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Articles can be in both a printed and online format from magazines , journals , and newspapers . A source of this material can be  databases or websites.

Style Examples

Pépin, Jacques. “My Friend Julia Child.” Gastronomica , vol. 5, no. 3, 2005, pp. 9–14. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/gfc.2005.5.3.9. Accessed 9 Apr. 2020.

Pépin, J. (2005). My Friend Julia Child. Gastronomica , 5(3), 9-14. doi:10.1525/gfc.2005.5.3.9.

Chicago Notes :

Pépin, Jacques. "My Friend Julia Child." Gastronomica 5, no. 3 (2005): 9-14. Accessed April 9, 2020. doi:10.1525/gfc.2005.5.3.9.

Chicago Author-Date : 

Pépin, Jacques. "My Friend Julia Child." 2005.  Gastronomica 5 (3): 9-14. Accessed April 9, 2020. doi:10.1525/gfc.2005.5.3.9.

Elements of the Citation

Articles require both information about the article and the source it is located in. The following are basic pieces of information that are needed to create a citation for an article.

  • Article title
  • Source title (e.g. journal, magazine, etc.)
  • Volume/issue number
  • Publication date
  • Page numbers
  • Database or website title
  • Electronic identifier (e.g doi, static url)
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Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

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There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database .

For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library’s page on referencing and plagiarism . If you need guidance referencing OU module material you can check out which sections of Cite Them Right are recommended when referencing physical and online module material .

This guide does not apply to OU Law undergraduate students . If you are studying a module beginning with W1xx, W2xx or W3xx, you should refer to the Quick guide to Cite Them Right referencing for Law modules .

Table of contents

In-text citations and full references.

  • Secondary referencing
  • Page numbers
  • Citing multiple sources published in the same year by the same author

Full reference examples

Referencing consists of two elements:

  • in-text citations, which are inserted in the body of your text and are included in the word count. An in-text citation gives the author(s) and publication date of a source you are referring to. If the publication date is not given, the phrase 'no date' is used instead of a date. If using direct quotations or you refer to a specific section in the source you also need the page number/s if available, or paragraph number for web pages.
  • full references, which are given in alphabetical order in reference list at the end of your work and are not included in the word count. Full references give full bibliographical information for all the sources you have referred to in the body of your text.

To see a reference list and intext citations check out this example assignment on Cite Them Right .

Difference between reference list and bibliography

a reference list only includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text

a bibliography includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text AND sources that were part of your background reading that you did not use in your assignment

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Examples of in-text citations

You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided below. Alternatively you can see examples of setting out in-text citations in Cite Them Right .

Note: When referencing a chapter of an edited book, your in-text citation should give the author(s) of the chapter.

Online module materials

(Includes written online module activities, audio-visual material such as online tutorials, recordings or videos).

When referencing material from module websites, the date of publication is the year you started studying the module.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

OR, if there is no named author:

The Open University (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Rietdorf, K. and Bootman, M. (2022) 'Topic 3: Rare diseases'. S290: Investigating human health and disease . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1967195 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

The Open University (2022) ‘3.1 The purposes of childhood and youth research’. EK313: Issues in research with children and young people . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1949633&section=1.3 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

You can also use this template to reference videos and audio that are hosted on your module website:

The Open University (2022) ‘Video 2.7 An example of a Frith-Happé animation’. SK298: Brain, mind and mental health . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=2013014&section=4.9.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

The Open University (2022) ‘Audio 2 Interview with Richard Sorabji (Part 2)’. A113: Revolutions . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1960941&section=5.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

Note: if a complete journal article has been uploaded to a module website, or if you have seen an article referred to on the website and then accessed the original version, reference the original journal article, and do not mention the module materials. If only an extract from an article is included in your module materials that you want to reference, you should use secondary referencing, with the module materials as the 'cited in' source, as described above.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of message', Title of discussion board , in Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Fitzpatrick, M. (2022) ‘A215 - presentation of TMAs', Tutor group discussion & Workbook activities , in A215: Creative writing . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/forumng/discuss.php?d=4209566 (Accessed: 24 January 2022).

Note: When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, reference as a printed book.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title . Edition if later than first. Place of publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

For ebooks that do not contain print publication details

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title of book . Available at: DOI or URL (Accessed: date).

Example with one author:

Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project . Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy . Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Accessed: 23 June 2021).

Example with two or three authors:

Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2015) The health needs of young people leaving care . Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.

Example with four or more authors:

Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics . San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Note: You can choose one or other method to reference four or more authors (unless your School requires you to name all authors in your reference list) and your approach should be consistent.

Note: Books that have an editor, or editors, where each chapter is written by a different author or authors.

Surname of chapter author, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Initial. Surname of book editor (ed.) Title of book . Place of publication: publisher, Page reference.

Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in S.M. Smith (ed.) The maltreatment of children . Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference.

If accessed online:

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference. Available at: DOI or URL (if required) (Accessed: date).

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326.

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326. Available at: https://libezproxy.open.ac.uk/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/log... (Accessed: 27 January 2023).

Barke, M. and Mowl, G. (2016) 'Málaga – a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History , 2(3), pp. 187–212. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1755182X.2010.523145

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference if available. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2012) ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts’, The Guardian , 20 June, p. 5.

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian , 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolut... (Accessed: 9 September 2015).

Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Organisation (Year that the page was last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Robinson, J. (2007) Social variation across the UK . Available at: https://www.bl.uk/british-accents-and-dialects/articles/social-variation... (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

The British Psychological Society (2018) Code of Ethics and Conduct . Available at: https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct (Accessed: 22 March 2019).

Note: Cite Them Right Online offers guidance for referencing webpages that do not include authors' names and dates. However, be extra vigilant about the suitability of such webpages.

Surname, Initial. (Year) Title of photograph . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Kitton, J. (2013) Golden sunset . Available at: https://www.jameskittophotography.co.uk/photo_8692150.html (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

stanitsa_dance (2021) Cossack dance ensemble . Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/COI_slphWJ_/ (Accessed: 13 June 2023).

Note: If no title can be found then replace it with a short description.

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Harvard referencing quick guide: Citing and referencing material

  • Introduction
  • General guidelines
  • Citing and referencing material
  • Sample assignment
  • Referencing software

Book reference image

Chapter in an edited book

Use when referring to a single chapter in an edited book.

harvard citation article online

Full edited book

Use when referring to the entire book

harvard citation article online

Need to reference something else?

Check our full Harvard referencing guide for more material types.

Journal article online

harvard citation article online

Material on the Web often falls into one of the material types already covered in this guide. Information published on the Web is not necessarily a webpage. In such cases, follow the instructions for the material type in question (e.g. research report, e-book).

harvard citation article online

  • << Previous: General guidelines
  • Next: Sample assignment >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 19, 2024 1:14 PM
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Harvard Citation Style: All Examples

  • Introduction
  • Books / E-Books
  • Company Information
  • Conference Proceedings
  • Internet / Websites
  • Journal Articles
  • Lecture Notes
  • Multi-Media Formats
  • Patents and Standards
  • All Examples
  • Writing Support
  • Citation Support

In-text citations

Two or more works cited at one point in the text

If two or more works by different authors or authoring bodies are cited at one point in the text, use a semi-colon to separate them:

(Larsen 2000; Malinowski 1999)

The authors should be listed in alphabetical order.

Two or three authors or authoring bodies

When citing a work by two or three authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page:

(Malinowski, Miller & Gupta 1995) 

In-Text & Reference List Examples

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Harvard Referencing / How to reference a website using the Harvard referencing style

How to reference a website using the Harvard referencing style

This guide covers how to reference a website in Harvard style. When citing information sourced from the web, it is of paramount importance that you make very clear what it is you are referencing. As sources on the internet can vary widely, your reference should aim to provide a trail that can lead the reader directly to the source. An internet source could be almost anything, including but not limited to scholarly journal articles, newspaper articles, blog posts, and personal web pages. Your reference format for internet sources will vary based on the type of source.

Since most websites are updated from time to time, it is possible that anything you quote may be changed or removed. This means that it is important to record within your citation the date that you last accessed the site.  

Another important fact to be mindful of is that most websites do not have page numbers. If you need to reference a specific location on a website, you can use paragraph numbers in place of page numbers (abbreviated ‘para.’ in your in-text citation).  

Citation styles for different online sources

This section will elaborate on the citation style to be utilized for the following sources, along with examples for each source type.  

Web pages authored by an individual/individuals

Your references for this type of web page will include the following information:  

  • Author’s/Authors’ names
  • The year the site was published or last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of the web page (in italics)
  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)  

In-text citation

B. Johnson (2016) made his argument quite clear stating…

Reference list

Johnson, B. (2016) The rise of the Ubermensch. Available at: http://www.bjohnsonsworld.co.uk/theriseoftheubermensch (Accessed: 23 October 2017).

In-text citation (two authors)

After years of research, Russell and Verstappen (2013) found that…

Russell, J. and Verstappen, M. (2013) Rubber compounds and their rate of wear . Available at: http://www.dailysciencefixforyou.com/rubbercompounds (Accessed: 24 November 2019).

Web pages authored by a company or organization

Here’s the information you will need to include for this type of reference:

  • Name of the company/organization
  • Year the site was published or last updated (in round brackets)            
  • Title of the web page (in italics)      
  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)                          

A patient may suffer mild psychosis (Rural Health Institute, 2018) as a result of…

Rural Health Institute (2018) The effects of shock therapy. Available at: http://www.rhi.co.uk/shocktherapy (Accessed: 31 October 2019).

Web pages with no author  

Citation structure :

  • Title of the webpage (in italics)
  • The year the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)
  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)          

Renderings of the architect’s master plan can be found online ( Gumpert’s Modernism, 2013) …

Reference List

Gumpert’s Modernism (2013) Available at: https://www.stellararchitecture.com/modernism/ (Accessed: 24 July 2020)

Web pages with no author or title

Citation structure:

  • URL of the page
  • (Accessed: date)        

In-text citation    

Salt dough cookies (http://www.wholesomerecipes.com/saltdough.html, 2018) are a wonderful way to….

http://www.wholesomerecipes.com/saltdough.html (2018) (Accessed: 12 September 2020).

Web pages without a date

Citation information:  

  • Author’s name
  • Mention that no dates were available (use ‘no date’ in round brackets)
  • Title of the web page, if available (in italics)

Cuba struggled through the decade (Banana Republic News, no date) facing a constant onslaught of….

Banana Republic News (no date) The trials and tribulations of Cuba. Available at: https://www.bananafyinews.com/cuba.html (Accessed: 15 July 2019).

Multiple pages from the same website

If you need to cite multiple pages from the same website, and the pages have different authors and/or publication dates associated with them, then you can simply use corresponding individual in-text citations and reference list entries for each page that you cite. In this case, you would also include the unique URL for each page in its corresponding reference list entry. However, if the pages you are citing all have the same author and publication date, you can differentiate between them in both your reference list entries and in-text citations by adding a lowercase letter after the date.

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022a)

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022b)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022a)  International travel . Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/international-travel/index.html (Accessed: 18 July 2022).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022b) Cruise ship travel during COVID-19 . Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/cruise-travel-during-covid19.html (Accessed: 18 July 2022).

Note that if the web page has no date, insert a hyphen between the words ‘no date’ and the lowercase letter to improve readability, for example: (no date-a) or (no date-b).

Web blogs or video blogs

When citing any information from blogs or vlogs, you need to keep in mind that you are treading a very thin line between objectivity and subjectivity. Blogs or vlogs are meant to be informal as most people use them to express their perspectives on issues or topics that are close to their heart, or to comment on issues from the public domain. So, be incredibly careful as most blogs are not very well reasoned or objective in their stance.

  • The year that the blog/vlog was published or last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of the blog/vlog (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the site that hosts the blog/vlog (in italics)
  • The day or month the blog/vlog was posted

Note that if you’re trying to cite a vlog that was posted on YouTube, you’ll need to know how to cite a YouTube video in Harvard style .

Engelbert D’Souza (2015) has expounded on the “Mandela Effect” at great length….

D’Souza, E. (2015) ‘The Mandela Effect’, Engelbert’s monthly blog , 6 November. Available at: https://www.engelbertsmonthlyblog/november/mandelaeffect/ (Accessed: 11 September 2016).

Social networking sites  

Citation information:

  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of the post (in single quotation marks)
  • [Instagram]
  • Day/month of the post
  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)    

In-text citation  

Hendrix was a master of distortion and feedback (Casanova, 2018) …

Casanova, G. (2018) ‘Jimi Hendrix: wild blue angel’ [Instagram]. 18 September. Available at: https://www.instagram.com (Accessed: 7 October 2019)

  • Author (if available, otherwise use the title)
  • The year the article was published or last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of the post (in italics)
  • Day/month the post was uploaded

The Trump rally drew large crowds in South Carolina ( Trump campaign , 2016).

Trump campaign (2016) [Facebook] 24 October. Available at: https://www.facebook.com (Accessed: 28 February 2019).

  • Author of the tweet
  • Twitter handle (in square brackets)
  • The year the tweet was posted (in round brackets)
  • The full body of the tweet (if it is too long, use an ellipsis to shorten it)
  • The day/month the tweet was posted

Jasper Kuhn (2018) was quite critical about the proceedings…

Kuhn, J. [@kuhnper] (2018) It was appalling to see the leaders of the state bicker like rabid dogs in the assembly [Twitter] 31 January. Available at: https://twitter.com/kuhnper/status/161664645.654654.655 (Accessed: 17 July 2018).

Key takeaways

  • While referencing anything from a website, the main aim is to provide a trail that can lead the reader directly to the source.  
  • An important point to keep in mind is that you will need to cite the date you last accessed the site.  
  • Since most websites do not have page numbers, use paragraph numbers to show where you found the information you used.  

Published October 29, 2020.

Harvard Formatting Guide

Harvard Formatting

  • et al Usage
  • Direct Quotes
  • In-text Citations
  • Multiple Authors
  • Page Numbers
  • Writing an Outline
  • View Harvard Guide

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🤔 What is Cite Them Right Harvard Referencing?

Cite Them Right is a version of Harvard referencing , created by Richard Pears and Graham Shields, and published by Macmillan Study Skills. There are many subtly different ways to do Harvard referencing, and the Cite Them Right way is one of the most commonly-used. For other ways to do Harvard referencing, including ways that are specific to different universities, see our list of Harvard referencing versions .

🍏 How is the Cite Them Right style different to other Harvard styles?

The main differentiator of the Cite Them Right style is the use of parenthesis (also known as round brackets) -- they are used to surround both the publish date, and the access date. Aside from that, the style follows similar rules to most other Harvard styles.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's Cite Them Right Harvard Referencing Generator?

Our generator can create perfect Cite Them Right Harvard references and in-text citations. Here's how:

  • Enter the URL, book title, or article title into the search bar at the top of the page and press the search button.
  • Choose the most relevant result from the list of search results.
  • Our generator will automatically locate the source details and format them in the Cite Them Right Harvard format. You can make further changes if required.
  • Then either copy the formatted reference directly into your reference list by clicking the 'copy' button, or save it to your MyBib account for later.

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

Citation guides

All you need to know about citations

How to cite an online newspaper article in Harvard

Harvard online newspaper article citation

To cite an online newspaper article in a reference entry in Harvard style include the following elements:

  • Author of the online newspaper article: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J.) of up to three authors with the last name preceded by 'and'. For four authors or more include the first name followed by et al., unless your institution requires referencing of all named authors.
  • Year of publication: Give the year in round brackets.
  • Title of the online newspaper article: Give the title of the article in single quotation marks.
  • Title of the newspaper: Give the title in italics and capitalize the first letter of the first word and proper nouns.
  • Edition: Give the edition number if available.
  • Day and month: Give the day month and year.
  • Page numbers: Give the page range if available.
  • URL: Give the full URL of the web page including the protocol (http:// or https://).
  • Date of access: Give the day, month and year of access.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of an online newspaper article in Harvard style:

Author of the online newspaper article . ( Year of publication ) ' Title of the online newspaper article ', Title of the newspaper ( Edition ), Day and month , Page numbers . Available at: URL (Accessed: Date of access ).

Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the Harvard style guidelines in action:

An article from a digital newspaper

Greenslade, R . ( 2018 ) ' Opinion is valued more than fact in this digital era ', The Guardian , 29 July . Available at: from ">https://www.theguardian.com/"> (Accessed: 2 September 2019 ).
Steinhauser, G . ( 2018 ) ' Zimbabweans Turn Out in Droves for First Vote Without Mugabe ', Wall Street Journal , 30 July . Available at: https://www.wsj.com/ (Accessed: 6 September 2019 ).

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This citation style guide is based on the Cite Them Right (10 th edition) Harvard referencing guide.

More useful guides

  • University College London - Referencing with Harvard
  • Victoria University Harvard referencing guide
  • Harvard - Deakin University guide to referencing

More great BibGuru guides

  • Harvard: how to cite an eBook
  • Chicago: how to cite a blog post
  • Chicago: how to cite a translated book

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Harvard In-Text Citation | A Complete Guide & Examples

Published on 30 April 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 5 May 2022.

An in-text citation should appear wherever you quote or paraphrase a source in your writing, pointing your reader to the full reference .

In Harvard style , citations appear in brackets in the text. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author,  the year of publication, and a page number if relevant.

Up to three authors are included in Harvard in-text citations. If there are four or more authors, the citation is shortened with et al .

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Table of contents

Including page numbers in citations, where to place harvard in-text citations, citing sources with missing information, frequently asked questions about harvard in-text citations.

When you quote directly from a source or paraphrase a specific passage, your in-text citation must include a page number to specify where the relevant passage is located.

Use ‘p.’ for a single page and ‘pp.’ for a page range:

  • Meanwhile, another commentator asserts that the economy is ‘on the downturn’ (Singh, 2015, p. 13 ).
  • Wilson (2015, pp. 12–14 ) makes an argument for the efficacy of the technique.

If you are summarising the general argument of a source or paraphrasing ideas that recur throughout the text, no page number is needed.

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

When incorporating citations into your text, you can either name the author directly in the text or only include the author’s name in brackets.

Naming the author in the text

When you name the author in the sentence itself, the year and (if relevant) page number are typically given in brackets straight after the name:

Naming the author directly in your sentence is the best approach when you want to critique or comment on the source.

Naming the author in brackets

When you  you haven’t mentioned the author’s name in your sentence, include it inside the brackets. The citation is generally placed after the relevant quote or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence, before the full stop:

Multiple citations can be included in one place, listed in order of publication year and separated by semicolons:

This type of citation is useful when you want to support a claim or summarise the overall findings of sources.

Common mistakes with in-text citations

In-text citations in brackets should not appear as the subject of your sentences. Anything that’s essential to the meaning of a sentence should be written outside the brackets:

  • (Smith, 2019) argues that…
  • Smith (2019) argues that…

Similarly, don’t repeat the author’s name in the bracketed citation and in the sentence itself:

  • As Caulfield (Caulfield, 2020) writes…
  • As Caulfield (2020) writes…

Sometimes you won’t have access to all the source information you need for an in-text citation. Here’s what to do if you’re missing the publication date, author’s name, or page numbers for a source.

If a source doesn’t list a clear publication date, as is sometimes the case with online sources or historical documents, replace the date with the words ‘no date’:

When it’s not clear who the author of a source is, you’ll sometimes be able to substitute a corporate author – the group or organisation responsible for the publication:

When there’s no corporate author to cite, you can use the title of the source in place of the author’s name:

No page numbers

If you quote from a source without page numbers, such as a website, you can just omit this information if it’s a short text – it should be easy enough to find the quote without it.

If you quote from a longer source without page numbers, it’s best to find an alternate location marker, such as a paragraph number or subheading, and include that:

A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.

The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

In Harvard style , when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For example: (Smith, 2014, p. 33).

You can also include page numbers to point the reader towards a passage that you paraphrased . If you refer to the general ideas or findings of the source as a whole, you don’t need to include a page number.

When you want to use a quote but can’t access the original source, you can cite it indirectly. In the in-text citation , first mention the source you want to refer to, and then the source in which you found it. For example:

It’s advisable to avoid indirect citations wherever possible, because they suggest you don’t have full knowledge of the sources you’re citing. Only use an indirect citation if you can’t reasonably gain access to the original source.

In Harvard style referencing , to distinguish between two sources by the same author that were published in the same year, you add a different letter after the year for each source:

  • (Smith, 2019a)
  • (Smith, 2019b)

Add ‘a’ to the first one you cite, ‘b’ to the second, and so on. Do the same in your bibliography or reference list .

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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, May 05). Harvard In-Text Citation | A Complete Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 19 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-in-text-citation/

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Your reference list in Harvard style needs to include all the works you have cited in your assignment. It is placed at the end of your essay on a new page and has a specific format you need to follow.

This is an overview of the rules given in the  Style Manual  for creating a reference list.

Setting up your list

Formatting rules and examples.

Alexander JC (2015) ‘Measuring, counting, interpreting: our debate on methods continues’, American Journal of Cultural Sociology , 3(3):309–10, doi:10.1057/ajcs.2015.13

Two or more authors

Author A and Author B

Author A, Author B and Author C

Poulin J and Matis S (2019) Social work practice: a competency-based approach , Springer. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/monash/reader.action?docID=5968733

Nankervis AR, Baird M, Coffey J and Shields J (2017) Human resource management: strategy and practice , 9th edn, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne.

Organisation as the author

Abbreviation of organisation (full name of organisation)

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2021) Australia in brief , DFAT, accessed 21 July 2023. https://www.dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/australia-in-brief

  • The Style Manual states to use the abbreviation for the organisation's name in all in-text citations.

Anonymous/unknown author

Make sure that your in-text citation and reference list entry match. If you have used the name of a blog, website, newspaper, or magazine in your in-text citation in place of the author, use the same name in your reference list. If you have used the title of the work in place of the author in your in-text citation, use the title in place of the author in your reference list.

Multiple works by the same author

Author A (Yeara)

Author A (Yearb)

Smith A (2007a) 'Emerging in between: The multi-level governance of renewable energy in the English regions', Energy Policy, 35(12):6266–6280, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2007.07.023

Smith A (2007b) 'Translating sustainabilities between green niches and socio-technical regimes', Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 19(4):427–450, doi:10.1080/09537320701403334

  • If there are multiple sources by the same author, arrange them in chronological order by publication year.
  • For more than one entry by the same author published in the same year, add a lower-case letter to the end of the year in both the citation and the reference list entry

Multiple works by different authors with the same surname

Jones M (n.d.) More than you bargained for. Penguin Random House.

Jones S (2015) Popular culture: the rise of the super hero. Palgrave Macmillan.

Editors and translators

If the main creator of the source is an editor, reference the source under their name and include the abbreviation ed. (or eds. for more than one).

Translators

For translated works, complete the reference, and order the reference list based on the name of the original author of the work, not the translator.

DOIs and URLs

Reference with a doi.

Tharoor S (1990) ‘The universality of human rights and their relevance to developing countries’, Nordic Journal of International Law 59(1):139—152, doi:10.1163/157181090X00288

Reference with a database

Tharoor S (1990) ‘The universality of human rights and their relevance to developing countries’, Nordic Journal of International Law 59(1):139—152. (HeinOnline).

Reference with a URL

Tharoor S (1990) ‘The universality of human rights and their relevance to developing countries’, Nordic Journal of International Law 59(1):139—152, accessed 17 December 2020. https://brill.com/view/journals/nord/59/1/article-p139_15.xml

  • Many sources published online, including journal articles , government and industry publications , ebooks, and reports, have a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Include DOIs in your reference list if they exist as they are more stable than URLs.
  • DOIs sometimes have the form of a URL. If so, you don’t need to include the HTTP, etc., start at doi:10.xxx (etc).
  • If there is no DOI, include the database or the URL instead.

Example reference list

Perkins Gilman C (2004) Social ethics: sociology and the future of society (Hill MR and Deegan MJ eds) Praeger. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/monash/detail.action?docID=494814

Halloran JT (2018) Population dynamics in the child welfare system , University of Chicago, accessed 1 February 2021, Proquest Dissertations Publishing.

Tsetsura K and Valentini C (2016) 'The “holy” triad in media ethics: a conceptual model for understanding global media ethics', Public Relations Review , 42(4):573–581, doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2016.03.013

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Vimal Patel is a higher education reporter for The Times, focusing on speech and campus culture. He was previously a reporter for The Chronicle of Higher Education. More about Vimal Patel

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If you're trying to determine what source to choose or what you should cite, read on for FAQs and helpful answers.

I'm citing a book, article, video, photo, etc., that I found online. Does that mean it's a "website"?

If you can classify your source as something other than a website/web page, choose that as your source. Be as specific as possible. Most times, the source citation form will give you the option to cite the source as something found online (see tabs at the top of the citation form).

  • E-book -- choose "Book"
  • Online newspaper article -- choose "Newspaper"
  • Digital photo -- choose "Photo"

What's the difference between an "Online database" and a "Journal"?

In research, a journal is a scholarly or academic periodical featuring articles written by experts. These articles are reviewed by fellow experts (peer-reviewed) before being published.

An online database is an electronic collection of information. They are searchable and most databases found at your library provide credible, published content. Depending on the database, it might also let you access information in various formats (e.g., journals, videos, books, newspapers, etc.).

This means an online database could have several journals.

  • Journals -- Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), PLOS One, New Scientist, Ecology Letters
  • Online databases --- Academic One File, Britannica Academic, EBSCOHost, Facts on File

I'm still not sure what source I have. What should I do?

Scroll through our long list of source options and make your best educated guess. If you're still unsure, choose "Miscellaneous."

If there is no author, can I still cite a source?

Yes! It's always better to cite a source, even if you're unsure of all the source details. Also, not everything has an indicated author so it's ok to leave an author out in those cases. When this happens, most citation styles will list the source by its title instead of the author's last name.

I only need to cite one source, right?

A well-balanced paper usually cites several sources; often in different formats (e.g., books, journals, interviews, etc.). There isn't an exact number of sources that is ideal, but try to have more than a couple sources listed.

Also, you should cite everything you've consulted or mentioned in your paper. It's the ethical thing to do.

If I have a full citation at the end of my paper, do I really need to make in-text citations (e.g., parenthetical citations, footnotes, etc.)?

Yes, absolutely! Showing where you got certain ideas or points in your paper will help support any arguments you make. Including in-text citations is also ethical — give credit where it is due.

I heard that "common knowledge" does NOT need to be cited. What is it?

Common knowledge is general information that you can assume a normal individual would know without needing to consult a source. Yes, you do not necessarily need to cite common knowledge. However, if you are unsure if you should cite a fact or source, err on the side of caution and cite it.

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  1. How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style

    The method for referencing a journal article in the reference list is as follows: Reference list (print) structure: Last name, F. (Year published) 'Article title', Journal name, Volume (Issue), Page (s). Example:

  2. Free Harvard Referencing Generator [Updated for 2024]

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  3. Reference a Website in Harvard Style

    To reference a website in Harvard style, include the name of the author or organization, the year of publication, the title of the page, the URL, and the date on which you accessed the website. Different formats are used for other kinds of online source, such as articles, social media posts and multimedia content.

  4. How to Cite Sources in Harvard Citation Format

    1. Harvard Referencing Basics: Reference List A reference list is a complete list of all the sources used when creating a piece of work. This list includes information about the sources like the author, date of publication, title of the source and more. A Harvard reference list must: Be on a separate sheet at the end of the document

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  6. Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles

    In Harvard style, to reference a journal article, you need the author name (s), the year, the article title, the journal name, the volume and issue numbers, and the page range on which the article appears. If you accessed the article online, add a DOI (digital object identifier) if available.

  7. FREE Harvard Referencing Generator

    The Harvard citation style is a system that students, writers and researchers can use to incorporate other people's quotes, findings and ideas into their work in order to support and validate their conclusions without breaching any intellectual property laws.

  8. Articles

    The following are basic pieces of information that are needed to create a citation for an article. Author Article title Source title (e.g. journal, magazine, etc.) Volume/issue number Publication date Page numbers For online articles you will also need: Database or website title Electronic identifier (e.g doi, static url)

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  10. How to cite an online journal article in Harvard

    To cite an online journal article in a reference entry in Harvard style include the following elements: Author (s) of the online journal article: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J.) of up to three authors with the last name preceded by 'and'.

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  12. Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

    Referencing consists of two elements: in-text citations, which are inserted in the body of your text and are included in the word count. An in-text citation gives the author (s) and publication date of a source you are referring to. If the publication date is not given, the phrase 'no date' is used instead of a date.

  13. Harvard referencing quick guide: Citing and referencing material

    In-text citation: Reference list (Author Year) Author(s) surname(s), Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of journal [online], volume number (issue/number, or date/month of publication if volume and issue are absent), page numbers or Article eLocator number (if any). Available fro m: library database name, or URL or DOI if accessed online from somewhere other than a ...

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  16. A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing

    When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors' names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ' et al. ': Number of authors. In-text citation example. 1 author. (Davis, 2019) 2 authors. (Davis and Barrett, 2019) 3 authors.

  17. Harvard Citation Style: All Examples

    When citing a work by two or three authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page: (Malinowski, Miller & Gupta 1995) In-Text & Reference List Examples Last Updated: Feb 6, 2024 10:18 AM GW is committed to digital accessibility.

  18. How to reference a website using the Harvard referencing style

    Search This guide covers how to reference a website in Harvard style. When citing information sourced from the web, it is of paramount importance that you make very clear what it is you are referencing. As sources on the internet can vary widely, your reference should aim to provide a trail that can lead the reader directly to the source.

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  21. How to cite an online newspaper article in Harvard

    To cite an online newspaper article in a reference entry in Harvard style include the following elements: Author of the online newspaper article: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J.) of up to three authors with the last name preceded by 'and'.

  22. Harvard In-Text Citation

    Revised on 5 May 2022. An in-text citation should appear wherever you quote or paraphrase a source in your writing, pointing your reader to the full reference. In Harvard style, citations appear in brackets in the text. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author, the year of publication, and a page number if relevant.

  23. Reference list

    Reference list. Your reference list in Harvard style needs to include all the works you have cited in your assignment. It is placed at the end of your essay on a new page and has a specific format you need to follow. This is an overview of the rules given in the Style Manual for creating a reference list.

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    A well-balanced paper usually cites several sources; often in different formats (e.g., books, journals, interviews, etc.). There isn't an exact number of sources that is ideal, but try to have more than a couple sources listed. Also, you should cite everything you've consulted or mentioned in your paper. It's the ethical thing to do.

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