How should I write a conclusion to a history essay?
A conclusion should be a summary of everything you have said previously in your essay. Have a sentence stating your answer to the question, then a sentence summarising each of your points, before reinforcing your answer again.
Related History A Level answers
To what extent did the norman invasion influence scotland, was the pilgrimage of grace 1536 a failure or a success, what factors led to the start of the english civil wars, why were the crusader states able to survive between 1100 and 1124, we're here to help, company information, popular requests, © mytutorweb ltd 2013– 2023.
How to Write A-Level History Coursework
History coursework is an academic paper which requires students’ critical thinking and evaluation on any historical events or on a series of events. This is done by including and mentioning different resources, perspectives, and interpretation of the happenings. A-level history coursework is all about writing essays. Regardless of your knowledge, if you are unable to produce a good essay you won’t be awarded good marks by your examiner.
To write a coursework, you need to have reliable resources from where you can collect information. You must also possess analytical thinking skills which help to determine the causes and effects of an event. You may also consider coursework sample to have a better understanding of the work which you are required to ask.
Taking a history course in A-levels seems to be very easy until you are asked to write a coursework. From here things become difficult for majority students as they don’t have any clear guidance to come up with a good essay. If you are also facing this difficulty, then don’t worry because you’re at the right place. This post will provide complete guidance on how to write A-level history coursework . Let’s find out more about it.
How to write a good coursework introduction?
History coursework usually depends on the thesis statement which is written in the introduction. Come up with a strong thesis statement. It is because the thesis statement describes the writer’s area of interest and the context which you are going to cover.
The introduction should be catchy and must sound appealing to the readers. While writing the introduction focus more on writing about the historical events which you have chosen to evaluate. Refer it with some pieces of evidence or facts. You can also show support by including relevant historical policies and statistics.
To make a great start, mind map a sheet with questions as it might help in building a better understanding of the subject. By doing so, it will be easy to formulate an impressive introduction. You can take help from your teacher, friend, or tutor in this regard. Moreover, look at different A-level coursework examples available at the school library.
Things to Include in Your History Coursework Body:
In the body paragraph of the history coursework, including all the arguments which support the introductory statements. For this purpose, you must have a list of outlined facts in chronological order. First, explain your quotes. Try to explain them in your own words rather than copying exact words and then shows how they support your point of view. Do include other historian’s interpretation in the same paragraph before finalizing your view.
Create a table which tabulates the data and by using statistics support your analysis with the relevant historical shreds of evidence as well as support the original interpretation. Also, highlights the limitations of the interpretation by giving a rough idea of the things which you haven’t included.
Then introduce the next interpretation and observe how similar and different it is with the previous one. Later, by following the same format conclude your essay.
How to Write a Compelling Conclusion:
The conclusion of your coursework should focus on two sources which are the most credible and detailed along with the reasons which show that your answer is according to the question. While writing the conclusion, restate your thesis statement and summarize the entire idea of the paper in just two to three lines. Also, justifies the shreds of evidence which are provided throughout the essay.
Some Easy to Understand Tips on Structuring a History Coursework:
The structure of history coursework is not much different from other academic papers. All you need is a precise introduction, main body paragraphs, and a conclusion which summarizes the entire essay.
Mentioned below are few easy A-level history tips to write a fine quality of coursework:
- Stick to the required word limit. If the required word count is of 2000 words so, avoid exceeding it unlike most students do. Writing more than the required word limit often leads to the repetition of ideas and sentences. Moreover, writing more put you in danger of the penalty of writing too much.
- Do structure your work like other academic essays. As it is not much different from other academic paper so, do write an introduction, body, and conclusion.
- Provide evidence to ensure that you refer to facts frequently. Also, give citation of quotes which you have taken from different sources.
- Make sure that you fully concentrate on your coursework question. Make it clear while introducing the subject along with the interpretation’s view. The side which you think is most credible support it with various historical pieces of evidence and examples. This will help you in forming a basis on which your judgment would be made.
- Remember in school, you were provided with an essay structure and how you can handle the sources. Here too, this will be very helpful as it will assist you to come up with not just a good structure but also a good flow of the essay. However, if you are not provided with a structure then simply familiarize yourself with each interpretation of the question as it might prove to be useful. Beginning your essay with a clear understanding which supports your arguments will help you in developing a good introduction.
Although, it is very stressful to come up with a competitive and coherent piece of work, especially when you lack research skills and don’t have a good grasp of grammar. However, all these things can be overcome if you know how to correct them. Producing a quality history coursework is not easy but it is not that much difficult. Follow the above-mentioned guide and try to create a better paper which not just impresses your teacher but also awards you with good grades.
Leave a Reply Cancel reply
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
courseworkhelpuk.co.uk is an online writing service providing academic assistance to students in United Kingdom. The services are primarily for reference and assistance purposes to make educational journey easier.
- Terms & Condition
- [email protected]
- +44 20 3332 0848
How to write a conclusion for a history essay
Every essay needs to end with a concluding paragraph. It is the last paragraph the marker reads, and this will typically be the last paragraph that you write.
What is a ‘concluding paragraph?
The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay that reminds the reader about the points you have made and how it proves the argument which you stated in your hypothesis .
By the time your marker reads your conclusion, they have read all the evidence you have presented in your body paragraphs . This is your last opportunity to show that you have proven your points.
While your conclusion will talk about the same points you made in your introduction , it should not read exactly the same. Instead, it should state the same information in a more developed form and bring the essay to an end.
In general, you should never use quotes from sources in your conclusion.
Concluding paragraph structure
While the concluding paragraph will normally be shorter than your introductory and body paragraphs , it still has a specific role to fulfil.
A well-written concluding paragraph has the following three-part structure:
- Restate your key points
- Restate your hypothesis
- Concluding sentence
Each element of this structure is explained further, with examples, below:
1. Restate your key points
In one or two sentences, restate each of the topic sentences from your body paragraphs . This is to remind the marker about how you proved your argument.
This information will be similar to your elaboration sentences in your introduction , but will be much briefer.
Since this is a summary of your entire essay’s argument, you will often want to start your conclusion with a phrase to highlight this. For example: “In conclusion”, “In summary”, “To briefly summarise”, or “Overall”.
Example restatements of key points:
Middle Ages (Year 8 Level)
In conclusion, feudal lords had initially spent vast sums of money on elaborate castle construction projects but ceased to do so as a result of the advances in gunpowder technology which rendered stone defences obsolete.
WWI (Year 9 Level)
To briefly summarise, the initially flood of Australian volunteers were encouraged by imperial propaganda but as a result of the stories harsh battlefield experience which filtered back to the home front, enlistment numbers quickly declined.
Civil Rights (Year 10 Level)
In summary, the efforts of important First Nations leaders and activist organisations to spread the idea of indigenous political equality had a significant effect on sway public opinion in favour of a ‘yes’ vote.
Ancient Rome (Year 11/12 Level)
Overall, the Marian military reforms directly changed Roman political campaigns and the role of public opinion in military command assignments across a variety of Roman societal practices.
2. Restate your hypothesis
This is a single sentence that restates the hypothesis from your introductory paragraph .
Don’t simply copy it word-for-word. It should be restated in a different way, but still clearly saying what you have been arguing for the whole of your essay.
Make it clear to your marker that you are clearly restating you argument by beginning this sentence a phrase to highlight this. For example: “Therefore”, “This proves that”, “Consequently”, or “Ultimately”.
Example restated hypotheses:
Therefore, it is clear that while castles were initially intended to dominate infantry-dominated siege scenarios, they were abandoned in favour of financial investment in canon technologies.
This proves that the change in Australian soldiers' morale during World War One was the consequence of the mass slaughter produced by mass-produced weaponry and combat doctrine.
Consequently, the 1967 Referendum considered a public relations success because of the targeted strategies implemented by Charles Perkins, Faith Bandler and the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders.
Ultimately, it can be safely argued that Gaius Marius was instrumental in revolutionising the republican political, military and social structures in the 1 st century BC.
3. Concluding sentence
This is the final sentence of your conclusion that provides a final statement about the implications of your arguments for modern understandings of the topic. Alternatively, it could make a statement about what the effect of this historical person or event had on history.
Example concluding sentences:
While these medieval structures fell into disuse centuries ago, they continue to fascinate people to this day.
The implications of the war-weariness produced by these experiences continued to shape opinions about war for the rest of the 20 th century.
Despite this, the Indigenous Peoples had to lobby successive Australian governments for further political equality, which still continues today.
Ancient Rome (Year 11/12 Level)
The impact of these changes effectively prepared the way for other political figures, like Pompey, Julius Caesar and Octavian, who would ultimately transform the Roman republic into an empire.
Putting it all together
Once you have written all three parts of, you should have a completed concluding paragraph. In the examples above, we have shown each part separately. Below you will see the completed paragraphs so that you can appreciate what a conclusion should look like.
Example conclusion paragraphs:
In conclusion, feudal lords had initially spent vast sums of money on elaborate castle construction projects but ceased to do so as a result of the advances in gunpowder technology which rendered stone defences obsolete. Therefore, it is clear that while castles were initially intended to dominate infantry-dominated siege scenarios, they were abandoned in favour of financial investment in canon technologies. While these medieval structures fell into disuse centuries ago, they continue to fascinate people to this day.
To briefly summarise, the initially flood of Australian volunteers were encouraged by imperial propaganda, but as a result of the stories harsh battlefield experience which filtered back to the home front, enlistment numbers quickly declined. This proves that the change in Australian soldiers' morale during World War One was the consequence of the mass slaughter produced by mass-produced weaponry and combat doctrine. The implications of the war-weariness produced by these experiences continued to shape opinions about war for the rest of the 20th century.
In summary, the efforts of important indigenous leaders and activist organisations to spread the idea of indigenous political equality had a significant effect on sway public opinion in favour of a ‘yes’ vote. Consequently, the 1967 Referendum considered a public relations success because of the targeted strategies implemented by Charles Perkins, Faith Bandler and the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. Despite this, the Indigenous Peoples had to lobby successive Australian governments for further political equality, which still continues today.
Overall, the Marian military reforms directly changed Roman political campaigns and the role of public opinion in military command assignments across a variety of Roman societal practices. Ultimately, it can be safely argued that Gaius Marius was instrumental in revolutionising the republican political, military and social structures in the 1st century BC. The impact of these changes effectively prepared the way for other political figures, like Pompey, Julius Caesar and Octavian, who would ultimately transform the Roman republic into an empire.
What do you need help with?
Download ready-to-use digital learning resources.
Copyright © History Skills 2014-2023.
Contact via email
- Centre Services
- Associate Extranet
- All About Maths
AS and A-level History
- Planning resources
- Teaching resources
- Assessment resources
- Specification at a glance
- 1A The Age of the Crusades, c1071–1204
- 1B Spain in the Age of Discovery, 1469–1598 (A-level only)
- 1C The Tudors: England, 1485–1603
- 1D Stuart Britain and the Crisis of Monarchy, 1603–1702
- 1E Russia in the Age of Absolutism and Enlightenment, 1682–1796 (A-level only)
- 1F Industrialisation and the people: Britain, c1783–1885
- 1G Challenge and transformation: Britain, c1851–1964
- 1H Tsarist and Communist Russia, 1855–1964
- 1J The British Empire, c1857–1967
- 1K The making of a Superpower: USA, 1865–1975
- 1L The quest for political stability: Germany, 1871–1991
- 2A Royal Authority and the Angevin Kings, 1154–1216
- 2B The Wars of the Roses, 1450–1499
- 2C The Reformation in Europe, c1500–1564 (A-level only)
- 2D Religious conflict and the Church in England, c1529–c1570
- 2E The English Revolution, 1625–1660
- 2F The Sun King: Louis XIV, France and Europe, 1643–1715 (A-level only)
- 2G The Birth of the USA, 1760–1801
- 2H France in Revolution, 1774–1815 (A-level only)
- 2J America: A Nation Divided, c1845–1877
- 2K International Relations and Global Conflict, c1890–1941 (A-level only)
- 2L Italy and Fascism, c1900–1945
- 2M Wars and Welfare: Britain in Transition, 1906–1957
- 2N Revolution and dictatorship: Russia, 1917–1953
- 2O Democracy and Nazism: Germany, 1918–1945
- 2P The Transformation of China, 1936–1997
- 2Q The American Dream: reality and illusion, 1945–1980
- 2R The Cold War, c1945–1991
- 2S The Making of Modern Britain, 1951–2007
- 2T The Crisis of Communism: The USSR and the Soviet Empire, 1953–2000 (A-level only)
Component 3: Historical investigation (non-exam assessment) (A-level only)
- Scheme of assessment
- Non-exam assessment administration
- General administration
Purpose of the Historical investigation
The purpose of the Historical Investigation is to enable students to develop the skills, knowledge and historical understanding acquired through the study of the examined components of the specification.
Through undertaking the Historical Investigation students will develop an enhanced understanding of the nature and purpose of history as a discipline and how historians work.
- ask relevant and significant questions about the past and undertake research
- develop as independent learners and critical and reflective thinkers
- acquire an understanding of the nature of historical study
- organise and communicate their knowledge and understanding in a piece of sustained writing
Students will be required to submit a Historical Investigation based on a development or issue which has been subject to different historical interpretations. The Historical Investigation must:
- be independently researched and written by the student
- be presented in the form of a piece of extended writing of between 3500 and 4500 words in length, with a limit of 4500 words
- draw upon the student's investigation of sources (both primary and secondary) which relate to the development or issue chosen and the differing interpretations that have been placed on this
- place the issue to be investigated within a context of approximately 100 years
- be an issue which does not duplicate the content of Components 1 and 2.
The Historical Investigation must be supervised in accordance with the requirements of Section 5.1 of this specification.
The centre must complete a non-examined assessment (NEA) title approval form no later than 20 October in the year before the intended completion of the A-level course. The form must detail the title and date range of the proposed historical investigation for each student. The teacher must state which examined components will be studied. This form must be submitted to AQA for review. AQA will check that the proposed historical investigation title, when combined with the examined components, meets the following requirements:
- the proposed title is set in the context of approximately 100 years
- there is no overlap with the content of the options studied for the examined components
- all three components together cover a chronological range of at least 200 years
AQA will inform the centre if any historical investigation title does not meet the requirements and the focus for the non-examined assessment will need to be changed.
Failure to comply with these requirements will invalidate the student’s entry and no A-level result will be issued.
It is therefore vital that the teacher ensures that all requirements are met. If a student changes their historical investigation title, a new form should be completed.
On completion of the NEA, each student must also complete a Candidate Record Form (CRF) detailing the options studied for the examined components. The student must sign this form. The teacher must counter sign the CRF and this declaration will confirm that the historical investigation complies with the NEA title approval form and has adhered to all requirements.
The CRF must be sent to the moderator at the same time as marks for the NEA are submitted. The moderator will check that all course requirements have been met.
If the requirements have not been met, then the entry will be invalid and no result issued.
Copies of all the documentation, including the NEA proposal form and guidance on submission procedures are available from the AQA website at www.aqa.org.uk/history
Further guidance is available from the History subject team: [email protected]
Choice of issue and question to be studied
Students will be required to identify an issue or topic they wish to study and develop a question from this issue or topic as the focus of the Historical Investigation. The issue or topic to be studied and the question which stems from it must place the issue or topic in the context of approximately 100 years of history. The question could be based on British history or non-British history or could be a multi-country issue. However, it must not duplicate content studied in Components 1 and 2.
The Historical Investigation could identify an issue and a related question which traces a development over approximately 100 years. Alternatively, it could focus on a narrower issue, but place it the context of approximately 100 years.
- A broad issue and related question which analyses its development over approximately 100 years, for example: assessing how Puritanism changed during the Seventeenth Century; or assessing the extent to which the condition of the Russian peasant improved over the period 1850–1950
- A more specific issue in the context of approximately 100 years, for example: assessing the extent to which the Glorious Revolution successfully settled relations between Crown and Parliament in the context of the Stuart period; or assessing the extent to which Tsar Nicholas I changed the nature of Tsarist rule set against the period of Catherine the Great, Alexander and Nicholas I.
Issues which relate to international, national or local developments are appropriate, as are investigations which adopt specific historical perspectives such as cultural, social or technological.
However, in choosing the issue, students need to take the following into account:
- Is there a range of primary sources and primary material available to support individual investigation?
- Is the issue and related question one which has promoted debate and differences of interpretation amongst historians?
When framing the question to be answered, students must ensure that it enables them to demonstrate skills of historical analysis, evaluation and judgement, to appraise the views of historians and to evaluate primary sources.
Students are advised to use the type of question formulations seen in examinations such as the use of questions which begin ‘To what extent’ or a quotation in the form of a judgement followed by ‘Assess the validity of this view’.
The A-level subject content for history requires that students carry out a Historical Investigation that is independently researched. It is acceptable that students within a centre base their Historical Investigations around the same topic. However, the essential pre-requisite of non-exam assessment and the principal purpose of the Historical Investigation both require that the Historical Investigation is the work of individual students each developing a question to investigate and each evaluating individually, primary sources and historical interpretations. Where students in a centre are studying a similar topic or topics, there may be only a limited number of primary sources and, more so, a limited number of historical interpretations. However, the centre must ensure that students assess and evaluate sources individually, even where sources used are similar. It is not permitted for centres to direct students to the same sources as this fundamentally undermines the need for the Historical Investigation to be the work of an individual student.
Further guidance and exemplar material are available via the AQA website.
The skills and qualities to be demonstrated and assessed
The skills and qualities of all three Assessment Objectives must be demonstrated in the Historical Investigation. These are:
AO1: demonstrate, organise and communicate knowledge and understanding to analyse and evaluate the key features related to the periods studied, making substantiated judgements and exploring concepts, as relevant, of cause, consequence, change, continuity, similarity, difference and significance.
AO2: analyse and evaluate appropriate source material, primary and/or contemporary to the period, within the historical context.
AO3: analyse and evaluate, in relation to the historical context, different ways in which aspects of the past have been interpreted.
The task required of students in responding to AO3 will be different from that in the examined components in that students will be expected to:
- show an understanding of the limitations placed on historians
- show an understanding of the significance of the time and/or context in which an historian writes
- compare and evaluate differing historical interpretations.
Students must base their analysis and evaluation of historical interpretations on the work of academic historians. It is not acceptable that the analysis and evaluation is based on textbook historians or course books.
Students are expected to use short quotations, paraphrase and/or footnotes to show the source of their interpretations. Lengthy extracts are not required.
In developing their response to a chosen issue to investigate, students are expected to consult a range of resources, which may include textbooks, course books and work of academic historians. Within the Historical Investigation, however, there must be explicit analysis and evaluation of two differing interpretations by academic historians where students analyse and evaluate the differences between the interpretations, show an awareness of the time and/or context of the interpretations and demonstrate an understanding of the limitations placed on historians.
The Historical Investigation must be written with the qualities of all three objectives integrated within the body of the work. For example, students will analyse, evaluate and reach judgements about the question chosen (AO1) and within this analysis and evaluation, appraise the views of historians (AO3) and analyse and evaluate primary source material and the extent to which it is useful in supporting arguments or conclusions (AO2).
Completion of the Historical investigation
The Investigation should be completed in approximately 3500-4500 words, excluding bibliography, footnotes, and appendices, with a limit of 4500 words. Work that exceeds this word limit will incur a five mark penalty. This penalty will be applied by AQA, and should not be applied by the teacher. A word count must be included on the Candidate Record Form.
The Investigation must contain an evaluation of three primary sources. At least two different types of primary source should be evaluated. These may be different types of written primary sources, for example: official publications; reports; diaries; speeches; letters; chronicles; observations of elite or ‘ordinary’ people (from the inside or from the outside). Other appropriate sources may include artefacts, archaeological or visual sources.
The Investigation must also demonstrate an understanding of differing interpretations presented by two academic historians about the issue.
Students are advised to avoid extensive, verbatim copying from sources and to ensure that the Investigation is written in their own words. Extensive verbatim copying can lead to malpractice.
The use of footnotes is strongly advised in order to demonstrate the range of evidence consulted and validate the bibliography. Additionally, footnotes alleviate concerns about plagiarism, as the source of comments, views, detail or others' judgements is acknowledged. Skill in the use of footnotes is also highly valued by Higher Education. A bibliography should be provided, listing the sources that have been consulted.
The role of the teacher
Teachers have a number of significant roles:
- to explain the requirements of the Historical Investigation to students
- to ensure that students do not duplicate content already covered in Components 1 and 2 and to ensure that the NEA title which forms the focus of the Historical Investigation is placed in the context of approximately 100 years
- to provide appropriate supervision of students, offering general guidance about the issue and question chosen for investigation
- to monitor the progress of the Investigation
- to submit to AQA, by 20 October in the year before intended A-level certification, an NEA title approval form. This form will require that options from Components 1 and 2 are identified, along with the title of Component 3 and its chronological range for each student
- to sign a declaration that the Investigation is the work of the individual working independently
- to inform AQA where there are concerns about malpractice, such as plagiarism or the submission of work that is not that of the student
Assessment and moderation
The Historical Investigation will be marked by centres and moderated by AQA. It is most important that centres establish rigorous internal standardisation to ensure that the rank order of the students is fair, accurate and appropriate. This is particularly important in larger centres where more than one teacher has prepared and assessed students.
The work of students is to be assessed by a levels of response mark scheme which addresses each of the following assessment objectives, with the weighting as indicated:
Mark Scheme to be used when assessing the Historical investigation
AO1: 20 marks
Demonstrate, organise and communicate knowledge and understanding to analyse and evaluate the key features related to the periods studied, making substantiated judgements and exploring concepts, as relevant, of cause, consequence, change, continuity, similarity and significance.
NOTE: An Historical investigation which fails to show an understanding of change and continuity within the context of approximately 100 years cannot be placed above Level 2 in AO1 (maximum 8 marks)
Level 5: 17–20 The response demonstrates a very good understanding of change and continuity within the context of approximately 100 years and meets the full demands of the chosen question. It is very well organised and effectively delivered. The supporting information is well-selected, specific and precise. It shows a very good understanding of key features, issues and concepts. The answer is fully analytical with a balanced argument and well-substantiated judgement.
Level 4: 13–16 The response demonstrates a good understanding of change and continuity within the context of approximately 100 years and meets the demands of the chosen question. It is well-organised and effectively communicated. There is a range of clear and specific supporting information, showing a good understanding of key features and issues, together with some conceptual awareness. The response is predominantly analytical in style with a range of direct comment relating to the question. The response is well-balanced with some judgement, which may, however, be only partially substantiated.
Level 3: 9–12 The response demonstrates an understanding of change and continuity within the context of approximately 100 years and shows an understanding of the chosen question. It provides a range of largely accurate information which shows an awareness of some of the key issues. This information may, however, be unspecific or lack precision of detail in parts. The response is effectively organised and shows adequate communication skills. There is a good deal of comment in relation to the chosen question, although some of this may be generalised. The response demonstrates some analytical qualities and balance of argument.
Level 2: 5–8 The response demonstrates some understanding of change and continuity but may have limitations in its coverage of a context of approximately 100 years. The response may be either descriptive or partial, showing some awareness of the chosen question but a failure to grasp its full demands. There is some attempt to convey material in an organised way although communication skills may be limited. The response contains some appropriate information and shows an understanding of some aspects of the investigation, but there may be some inaccuracy and irrelevance. There is some comment in relation to the question but comments may be unsupported and generalised.
Level 1: 1–4 The response demonstrates limited understanding of change and continuity and makes little reference to a context of approximately 100 years. The chosen question has been imperfectly understood and the response shows limited organisational and communication skills. The information conveyed is extremely limited in scope and parts may be irrelevant. There may be some unsupported, vague or generalised comment.
AO2: 10 marks
Analyse and evaluate appropriate source material, primary and/or contemporary to the period, within the historical context.
Level 5: 9–10 Provides a range of relevant and well-supported comments on the value of three sources of two or more different types used in the investigation to provide a balanced and convincing judgement on their merits in relation to the topic under investigation.
Level 4: 7–8 Provides relevant and well-supported comments on the value of three sources of two or more different types used in the investigation, to produce a balanced assessment on their merits in relation to the topic under investigation. Judgements may, however, be partial or limited in substantiation.
Level 3: 5–6 Provides some relevant comment on the value of three sources of at least two different types used in the Investigation. Some of the commentary is, however, of limited scope, not fully convincing or has only limited direction to the topic under investigation.
Level 2: 3–4 Either: provides some comment on the value of more than one source used in the investigation but may not address three sources in equal measure or refers to sources of the same 'type'. Or: provides some comment on the value of three sources of at least two types used in the investigation but the comment is excessively generalised and not well directed to the topic of the investigation.
Level 1: 1–2 Provides some comment on the value of at least one source used in the Investigation but the response is very limited and may be partially inaccurate. Comments are likely to be unsupported, vague or generalised.
In commenting and making judgements on the value of the sources, students will be expected to apply their own contextual knowledge and perspectives of time and place in order to assess the value and limitations of their sources as evidence. They will be expected to comment on, as appropriate to the investigation and chosen sources:
- the differing perspectives of the sources chosen
- the social, political, intellectual, religious and/or economic contexts in which the sources were written
- the credibility, authority, authenticity, consistency and comprehensiveness of the sources
- the bias, distortion or propagandist elements found in the sources
AO3: 10 marks
Analyse and evaluate, in relation to the historical context, different ways in which aspects of the past have been interpreted.
Level 5: 9–10 Shows a very good understanding of the differing historical interpretations raised by the question. There is a strong, well-substantiated and convincing evaluation of two interpretations with reference to the time, context and/or limitations placed on the historians.
Level 4: 7–8 Shows a good understanding of the differing historical interpretations raised by the question. There is some good evaluation of the two interpretations with reference to the time, context and/or limitations placed on historians, although not all comments are substantiated or convincing.
Level 3: 5–6 Shows an understanding of differing historical interpretations raised by the question. There is some supported comment on two interpretations with reference to the time, context and/or limitations placed on historians, but the comments are limited in depth and/or substantiation.
Level 2: 3–4 Shows some understanding of the differing historical interpretations raised by the question. They may refer to the time, context and/or limitations placed on the historians in an unconvincing way.
Level 1: 1–2 Shows limited understanding of the differing historical interpretations raised by the question. Comment on historical interpretations is generalised and vague.
In showing an understanding of historical interpretations and evaluating historical interpretations, students will be expected to apply their own contextual knowledge.
They will be expected, as appropriate to the investigation:
- to show an understanding of the limitations placed on historians
- to show an understanding of the significance of the time and/or context in which an historian writes
- to compare and evaluate differing historical interpretations.
NOTE: The Investigation has a limit of 4500 words. Work that exceeds this word limit will incur a 5 mark penalty. This deduction will be applied by AQA, and should not be applied by the teacher.