiological features might or might not contribute to the diagnostic approach, if radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) is different in patients with symptoms vs asymptomatic individuals, why clinically isolated syndrome patients are not routinely subjected to analysis of their cerebrospinal fluid if their MRI data are not supportive, why African Americans need to be screened for Vitamin D deficiency in MS patients and treated if levels are found to be low, particularly if there is minimal evidence that it confers any benefit, and lastly if there are trends or patterns in patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) who are enrolled in the TOUCH program with respect to their JCV Ab status.

Imaging of myocardial diseases: to new horizons

Valentin E. Sinitsyn Professor Department of Radiology Federal Center of Medicine and Rehabilitation Russia

Submission date: July 15, 2016 Publication date: August 15, 2016

Description of the Special Issue: Diagnostic imaging in non-coronary myocardial diseases is a very intriguing topic both for research and clinical practice. Different forms of cardiomyopathies, acute and chronic myocarditis, secondary involvement of the heart in different systemic diseases are very difficult to diagnose. Cardiac imaging - first of all, CT, MRI and hybrid modalities - offers unique opportunities for detection and characterization of this pathology. Late-enhancement MRI, T1-mapping, low-dose CT-angiography and dual-energy CT provide new insights into myocardial structure and function. Nevertheless, questions about proper choice of imaging modality remain. Is T1-mapping or late-enhancement CT enough sensitive to detect focal or diffuse myocardial inflammation of fibrosis? How cardiac imaging can help to differentiate between primary and secondary cardiomyopathies? Articles published in this issue will give some insight into these and some other challenges in cardiovascular radiology and imaging. This issue also will present some rare cases of various myocardial diseases.

Mental Health and Psychological Well-being

Dr. Jungeun Lee, PhD LPC Angelo State University USA

Submission date: January 25, 2017 Publication date: March 25, 2017

Description of the Special Issue: Mental disorders can cause a various kinds of challenges and struggles in lives of many people, which may jeopardize not only their sense of well-being but also their relationships with family, friends, and colleagues. Mental health is defined not just the absence of mental illness or psychological distress, but a state of well-being embracing a person’s own potential toward productivity in and contribution to the community. This special issue invites all concerned researchers and practitioners from the different fields to address clinical cases of various topics related to mental health and psychological well-being. This special issue will contribute to the literature on mental health by including collecting important clinical cases of various mental disorders and their impact on emotional, social, and physical well-being as well as evidences for the efficacy of different treatments and the relative efficacy of medication and traditional talk therapy, or their combination. We hope to draw a meaningful attention to mental health and psychological well-being and to provide a context for practitioners to conceptualize clinical cases through this special issue of Clinical Case Reports and Reviews.

Challenges in Developing Neurorehabilitation Services in Developing World

Dr. Nirmal Surya, M.D., D.N.B (Neuro) Chairman, Surya Neuro Center India

Submission date: January 31, 2019 Publication date: May 15, 2019

Description of the Special Issue: Neurorehabilitation is the part of Neurology which hasn’t been addressed properly in the developing world, due to either lack of expertise, lack of knowledge or lack of funds and infrastructure. This Special issue is a broad-based journal found on the following points- To publish the challenges faced by medical professionals in developing medical rehabilitation services in different parts of the world, to understand the challenges faced by different members in a multi-disciplinary Neurorehabilitation team.

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Series of Clinical and Medical Case Reports and Reviews

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Series of Clinical and Medical Case Reports and Reviews is a peer-reviewed open access journal which solely aims at providing reliable information on the latest developments in the field of clinical and medical science. It endorses the current scientific research, reviews and case reports related to medical science, and provides a publishing outlet for doctors, private practice clinicians, and other healthcare providers to share interesting research, reviews and case reports. The journal also relates closely to muscle pain occurring due to an injury or infection, shoulder and elbow surgery which passes information about surgical approaches in the shoulder and elbow areas and more topics.

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nutrition and dietetics, depression, anxiety, environmental hygiene, infectious disease, epidemiology, pandemic, suicide, stress, environment health, public health, health policy, community health, healthcare, hip arthroscopy, diabetes, endocrine disorder, cardiac arrest, arthroscopic surgery, rhabdomyolysis, psychology, unilateral sagittal split fracture, transverse atlantal ligament, acromioclavicular joint, coracoclavicular augmentation, shoulder, bioabsorbable anchor, osteolysis, total knee arthroplasty, anterior knee pain, primary osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, patellar resurfacing, patellar retention, malunited tibial plateau fracture, intra-articular osteotomy, lower limb alignment, osteotomy, congenital radial head dislocation, motion of elbow, polymyalgia rheumatica, low back pain, visceral range of motion, osteopathic medicine, running, osteopathy, osteoarthritis, juvenile arthritis, chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, inflammatory joint disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, pediatric rheumatology, spondyloarthritis, chiropractic, exercise therapy, soft tissue, gait analysis, muscle strength, lower extremity, elbow, muscle contraction, muscle strength dynamometer, weight loss, neck, pain, spondylolisthesis, spinal fractures, postural balance, ophthalmoplegia, patellofemoral pain syndrome, knee joint, range of motion, shoulder pain, musculoskeletal physiological phenomena, hip joint, thoracic vertebrae, bone tumors, iliac crest, distal radius, distal fibula, ankle salvage, osteochondroma, neurology, drug therapy in rheumatology, geriatric rheumatology, scleroderma, acne, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, seronegative spondyloarthropathies, open tibial fracture, lower limb injury, ankle fracture, medial malleolus fracture, foot and ankle surgery, ankle deformity, elbow arthroplasty, radial head, lumbar spine, spinal disc herniation, limb length discrepancy, lateral collateral ligament, tennis elbow, lateral epicondylitis, avascular necrosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, cartilage, fracture, joint, ligament, meniscus, osteoporosis, stress fracture, tendonitis, total joint replacement, proximal humeral fracture, fractures in the elderly, radial head replacement, spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality, neurological disorders, spine, obstetrics, gynecology, birth control, STD, gonorrhea, PID, syphilis, chlamydia, HIV, AIDS, STI, measles, chickenpox, seborrheic dermatitis, warts, anetoderma, vitiligo, biliary, colon, endoscopy, esophagus, functional bowel disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, liver, nutrition and obesity, pancreas, pathology, pediatric, small bowel, stomach

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Tuberous sclerosis complex (tsc) identified by genetic testing after histologic diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, the effect of stress and mental resilience on job satisfaction and intention to quit, quality of life, fatigue and social support among healthcare professionals during the covid 19 pandemic: a systematic review, anaesthesia for fixation of pathological fractures in a patient with multiple myeloma with comorbidities, journal information.

Journal Name: Series of Clinical and Medical Case Reports and Reviews Journal Short Name: Series Clin Med Case Rep Rev. Journal Code:  #JSCMCRR ISSN:  2993-3579 DOI:  10.54178/2993-3579 Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Hector R. Diaz Aguila Frequency:  Bimonthly Impact Factor: 0.94 Cite Score:  1.800 Publication Model:   Open Access Peer Review Model:  Double Blind Acceptance Rate: 38%

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Journal of Clinical Review & Case Reports(JCRC)

Issn: 2573-9565 | doi: 10.33140/jcrc.

clinical medical reviews and case reports

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Journal doi: 10.33140/jcrc, editorial panel view editorial board.

Huang Wei Ling Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases State University of Londrina, Brazil

Mohamed I Farid , MD FACS Professor, General Surgery Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Dr Kirankumar B , PhD Researcher, Biotechnology REVA University, Karnataka, India

Akhigbe-mudu thursday Ehis Doctor of Philosophy (Dr. ) Information Technology, Cyber Security African Institute of Science Adminstration and Commercial Studies Lome, Centrale Lome, Togo

Journal of Clinical Review & Case Reports is a peer reviewed Journal that publishes novel research work conducted as reviews and case reports in the medical field on various types of diseases, covering their respective clinical and diagnosis issues. The Journal also emphasizes to publish reviews in basic, fundamental, critical and state of the art review articles in the field of Medicine and Clinical sciences. We aim to publish high quality original case reports and reviews across all medical disciplines contributing greatly to the advancement of health care.

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Predatory publishing solicitation: a review of a single surgeon’s inbox and implications for information technology resources at an organizational level

Over a 6-month period, roughly one-third of emails received in a single surgeon’s email inbox were predatory in nature (i.e., soliciting material for nonexistent journals or conferences). While existing databases (e.g., Beall’s list and The CalTech Library list of questionable conferences) catalogue many fraudulent senders, the list is ever-expanding. The overall cost to health care organizations in terms of wasted bandwidth and financial diversion is extensive, as is confusion for trainees and colleagues. For the sake of fiscal responsibility and the maintenance of scholarly standards, it is incumbent upon organizational information technology departments to continually refine strategies to reduce this adverse impact.

Predatory publishing or “phishing” emails purport to invite scholarly activity, but in truth actually seek to collect publishing or registration fees. 1 Senders from these “journals” and/or “conferences” attempt to disguise their intent and platforms. Despite claims to the contrary, predatory journals do not provide peer review or editorial services — essential steps in validating research methodology and manuscript content — nor do they offer transparent policies or processes regarding fees, long-term archiving and/or the management of potential conflicts of interest. 2 The challenges incumbent in the academic, peer-reviewed literature associated with predatory journals have now become so substantial that this was the lone topic at the most recent meeting of the Surgery Journal Editors Group (SJEG). 3 Although the SJEG does not have any overriding policing authority, it is an engaged group of editors from the most prominent peer-reviewed surgical journals in the world, who determine and evaluate surgical publication policy and requirements. Furthermore, our surgical trainees, research assistants and nursing collaborators are also finding it increasingly difficult to navigate the extensive web of deceitful possibilities and invitations. In the event that these journals do actually publish, the lack of adequate peer review dilutes the quality of evidence within the literature. 4

Case study of a single surgeon’s email inbox

All emails received by an academic surgeon at his hospital-provided email account over a 6-month period were evaluated by 2 reviewers (M.M. and D.N.). Characteristics recorded included the site of origin, presence of grammatical errors, contact information provided, relevance of the invitation to the recipient’s specialty, as well as whether the sender had already been identified as fraudulent by either Beall’s list of potential predatory journals and publishers ( ) or the CalTech Library list of questionable conferences ( ).

A total of 1905 emails were received within the observation period. Of these, 608 were identified as likely to be fraudulent phishing emails and were found to consist of invitations to submit a manuscript (46.9%), present at a conference (34.7%), attend a conference (9.2%), join an editorial board (4.1%), both submit a manuscript and join an editorial board (4.1%), contribute to an eBook (0.7%), or review a manuscript (0.3%). Almost all of the predatory email invitations originated from either fake journals (55.1%) or conference hosts (43.9%).

Phishing emails seeking manuscript submissions originated from 43 different fake publishers with 146 different journal titles ( Table 1 ) or 8 fake stand-alone journals ( Table 2 ). The majority of fake publishers were already included on Beall’s list (86.7%). Characteristics associated with emails suspected of being predatory included the presence of obvious spelling and/or grammar errors (90.2%), a salutation including the word “greetings” (60.4%; e.g., “Greetings of the day,” “Greetings from…,” “Warm greetings…”), an offer to submit a broad range of document/article categories (53.3%; e.g., including research or review articles, case reports, editorials, clinical images, letters to editors), and/or the use of excessively flattering language (46.7%; Table 3 ).

Summary of phishing emails from predatory publishers seeking manuscript submissions

Summary of phishing emails from predatory stand-alone journals seeking manuscript submissions

Characteristics of phishing emails seeking manuscript submissions

The majority of the predatory conference invitations (97.4%) originated from 14 unique fake hosts, of which more than half (57.1%) were present on CalTech Library’s list of questionable conferences ( Table 4 ). In the absence of a comprehensive list of fake conference hosts to rely on, characteristics such as the presence of spelling and/or grammar errors (73.0%), use of the word “greetings” (41.2%), appealing words in the conference title giving it an international appearance (74.9%; e.g., global, world, euro), and the use of excessively flattering language (42.7%) are often helpful ( Table 5 ).

Sumary of predatory conference invitations sent from fake hosts

Characteristics of predatory conference invitations

Nearly all publishers and stand-alone journals (91.9%), as well as the majority of conference hosts (71.2%) identified as potentially predatory in nature were associated with a website; therefore, online verification is not a reliable way of determining the legitimacy of a phishing email.

Receiving an email invitation to submit a manuscript should raise a red flag, given that most legitimate journals and publishers rarely solicit manuscript submissions. Based on our review, we suggest authenticating these emails by looking for characteristics indicative of a predatory email, including spelling and grammar errors, overly formal or stilted salutations, and a broad range of welcomed submission types (original articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, clinical images, letters to editors), and by consulting Beall’s list to look for the publisher or journal name.

Our institution’s information technology (IT) department estimates that on a monthly basis, an average of 21 million out of 31 million emails to 120 000 distinct users are blocked by firewalls (Alberta Health Services employee website, 2019 Nov. 28). Our data also suggest that of the 10 million emails that penetrate these firewalls, potentially one-third are phishing emails. This clearly highlights the need for improvement to firewall/sequestration practices. For an organization of 100 000 users, earning an average of $100 000 per year, and receiving 6 spam emails a day, the cost in terms of storage, management, downtime, and lost productivity has been estimated to be greater than $16 million per year. 5 Our study also identified the types of words firewalls could flag to block predatory emails. They included the names of journals and publishers listed on Beall’s list; the names of conference hosts listed on the CalTech Library list; the names of journals, publishers and conference hosts we deemed to be predatory; the word “greetings”; and the presence of obvious spelling and/or grammar errors.

In our experience, unsolicited emails mostly consisted of invitations from predatory publishers with associated (or stand-alone) journals seeking manuscript submissions. Emails from predatory conference hosts inviting recipients to attend or present at a fake conference are also frequent. The costs associated with this type of spam in large organizations can be in the millions of dollars. These emails shared common characteristics which, together with PubMed’s indexed list, as well as both Beall’s list and the CalTech Library list, can be used by recipients to distinguish between legitimate and predatory invitations.

Competing interests: C.G. Ball is coeditor-in-chief of CJS . He was not involved in the review or decision to accept this manuscript for publication. No other competing interests declared.

Contributors: All authors contributed substantially to the conception, writing and revision of this article and approved the final version for publication.


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