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~~~ I was blown away by this story.
I found it interesting that the article on Russia’s energy use did not address the widespread Russian belief that Russia will benefit from global warming as temperatures rise and Siberia becomes more easily arable. More than one Russian and ex-Soviet citizen spoke to me wistfully that if only he had money or Russian citizenship to buy “dead” land in Siberia for his grandchildren…
Kate G: I’d much rather nuclear waste was transported past my house than turbine blades (not).
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Essay on Newspaper
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Essay on Newspaper in 150-250 words
Essay on newspaper in 300-400 words, essay on newspaper in 500-1000 words.
Newspapers play a crucial role in our lives as a source of information and knowledge. They provide us with the latest news, current affairs, and a wide range of topics that cover politics, sports, entertainment, and more.
Newspapers serve as a medium for staying informed about the events happening around the world. They offer diverse perspectives and opinions, allowing readers to form their own views and make informed decisions. Whether it’s local news or global affairs, newspapers keep us updated and connected to the world.
In addition to news, newspapers also provide valuable insights and analysis on various subjects. They feature articles, editorials, and opinion pieces that delve deeper into important issues, helping readers understand the complexities of society and the world at large.
Newspapers also promote literacy and critical thinking skills. They encourage readers to engage with information, analyze different viewpoints, and develop their own opinions. Reading newspapers enhances language proficiency, vocabulary, and general knowledge.
Furthermore, newspapers are an essential platform for public discourse. They give a voice to different perspectives, facilitate discussions on social, political, and cultural matters, and act as a catalyst for change.
In conclusion, newspapers are an invaluable source of information and knowledge. They keep us informed, provide diverse viewpoints, and foster critical thinking. In an age of digital media, newspapers continue to play a vital role in society by promoting informed citizenship and contributing to a well-informed and engaged population.
Newspapers have long been an integral part of our lives, serving as a vital source of information and knowledge. In today’s fast-paced world, where information is readily available through digital media, newspapers continue to hold their importance.
One of the primary functions of newspapers is to provide news and keep us informed about the latest events happening around the world. They cover a wide range of topics, including politics, economics, sports, entertainment, and more. Newspapers act as a reliable source of news, ensuring that we stay updated on current affairs and developments in various fields.
Newspapers also play a crucial role in promoting critical thinking and analytical skills. They offer in-depth articles, editorials, and opinion pieces that provide insightful analysis and different perspectives on important issues. By engaging with such content, readers can develop a broader understanding of complex matters and form their own opinions.
Furthermore, newspapers act as a platform for public discourse and expression. They provide a space for journalists, writers, and experts to share their ideas and insights. Through letters to the editor, readers can also voice their opinions and participate in discussions on various topics. This contributes to a vibrant and diverse public dialogue, fostering a sense of community and encouraging democratic participation.
Another significant aspect of newspapers is their role in promoting literacy and language skills. Reading newspapers enhances vocabulary, language proficiency, and comprehension abilities. It exposes readers to different writing styles and genres, expanding their knowledge and understanding of the world.
Moreover, newspapers contribute to a sense of community and local identity. Local newspapers cover stories specific to a particular region, highlighting local events, issues, and achievements. They provide a platform for local businesses, organizations, and individuals to showcase their work, promoting community engagement and a sense of belonging.
In conclusion, newspapers continue to hold immense value in our society. They keep us informed, promote critical thinking, facilitate public discourse, and contribute to the development of language skills. Despite the rise of digital media, newspapers remain a trusted and reliable source of information, playing a crucial role in shaping public opinion and fostering an informed and engaged citizenry.
Title: The Irreplaceable Role of Newspapers in the Digital Age
Newspapers have been an integral part of our lives for centuries, serving as a primary source of information, news, and knowledge. In today’s digital age, where information is readily available at our fingertips, the significance of newspapers may seem diminished. However, newspapers continue to hold a unique and irreplaceable position in society. This essay explores the importance of newspapers, and their role in fostering informed citizenship, promoting critical thinking, and providing a reliable source of information in an era of digital overload.
Reliable Source of Information
Newspapers are renowned for their credibility and reliability as a source of information. They employ professional journalists who adhere to ethical guidelines and journalistic standards. Newspapers undergo rigorous fact-checking processes to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of the news they report. This commitment to accuracy and accountability distinguishes newspapers from the vast expanse of online platforms where misinformation and fake news proliferate. Readers can trust that the information presented in newspapers has undergone thorough verification, providing them with reliable and credible news.
Comprehensive Coverage and Diverse Perspectives
Newspapers offer comprehensive coverage of local, national, and international news. They delve into a wide range of topics, including politics, economics, science, culture, and more. This breadth of coverage ensures that readers are exposed to a diverse range of information and perspectives, fostering a well-rounded understanding of the world. Newspapers provide in-depth articles, features, and investigative reports that offer insights beyond the surface-level headlines, enabling readers to engage with complex issues and make informed decisions.
Promotion of Informed Citizenship
Newspapers play a vital role in fostering an informed and engaged citizenry. They serve as a watchdog, holding governments, institutions, and individuals accountable for their actions. Investigative journalism uncovers corruption, exposes wrongdoing, and promotes transparency. Newspapers also cover important civic issues, encouraging citizens to stay informed, participate in public discourse, and exercise their democratic rights. Through their coverage of elections, policy debates, and societal challenges, newspapers empower citizens to make informed decisions and contribute to the betterment of their communities.
Stimulating Critical Thinking
Newspapers promote critical thinking and analysis. They provide readers with diverse perspectives and a variety of opinions on various topics. Editorials, opinion pieces, and letters to the editor encourage readers to evaluate different viewpoints, challenge their own assumptions, and develop a more nuanced understanding of complex issues. By engaging with these articles, readers can sharpen their critical thinking skills, become more discerning consumers of information, and better navigate the deluge of information in the digital age.
Local and Community Connection
Local newspapers hold a special place in communities, serving as a vital link between individuals, businesses, and organizations. They highlight local news, events, and achievements, providing a platform for local voices to be heard. Local newspapers foster a sense of community, pride, and belonging by showcasing the unique stories and challenges of a particular region. They promote local businesses, cultural events, and community initiatives, enhancing community engagement and cohesion.
Preservation of History and Culture
Newspapers serve as historical records, documenting significant events, milestones, and cultural shifts. They chronicle the stories, struggles, and achievements of a society, preserving them for future generations. Newspaper archives provide a valuable resource for researchers, scholars, and historians, offering insights into the past and helping shape our understanding of history.
In conclusion, newspapers continue to play a crucial role in our society, providing a reliable source of information, fostering informed citizenship, promoting critical thinking, and connecting communities. Despite the rise of digital media, newspapers offer unique advantages such as credibility, comprehensive coverage, diverse perspectives, and local connection. As we navigate the complexities of the digital age, it is important to recognize and value the essential role that newspapers play in shaping public opinion, promoting democratic participation, and ensuring the well-informed functioning of society.
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Long-form reading shows signs of life in our mobile news world.
In recent years, the news media have followed their audience’s lead and gone mobile, working to make their reporting accessible to the roughly seven-in-ten American adults who own a smartphone. With both a smaller screen size and an audience more apt to be dipping in and out of news, many question what kind of news content will prevail.
One particular area of uncertainty has been the fate of long, in-depth news reports that have been a staple of the mainstream print media in its previous forms. These articles – enabled by the substantial space allotted them – allow consumers to engage with complex subjects in more detail and allow journalists to bring in more sources, consider more points of view, add historical context and cover events too complex to tell in limited words.
This is not to say that all long-form news accomplishes the above or that short-form does not have its own value. But, in a news environment so dramatically different from past forms, the question is worth exploring: Will people engage with lengthy news content on their phones?
A unique, new study of online reader behavior by Pew Research Center, conducted in association with the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, addresses this question from the angle of time spent with long- versus short-form news. It suggests the answer is yes: When it comes to the relative time consumers spend with this content, long-form journalism does have a place in today’s mobile-centric society.
To understand how mobile users interact with news, the study utilized audience behavior metrics provided by the web analytics firm Parse.ly , a company that supplies real-time and historical analytics to a broad mix of digital publishers, including over 170 top media companies.
All told, Center researchers spent months digging deeply into the details of 117 million anonymized, complete cellphone interactions with 74,840 articles from 30 news websites in the month of September 2015.
This gap between short- and long-form content in engaged time remains consistent across time of day and the pathway taken to get to the news story. However, when looking solely within either short- or long-form content, engaged time varies significantly depending on how the reader got to the article, whether it is midday or evening, and even what topic the article covers, according to the study.
While 123 seconds – or just over two minutes – may not seem long, and a far cry from the idealized vision of citizens settling in with the morning newspaper, two minutes is far longer than most local television news stories today. And that print newspaper over which people linger contains many separate stories, not just one. In addition, our analysis indicates that this metric almost certainly underestimates the real time spent reading or watching a news story. Specifically, the Parse.ly metrics capture screen movements such as scrolling or clicking, within 5.5 second intervals. While more precise counts of actual user engaged time may still be out of reach with existing methods, what is of most value is the relative difference that emerges between long- and short-form stories. And here the conclusion across this dataset is consistent: People are spending more time on longer stories than on shorter ones, suggesting that engagement can expand to meet the demands of a more in-depth piece.
The data also reveal that while shorter news content is far more prevalent than long-form and thus draws more total traffic, long-form articles are accessed at nearly the same rate. Fully 76% of the articles studied were fewer than 1,000 words in length. But, article for article, long-form stories attract visitors at nearly the same rate as short-form: 1,530 complete interactions per long-form article and 1,576 per short-form.
Among the additional key findings:
- Across all five distinct parts of the day, readers spend about twice the time with long-form news content on their cellphones as with short-form. For both story lengths, they spend the longest average engaged time in the late night and morning hours: 128 seconds late at night for stories 1,000 words or longer and 60 seconds for stories shorter than 1,000 words. In the morning, the figures are 126 seconds and 59 seconds, respectively.
- The gap between long- and short-form engaged time also persists across all five ways visitors can arrive at news articles (such as through a link from an external website, social media, search etc.) – though those who follow a link on their phone from within the same website spend the greatest amount of time with an article. Long-form news readers spend an average of 148 seconds with a news article when arriving there from an internal link. That falls to 132 seconds for those who visit the article directly or follow an email link, 125 when arriving from an external website, 119 from search and 111 from social media. For short-form reading, the average times are lower but social media is again at the bottom. Nonetheless, social media sites drive the largest share of traffic overall – accounting for roughly 40% of cellphone visitors to both short- and long-form news.
- There are some noteworthy differences in the nature of the visits coming from two of the larger social networking sites – Facebook and Twitter. While Facebook drives more traffic, Twitter tends to bring in people who spend more time with content. For longer content, users that arrive from Facebook spend an average of 107 seconds, compared with 133 seconds when they come from Twitter. The same pattern emerges with shorter content: Those arriving from Twitter spend more time with that content (58 seconds) compared with those coming from Facebook (51 seconds). Yet, for both short- and long-form content, Facebook referrals drive about eight-in-ten initial visits from social media sources, while Twitter drives about 15%.
- Just a small fraction of users who access either a short- (3%) or long-form (4%) news story on their phone return to it on that phone, but those who do tend to spend more time with it than users overall . Return visitors to long-form articles spent 277 seconds with the article compared with 123 seconds for users overall. For short-form content, return visitors spent an average of 110 seconds of engaged time with the article compared with 57 seconds for users overall.
- Both long- and short-form news articles tend to have a very brief life span. Fully 82% of interactions with short-form articles begin within the first two days after publication, as did 74% of long-form interactions. By day three, that rises to 89% of short-form interactions and 83% of long-form interactions.
- An overwhelming majority of both long-form readers (72%) and short-form readers (79%) view just one article on a given site over the course of a month on their cellphone. Users who visited at least one long-form article are somewhat more likely to view multiple articles on their cellphone than those who initially accessed a short-form article, but the numbers for both are small: 28% and 21% respectively.
Working with large, organic datasets like the one for this project require, at the outset, critical structural and methodological decisions, as well as data organization and cleaning. This includes developing an in-depth understanding of how the data are collected, recorded, and structured and what research questions the data speak to most clearly. An in-depth discussion of the methodology behind this study can be found here . There is also a glossary of the terms and measures referred to throughout this report. Readers can click a glossary term any time it appears to review the terminology.
Short-form: Articles with a word count of 101 – 999 words. (Those with 100 or fewer words were removed due to their greater potential of containing anomalous data.)
Long-form: Articles with a word count of 1,000 words or more.
Cellphone: Defined by Parse.ly as a broad category encompassing mobile devices that are not desktop/laptop computers, tablets or other devices that can connect to the web. Cellphones are primarily comprised of smartphones, such as Apple’s iPhone, Samsung’s Galaxy S series or other manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola, Microsoft and Blackberry. All traffic analyzed in this study is based on visits to news websites via mobile browser apps on cellphones. It does not include interactions via “native” mobile news apps.
Unique visitors: Unique number of individuals visiting a web page on a cellphone. Parse.ly uses first-party cookies to track a user within a website on a particular device. Each individual is counted only once, though they may have visited the site more than once during September 2015.
Page activity: An individual’s interaction with the page, measured as screen movement such as scrolling, clicking or tapping.
Session: An individual’s page activity on an article over an indefinite time period, which expires when there has been no activity for 30 minutes. A session includes visits to multiple pages within the article, as well as instances when the user visits the page, leaves for another site or app, but returns within 30 minutes of his or her last activity. Thus, if a user visits one article, pauses for 10 minutes and then returns, that is still considered one session.
Complete interaction: All of a unique visitor’s sessions with one article on a cellphone. In some cases, such as time of the day, we looked at the combined sessions for that particular daypart. For example, if a user read an article over multiple sessions during the morning, we combined these sessions to analyze the activity that took place within that specific daypart.
Return visitors: Visitors who visit an article more than once on the same cellphone. This is tracked by using a web cookie, which uniquely identifies each user’s web browser. A visit is a return visit if it begins at least 60 minutes after the start of the preceding session.
Engaged time: An indicator of the time a user spends with content, as measured by page activity. In other words, this refers to any time that a user spends “engaged” – meaning scrolling, clicking or tapping – with a web page. In the current dataset, a pause in the accumulation of engaged time is set at 5.5 seconds of unengaged time on a page, with engaged time resuming if or when there is action again.
Mean (average) engaged time: An indicator of the overall time spent with a page, this is calculated by taking all visitors’ total engaged time, adding it together and then dividing by the number of visitors. Most analyses of engaged time use this metric.
Median engaged time: An indicator of the overall time spent with a page, this ranks all user activity with a page by engaged time and identifies the engaged time value that is the most typical or falls in the middle (the middle value).
Referral: The pathway a visitor takes to initially land upon a news article. In this study, there are five distinct types of referrals:
- Direct: A visitor accesses an article by directly typing the URL address into the browser; selecting a bookmarked URL; or clicking on a URL in an email, instant message or other non-web based link.
- Internal: A visitor accesses an article from an internal link, meaning a web page that has the same domain (i.e., a page that has the same base URL).
- Search: A visitor follows a link from a search engine such as Google or Bing.
- Social: A visitor follows a link from a social networking site such as Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, LinkedIn, Pinterest Reddit or others.
- External website: A visitor follows a link from other websites that do not fall under any of the previous categories.
Daypart: Each visitor’s activity was classified into one of five dayparts – or periods of the day –based on their local time zone, if identifiable to the zip code level by the user IP address. These dayparts are:
- Morning (4:00 a.m. – 9:59 a.m.)
- Midday (10:00 a.m. – 3:59 p.m.)
- Evening (4:00 p.m. – 7:59 p.m.)
- Nighttime (8:00 p.m. – 11:59 p.m.)
- Late night (12:00 a.m. – 3:59 a.m.)
Lifespan: This refers to the time between an article’s publication date and each visitor’s visits to an article. In this study, we looked at articles with visits in September 2015.
Articles: Online news stories published by a mix of 30 news organizations that are Parse.ly clients. The data include all articles of 101 words or more published between April 1 and Sept. 30, 2015, that met a minimum threshold of U.S.-based page views in the month of September 2015. For short-form articles, the minimum threshold was 100 views on any device and with at least one cellphone view; the respective number for long-form was 25 views. Stories 100 words or fewer were removed due to the high number of photos, headlines and slideshows, which introduced errors into the engaged time metric.
Video and audio news content could be included if it met the minimum word threshold of 101 words and the user somehow activated the screen through a touch or a scroll before the 5.5 second cutoff. It is likely, though, that in most cases a user would hit that 5.5 seconds of inactivity, therefore ending the session. Thus, most of the measures here tell us more about time reading than time spent watching or listening to news.
- Stories 100 words or fewer were removed due to the high number of photos, headlines and slideshows, which introduced errors into the engaged time metric. Total time includes all sessions to a particular article and all pages of that article over the course of the month. ↩
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Table of contents, key findings about the online news landscape in america, among u.s. latinos, the internet now rivals television as a source for news, americans’ online news use is closing in on tv news use, 10 facts about the changing digital news landscape, most popular.
About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .
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Importance of Newspaper Essay - 100, 200, 500 Words
The newspaper is the most trustworthy and authentic source of information because it only publishes breaking news after conducting thorough research. Early each morning, newspapers are delivered to our home. With a cup of tea in hand, we can read the news and learn what's happening in the world. Newspapers are cost-effective because they provide information at a very low price. They are widely accessible and available in a variety of printed languages. Newspapers, therefore, make it simpler for readers to read the news in their language.
100 Words Essay Importance of Newspaper
200 words essay importance of newspaper, 500 words essay importance of newspaper.
Newspapers play a crucial role in keeping people informed about current events, both locally and globally. They provide comprehensive coverage of news, politics, sports, entertainment, and other topics that are relevant to individuals and society. By reading newspapers, individuals can stay informed and educated about the world around them, and develop a better understanding of the issues that affect their communities and the wider world.
Additionally, newspapers serve as an important platform for voices and perspectives that might not be heard in other media. They also provide an outlet for investigative journalism, which holds those in power accountable and helps to expose wrongdoing. Furthermore, newspapers provide a means for advertisers to reach their target audience, which helps to support local businesses and the economy.
One of the best methods of gaining information is through newspapers. They touch on every sphere of human existence and provide us with the most recent data regarding global progress. They deal with people's social-political, intellectual, and cultural pursuits. They serve as a tool for commercial advertising. A unique section has been set aside for editorial criticism and public commentary. As a result, newspapers bear a significant deal of responsibility. They ought to portray all public affairs honestly.
We can learn about the games and events taking place in other countries through newspapers. We can learn about space technology via newspapers. Newspapers inform us about ways to improve our health through their various articles. We can apply for jobs through various adverts in them. They also provide us with government information and industry-issued bids. The newspaper is a very effective medium for disseminating information.
Newspapers are extremely effective tools. They have numerous adverts that grab clients' attention. To operate a newspaper, advertisements are necessary. Newspapers play a significant role in public opinion changes, which can make or break a government. They also include book reviews written by renowned academics of literary, historical, and other publications. Nearly all regional languages are used to print newspapers.
One of the first forms of information delivery from throughout the globe is the newspaper. It includes news, features, editorials, articles on a range of topical issues, and other material of interest to the general public. The words "NEWS" can also mean "North," "East," "West," and "South" . It implies that news sources from all around are covered by newspapers. Health, war, politics, the economy, the environment, agriculture, education, business, governmental policies, fashion, sports, and entertainment are all covered in the newspaper. It provides local, statewide, and global news.
It is one of the best ways for individuals to communicate with one another and the rest of the globe. They are also an excellent source of knowledge and information. Newspapers delivered early in the morning provide us with our daily news fix. It is a dependable source that only provides us with information after conducting a comprehensive investigation. Thus, it is clear that newspapers have several benefits that assist the average person in keeping up with current events.
Even the most isolated areas have easy access to newspapers. Additionally, they are highly inexpensive, providing a wealth of information at a fairly little cost. Most crucially, newspapers are printed in a variety of languages, making it simpler for individuals worldwide to get news in their tongue. However, newspapers typically play a significant role in promoting literacy.
India's Newspaper Industry History
The name of the first newspaper issued in India was Gazette Bengal. James Augustus Hicky, an Englishman, wrote it in 1780. Other newspapers including the Indian Gazette, Calcutta Gazette, Madras Gazette Courier, and Bombay Herald were published in the years that followed the launch of this one. Following the first Indian independence struggle in 1857, there were more newspapers published in more Indian languages than ever before. India's media landscape had not significantly expanded at the time of this liberation movement. However, the growth of newspapers continued after India attained independence.
The Value of Newspaper
Newspapers encourage people to remain interested in and aware of current events. It serves as the best connection between the country's government and its citizens. People may find every detail, no matter how minor, in newspapers. Newspapers are timeless because they have been able to gain the public's trust through their reliable reporting. In a larger sense, the newspaper contributes significantly to society's upbringing and maintenance of morale and harmony.
Additionally, it aids in our civic education. Newspapers inform us of any modifications to the laws and regulations of the nation. They are also incredibly educational for students. Here, a learner can learn everything there is to know about current events and general information. We keep up with new developments in technology, governmental regulations, academic research, and other things. Newspapers are fantastic informational resources that may be found at home. Everyone must make sure to incorporate reading newspapers into their daily routines. Online sources of information are widely available in today's digital world, however, it is unknown whether they are reliable or real. The publication makes sure to give us confirmed, factual information.
Explore Career Options (By Industry)
- Information Technology
Bio Medical Engineer
The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary.
Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.
The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction.
The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions.
How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.
GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.
A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.
The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.
Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.
If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi .
A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.
An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.
Bank Branch Manager
Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.
Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.
A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.
An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.
Bank Probationary Officer (PO)
A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam . This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO), what is probationary officer or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts.
A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.
Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.
Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood. Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.
An individual who opts for a career as a welder is a professional tradesman who is skilled in creating a fusion between two metal pieces to join it together with the use of a manual or fully automatic welding machine in their welder career path. It is joined by intense heat and gas released between the metal pieces through the welding machine to permanently fix it.
Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems.
A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability.
Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues.
Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials.
Orthotist and Prosthetist
Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.
A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.
A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.
Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth.
When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications.
Also Read: Career as Nurse
Ophthalmic Medical Technician
Ophthalmic technician careers are one of the booming careers option available in the field of healthcare. Being a part of this field as an ophthalmic medical technician can provide several career opportunities for an individual. With advancing technology the job of individuals who opt for a career as ophthalmic medical technicians have become of even more importance as he or she is required to assist the ophthalmologist in using different types of machinery. If you want to know more about the field and what are the several job opportunities, work environment, just about anything continues reading the article and all your questions shall be answered.
People might think that a radiation therapist only spends most of his/her time in a radiation operation unit but that’s not the case. In reality, a radiation therapist’s job is not as easy as it seems. The job of radiation therapist requires him/her to be attentive, hardworking, and dedicated to his/her work hours. A radiation therapist is on his/her feet for a long duration and might be required to lift or turn disabled patients. Because a career as a radiation therapist involves working with radiation and radioactive material, a radiation therapist is required to follow the safety procedures in order to make sure that he/she is not exposed to a potentially harmful amount of radiation.
A recreational worker is a professional who designs and leads activities to provide assistance to people to adopt a healthy lifestyle. He or she instructs physical exercises and games to have fun and improve fitness. A recreational worker may work in summer camps, fitness and recreational sports centres, nature parks, nursing care facilities, and other settings. He or she may lead crafts, sports, music, games, drama and other activities.
For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs.
Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.
Video Game Designer
Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.
The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.
If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.
Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.
A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.
A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications.
Visual Communication Designer
Individuals who want to opt for a career as a Visual Communication Designer will work in the graphic design and arts industry. Every sector in the modern age is using visuals to connect with people, clients, or customers. This career involves art and technology and candidates who want to pursue their career as visual communication designer has a great scope of career opportunity.
An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story.
They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.
In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook.
Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.
For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.
In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia , Asian College of Journalism , Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.
Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.
Public Relation Executive
Public relation officer qualifications should enable him or her to handle various activities like developing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating communications strategy in order to support the communication objectives and maximize positive exposure in local, national, and international markets. The day-to-day tasks in the career as a public relations officer can vary depending on the industry, active PR campaigns, PR team size, and other factors. However, the job of PR officer often includes, writing press releases to announce company-related news, creating fact sheets and media kits about the company to send to media teams for brand-building and several other activities. In the career a public relations officer, individuals are also responsible for tracking and measuring their PR efforts.
Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication) , B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media) , or MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.
Social Media Manager
A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.
Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers.
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Quality Assurance Manager Job Description: A QA Manager is an administrative professional responsible for overseeing the activity of the QA department and staff. It involves developing, implementing and maintaining a system that is qualified and reliable for testing to meet specifications of products of organisations as well as development processes.
From design to manufacture, garment technologists oversee every stage of clothing production. Individuals are actively engaged in determining the perfect fabric and ensuring that production remains inside the budget. Garment Technologists operate very closely with the designing team, pattern cutters and consumers.
Are you searching for a Reliability Engineer job description? A Reliability Engineer is responsible for ensuring long lasting and high quality products. He or she ensures that materials, manufacturing equipment, components and processes are error free. A Reliability Engineer role comes with the responsibility of minimising risks and effectiveness of processes and equipment.
A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.
Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.
A QA Lead is incharge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that they meet the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans.
Information Security Manager
Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack
Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.
ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks.
Big Data Analytics Engineer
Big Data Analytics Engineer Job Description: A Big Data Analytics Engineer is responsible for collecting data from various sources. He or she has to sort the organised and chaotic data to find out patterns. The role of Big Data Engineer involves converting messy information into useful data that is clean, accurate and actionable.
Career as Integration Architect is responsible for integrating various systems and technologies into the whole. He or she creates technical designs for complex systems as well as plans for security, scalability and back up procedures. Integration Architect oversees all stages of the software development process concerning from planning to deployment.
An Information Architect Is a professional who helps organizations collect, manage, and convert their data into usable information. He/she also provides this information to business analysts and data scientists for future predictions. The main objective of this role is to make data accessible to improve the performance of an organization.
Test Analyst Job Description: A Test Analyst is responsible for ensuring functionality of computer software and hardware equipment, or other products depending on the industry before setting them into the market. His or her role involves designing, developing and administering a series of tests and evaluating them. The role demands to identify potential issues with the product.
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Importance of Newspaper Essay for Students and Children
500+ Words Essay on Importance of Newspaper
Newspaper is quite a powerful tool that circulates information to people. It is one of the greatest means of communication between people and the world. In addition, they are also a great medium of knowledge . We get our daily dose of news from newspapers early in the morning. It is quite a reliable source which gives us information only after thoroughly investigating the information.
Newspapers are easily available in the most remote regions as well. They are also very economical which gives an abundance of information at really low cost. Most importantly, newspapers are published in various languages that make it easier for people of all regions to get news in their local language . Thus, we see how newspapers have numerous advantages that help the common man stay informed of the worldly issues.
Significance of Newspaper
The newspaper has created a positive impact on society. It helps people become aware of current affairs and stay curious about them. When the public will question, it means they are aware. This is exactly what a newspaper does. It is also the finest link you can find between the government and its people. Newspapers provide people with every detail no matter how small.
Furthermore, it helps us become informed citizens. Whenever there are any changes in the rules and regulations of the country, newspapers make us aware of them. Moreover, they are very informative for students. A student can learn all about general knowledge and current affairs from here. We stay updated with the technological advancements, government policies, research studies and more.
Other than that, newspapers also have incredible articles that tackle social issues, cultures, arts, and more. It conveys the public opinion to the people on important issues. This will, in turn, help people review the government and ministers well. Similarly, people get great employment opportunities from newspapers. Those seeking jobs look through newspapers to get reliable job opportunities.
In short, the newspaper carries a lot of significance for humans. If we read the newspaper daily, it can develop our reading habit and make us more fluent. It also has mind-brain exercise games like puzzles, Sudoku and more to sharpen people’s brains. Furthermore, you can also go through the comic strips and cartoons to keep yourself entertained.
Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas
A World Without Newspapers
As the world is advancing rapidly, everything is becoming digital. From our shopping to news, we can easily do it on our smartphones or computers . This digitization has also affected the newspaper scenario. As people are getting instant updates on their phones about the latest news, the sales of newspapers have gone down massively.
Does this mean the digital era will wipe out the newspapers? Looking at the present scenario, this possibility might soon become a reality. However, are we ready to have a world without newspapers? A world without newspapers is like having a home without mirrors. This means we won’t be able to see our own reflection.
Now, compare this situation to that of the world and newspaper. Imagine the world has lost its national mirror, resulting in you not being able to get an honest reflection of what is happening around. What’s even worse is the fact that instead of the national mirror we are getting a fun-house mirror which is distorting the information and making you see what’s not real.
In short, the world will become a free rein for politicians to propagate their advertising and agendas to the public. The information won’t be reliable and won’t even be scrutinized. We won’t have any journalists to decipher the PR spin of the governments and corporate firms robbing the common man of their money.
FAQs on Newspaper
Q.1 What is the significance of the newspaper?
A.1 Newspapers are very important in giving us information about the world. They make us aware and increase our knowledge about current affairs. They also give us job opportunities.
Q.2 Why are newspaper sales declining?
A.2 As the world is becoming more digital, people are getting news on their phones and computers instantly. Thus, they are opting for digital news over newspapers.
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How to Write a Newspaper Article
Last Updated: March 16, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by Gerald Posner . Gerald Posner is an Author & Journalist based in Miami, Florida. With over 35 years of experience, he specializes in investigative journalism, nonfiction books, and editorials. He holds a law degree from UC College of the Law, San Francisco, and a BA in Political Science from the University of California-Berkeley. He’s the author of thirteen books, including several New York Times bestsellers, the winner of the Florida Book Award for General Nonfiction, and has been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in History. He was also shortlisted for the Best Business Book of 2020 by the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing. There are 11 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 323,623 times.
A newspaper article should provide an objective, factual account of an event, person, or place. Most newspaper articles are read quickly or skimmed by the reader, so the most important information should always appear first, followed by descriptive content that rounds out the story. By conducting research and following the correct organizational structure, you can create an informative newspaper article in no time.
Conducting Interviews and Research
- Your sources should be experts in the field your article is focusing on, such as a certified professional, a professor, or an academic. You can use sources that have extensive experience or background in a field that relates to your article.
- Sources like a witness to an event can also be useful, especially if they have first-hand experience of the topic you are covering.
- You may need to conduct more than 1 interview with your sources, especially if they are a major source for the article. You can also send follow-up questions to your sources as needed.
- You will need to transcribe your interviews by typing them up to ensure you quote your sources correctly. Having transcriptions will also make fact checking your article and backing up your sources much easier.
- Make sure you cite the information properly in your article by noting the name or organization that provided the information. You should have credible sources to back up any claims or arguments made in the article.
- If you are writing the newspaper article for an editor, they may require you to provide a list of your sources for the article to show you have fact checked your work.
Structuring the Article
- For example, you may create a headline like, “Teen Girl Missing in Okotoks” or “Congress Stalls on Family Planning Bill.”
- In some cases, it may be easier to save the headline for last, after you have written the article, so you know what the focus of the article is and can sum it up clearly.
- For example, you may write a lead like, "An outbreak of flu in San Francisco has led to 3 elementary school closings this week, according to school officials." Or, "A missing girl originally from Okotoks was found Monday in an abandoned cabin in the Minnetonka area, according to local police."
- For example, you may write, “10-12 students have been diagnosed with the flu and health officials fear it could continue to spread if it is not contained.”
- For example, you may write, “The teen girl was reported missing on Friday afternoon by her mother after she did not come home from a study date at a friend’s house. She is the second girl to be reported missing in the past 2 weeks from the Okotoks area.”
- For example, you may write, “‘The girl is shaken, but does not appear to have any serious injuries,’ stated local Police Chief Wilborn.” Or you may write, “According to a statement by school officials, ‘The shutdown will prevent the flu from spreading further and ensure the safety of our students.’”
- Avoid using long quotes or more than 4 quotes in the article, as the reader may get confused or lost if there are too many quotations.
- For example, you may write, “The girl’s mother expressed relief for her daughter and concern about her community, noting, ‘I just hope no other girls go missing in this area.’”
- Or you may write, “Local health officials are urging parents to check the municipal health and wellness website, www.hw.org, for updates on when schools are able to reopen.”
Creating the Appropriate Voice and Tone
- For example, rather than write, “The missing girl’s mother thought it had to do with school,” you may write, “The missing girl’s mother thought bullying at school may have caused her daughter’s absences.”
- For example, rather than write, “A press conference will be held by local police tomorrow to address the missing girls and the public’s concerns,” you may write, “Local police will address the missing girls and the public’s concerns in a press conference tomorrow.”
- For example, if you're writing about two political candidates running against each other in an election, present both candidates in an equal light, rather than giving extra details about 1 candidate.
- If you're writing an op-ed piece, it's okay to mix some of your opinions with the facts.
Polishing the Article
- Reading the article aloud can also help you catch any spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors.
- For example, you may ask others questions like, “Were you able to understand what happened, based on the information in the article?” “Was the language clear and easy to follow?” “Was the article well supported with sources and quotes?”
- If you are writing the newspaper article for a class, make sure it falls within the prescribed word limit for the assignment.
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Thanks for reading our article! If you'd like to learn more about writing as a career, check out our in-depth interview with Gerald Posner .
- ↑ https://guides.lib.vt.edu/researchmethods/interviews
- ↑ https://www.csus.edu/indiv/o/obriene/art116/readings/guide%20for%20conducting%20interviews.pdf
- ↑ https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2013/01/22/part-4-what-people-want-from-their-libraries/
- ↑ https://settlement.org/ontario/daily-life/communication/ethnic-and-cultural-media/what-is-fake-news-and-how-to-stop-spreading-misinformation/
- ↑ https://www.viasport.ca/communications-toolkit/module-4-how-write-engaging-sports-article
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/journalism_and_journalistic_writing/writing_leads.html
- ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/735/05/
- ↑ https://www.lib.sfu.ca/about/branches-depts/slc/writing/sources/quoting
- ↑ https://lib.trinity.edu/in-text-citation-and-notes//
- ↑ https://www.csus.edu/campus-safety/police-department/_internal/_documents/rwm.pdf
- ↑ https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf
About This Article
To write a newspaper article, gather all of your sources and verify any facts or sources you plan to use. Write an opening sentence that tells the readers the most essential details of the story. Write in third person, active voice, and maintain an authoritative tone throughout the article. Keep in mind the questions “Who,” “What,” “Where,” “When,” “Why,” and “How” when you’re writing your story, and try to answer as many of them as you can. When you’re finished writing the article, craft a short, engaging headline that tells readers what the article is about. To learn how reading your article out loud can help you proofread it, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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Essay on Newspaper for Students and Children in 1100 Words
Here you will read an Essay on Newspaper for Students and Children in 1100 Words. This essay includes introduction, importance, advantages, disadvantages, 10 lines on newspapers.
Table of Contents
Introduction (Essay on Newspaper)
Newspaper is one of the important documents in the life for a common man. Through it, a person gets all the information from around the world by sitting in the comfort of their homes. Reading newspaper updates a person with whatever fresh things are happening not only in the person’s living vicinity but also around the world.
The recent information received through the newspaper broadens the perspective of a person based on a variety of topics. But with the growing in digitalization , reading newspaper habit is slowly dying as all the information is available in the palm of your hand. The current generation does not read newspaper, and so this habit is only being maintained by the older generation .
Importance of Newspapers
A newspaper is a part of the printing media, which provides both national and international news. Information that is brought from north, east, west, and south is known as news. For some people who have a routine of reading a newspaper, if they don’t read newspaper, their day doesn’t start.
With the digitalization, though, the popularity of the newspaper has diminished, but the effectiveness still persists. The key goal of the newspaper is to keep its readers updated with the latest development that is taking place around the world. After investigating, it provides important details, which molds and guides public opinion.
Every information that is provided in newspaper is of vital importance. It makes us aware of what is happening in the region or the country we live in. It is one of the important prerequisites for democracy, and democracy works on its basis. The press is believed as the fourth estate of democracy and its social and economic awareness among the people.
Reading a newspaper is a good habit, and it also renders a glorious sense of educational values. It provides information over vast arrays of topics like politics , entertainment, economy, sports, business, stock market, etc. Having this habit not only enhances the general knowledge of a person, rather it also improves the vocabulary and language skills.
One of the major importances of newspaper is that it provides the news of the world. It provides a clear understanding of what is happening in your own country and around the world. It also provides you with the general information so that you can easily take part in discussion with other people regarding the current events. You will be able to relate to the discussion rather than being blank during the conversation.
There is something for everyone who reads a newspaper; there are columns for health, crossword puzzle, comic and astrological facts. A newspaper also contains vacancies and matrimonial columns and also contains advertisements, which is one of the major sources of income for maintaining the newspaper.
Brands and products can be easily promoted through newspapers with advertisements. There is no control over ad placement in the newspaper, and the premium placement can be done on any of the pages. Illiterate people cannot understand the report and advertisements.
Though there are many benefits of reading newspapers, it is a dying habit since people are getting instant updates in their mobile devices on a minute wise minute basis. As the days are passing by, we see everything becoming more convenient and instant.
With innovative technologies and new electronic gadgets, which are more convenient, it renders instant news with the help of the internet . Here, people do not have to wait till the next day to learn about the current affairs. As a result, people have avoided the newspapers, and the habit of reading is slowly dying.
Also, visual media has penetrated so much that people have stopped people from reading the newspaper and books. People would prefer watching a five-minute clip rather than reading a five-minute article. This shows how our generation is becoming inactive and lazy as everything needs to serve on a platter.
There are many benefits and drawbacks of newspaper which are listed below for your reference.
Advantages of Newspaper
- Reading a newspaper is one of the most beneficial habits, and it provides in-depth coverage of the topic.
- Reading newspapers helps people to get acquainted with the current affairs of the world, and through reliable sources, people get to know about the latest happenings.
- Reading newspapers improves the vocabulary and language skills of a person. A person learns new words and improves the grammar of the individual.
- Reading Newspapers gives deep insight on various topics from politics to entertainment, which allows people to gain knowledge on various topics.
- A newspaper is one of the cheapest modes of obtaining information through print media.
Disadvantages of Newspaper
- Though the newspaper gives the latest information, it is short-lived information and is only read once.
- Due to the limitation of printing technology, there is a limitation in creativity and the quality of the newspaper.
- There is no audio/visual element that will attract people.
- A newspaper doesn’t provide second by second reports like visual media does.
- The advertisement published in the newspaper has to compete with other advertisements.
Summary in 10 lines on Newspaper
- Newspaper is a format of print media having several papers containing the information and analysis.
- Common people get a range of information on topics from politics to entertainment through a newspaper.
- Newspaper keeps us informed about what is going in the nation and around the world.
- A section called classified is available in the newspaper through which job, products, house etc. advertisement are posted.
- In the newspaper there is a section known as editorial through which noted person provides opinions on certain topics.
- Awareness regarding the national interest is passed through newspapers.
- Newspaper also provides a guide to government regarding the policies and people’s views.
- Sometime powerful people pressurize media house to write favorable news regarding them and criticize others.
- Large population of India is illiterate and cannot read newspaper and so dependent on others.
- Sometimes fraud people give advertisements in the newspapers to dupe innocent people for making money.
A newspaper is the best way to spread awareness among people about social and economic issues. Newspaper is one of the finest ways to engage with people and government.
It can have both positive and negative influences on people and society. Everyone is interested in knowing the current events occurring near and far, giving the details of all small and big events.
Newspapers are especially important for students to keep them updated with the latest trends occurring around the world. It also gives the knowledge of the new technology , the latest developments, about nature, etc.
Though slowly, the hardbound newspaper is losing its charm, it is making inroads with the help of technologies and is known as e-newspapers, which are available in the mobile devices .
In the end, we can only expect that the habit of a reading newspaper does not die, so that people read the news article and are aware of the actual news rather than one- line news circulated through social media . I hope you liked this informative essay on newspaper for students.
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Videos in Levels
LEARN 3000 WORDS with NEWS IN LEVELS
News in Levels is designed to teach you 3000 words in English. Please follow the instructions below.
How to improve your English with News in Levels:
- Do the test at Test Languages .
- Go to your level. Go to Level 1 if you know 1-1000 words. Go to Level 2 if you know 1000-2000 words. Go to Level 3 if you know 2000-3000 words.
- Read two news articles every day.
- Read the news articles from the day before and check if you remember all new words.
- Listen to the news from today and read the text at the same time.
- Listen to the news from today without reading the text.
- Answer the question under today’s news and write the answer in the comments.
- Choose one person from the Skype section .
- Talk with this person. You can answer questions from Speak in Levels .
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How to Write 1000 Word Articles Fast
I write my best articles at odd times and I almost always get the ideas for my best articles in odder situations.
For example, when I travel to the west coast I try and get up on east coast time. That meant Saturday morning I woke up at 4am (even though I fell sleep at 11pm). But 4am is still 7am back home, so that was like sleeping in for me.
Over the next 3 hours I finished three EarlytoRise.com newsletters (averaging 1500 words each), plus an email for my affiliates, Tuesday’s Internet Independence email, and this email. My morning time is my magic time for writing, and if you want to write fast, you have to identify this in your life .
That said, if want to be a content creator, you need to learn how to create content in any environment, at any time.
On Saturday morning I could have used the excuse that “I was in a hotel and I can’t get any work done there.”
Or I could suck it up, get prepared on Friday night so I was ready to write on Saturday morning, and get it done.
So that’s what I did.
But as I mentioned, I often get my ideas in strange places.
Most often, the ideas strike me while :
1) Lifting weights (especially if I’ve had a lot of caffeine before the workout) 2) While walking the dog 3) While in the shower
The common characteristic among those three locations is obvious. It’s simply by not being at your desk sitting in front of your computer that you’ll come up with your most creative ideas. It’s research proven.
So the next time you exercise or take a shower, be sure to have a pen or recorder handy to write down your ideas – because if you don’t, they’ll disappear – and that can be really frustrating.
Now if writing doesn’t come easy to you, here are the instructions I shared with a friend of mine who needed help writing 1000 word articles on a single topic.
Step 1) First, brainstorm your idea.
Step 2) Take your bullet point list and just choose one thing to write about.
Step 3) Start creating an outline…because there’s nothing more difficult when it comes to writing then trying to create content from a blank screen. Simply writing in the outline will make your task much easier.
Step 4) Open your article with a story about the main point…but don’t reveal the moral of the story.
The story alone could take up to 1/5th of the article.
Step 4) Explain the problem you (or the ‘main character’) experienced in the story and how this connects with the reader. Is it an analogy? Or is it obvious? Don’t assume the reader understands the connection…make it clear.
Step 5) Offer the solution to the problem experienced in the story…and how the solution will help the reader.
Step 6) Give instructions on solving the problem, if necessary.
Step 7) Sum it up. Again, don’t assume that all the connections are made.
That’s how to create content fast…
…the biggest thing is to just take a deep breath, and remember, this is your mission and your passion. So let the stories flow. Find your best time to write, the best environment to stimulate ideas, and go for it.
But WAIT, there’s more.
There might be an even better idea…
And I’ll bring that to you later this week.
Until then, create some content.
Take 3 hours and plan out your next 3 months. It might be hard, but also liberating, and each time you do it you will get better at it.
Essay Writing Guide
1000 Word Essay
1000 Word Essay - A Simple Guide With Examples
11 min read
Published on: Mar 4, 2020
Last updated on: Oct 18, 2023
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A 1000-word essay is a common assignment for all students, regardless of their subjects and academic level.
Although it sounds simple, it can become daunting when you don’t know where to start and how to write it.
So, how do you write a 1000-word essay?
Continue reading this blog and get to learn everything you need to know about the 1000-word essay.
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What is a 1000 Word Essay?
A 1000 word essay is an essay that covers any topic or theme within a 1000-word limit. It typically covers about 3-4 pages.
The main purpose of this essay is to:
- Present a concise and coherent argument in response to a stimulus or question.
- Express the opinion of the writer.
- Improve the writer’s writing, thinking, and critical skills
Moreover, a 1000 word essay is not an essay type. It is a format that can be used for writing any type of essay, including:
- Descriptive essay
- Narrative essay
- Persuasive Essay
- Argumentative Essay
- Problem and Solution Essay
1000 Word Essay Structure
A 1000 word essay consists of an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion, just like all other essays. However, the only difference is the word count distribution across the essay.
When writing a 1000-word essay, the introduction should be about 100-150 words, the main body should be about 700 words, and the conclusion should be about 100-150 words.
Here is the essay structure to help you divide your word count appropriately across the 1000 words.
How to Write a 1000 Word Essay?
Now that you know how this essay is structured, let’s move on to how to write it. Here are some steps that you can follow to compose an excellent essay.
- Choose an Engaging Topic
Choosing an interesting essay topic is necessary to keep the readers engaged. For t essay, make sure you choose a topic that you can cover within your word count.
- Start the Research
Doing research is one of the most important parts of writing an essay. It ensures that you have all the information to create a strong composition. You should always make sure your sources are credible so no misleading info gets into your work.
- Develop the Outline
An outline is the main element of essay writing that can save time, make things easier, and earn a better grade. It will also help your essays be logically structured and easy for others to read. Without a proper essay outline , you might forget the main points you should add to your essay.
- Create a Compelling Introduction
An essay introduction is one of the most important components of a paper or essay. This part should be 100-150 words.
Start an essay with a catchy hook and then provide background information about your topic. Finally, end the introduction with a strong thesis statement , indicating its main argument.
- Write Effective Body Paragraphs
The body section should be 600-800 words long, and each section must be 200-300.
Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence that indicates the main point. Afterward, present your arguments and support them with evidence. Also, conclude each paragraph with a transition to maintain a logical flow.
- Write a Strong Conclusion
The conclusion is the final part of your essay, where you offer some final thoughts and tie together the key points. An essay conclusion recaps all the main points and restates the thesis statement in an authoritative way.
- Proofread and Revise the Draft
Once you finish writing your first draft, proofread it for any mistakes and potential improvements. Edit, revise, and polish your essay until it becomes the best version of itself.
How to Format a 1000 Word Essay
Formatting an essay involves setting the layout of the essay to make it easy to read and understand. Different formatting styles, such as the APA, MLA, Chicago, and others, prescribe different rules.
However, some aspects of formatting are common across different styles. Here is how you can format your 1000-word essay properly:
- Font Style: Times New Roman, Arial or Calibri
- Font Size: 12-points
- Margins: 1 inch (2.54 cm) on all sides
- Line-Spacing: Double-spaced
- Headings: Headings and subheadings should be distinguished from the normal font
Other specifics, such as the page number, title page, references, etc., depend on the instructions of your professor. So always make sure to ask your instructor for complete formatting guidelines.
Learn more about writing formats with our comprehensive essay format guide.
1000 Word Essay Examples
Reading some 1000 word essay samples is an effective way to understand how these essays work. Here are some 1000 word essay example PDFs to give you a taste of what a 1000 words essay looks like.
1000 Word Essay on Human Rights
1000 Word Essay on Discipline
1000 Word Essay on Time Management
1000 Word Essay on Punctuality
1000 Word Essay on Leadership
1000 Word Essay On Why I Want To Be A Nurse
1000 Word Essay on Respect
1000 Word Essay on Global Warming
1000 Word Essay on Accountability
1000 Word Essay Topic Examples
Finding an interesting topic for your reader can be difficult, but it's worth the time. Here are some essay topic ideas that you can use for your essay.
- Americans should have more holidays and longer vacations.
- Should Students get limited access to the Internet?
- Why is learning history important?
- Cell phones should not be allowed in schools.
- What is the best role for news reporters in the digital era?
- What are the causes and effects of terrorism?
- Does climate change occur due to human activity?
- What is the effect of family vacations on family relationships?
- How is social media changing parent and child relationships?
- Is summer school designed to help children?
What Topics Are Suitable For 1000-Word Essays?
If you haven't been assigned a topic, you will have to choose one yourself. To come up with a good topic, follow these tips:
- Ask yourself: what is the type of your essay? Is it informative, argumentative, persuasive, or exploratory? It will help you think of relevant topics.
- Brainstorm. Come up with a list of potential essay topics that you can cover in 1000 words.
- Narrow down this list down to a topic that you can easily discuss. Make sure you have enough information to write about that topic.
How Long is a 1000 Word Essay?
The number of pages in a 1000 word essay differs based on formatting, such as line spacing and font size.
A 1000-word essay can take up to anywhere between 3-4 pages when using standard academic formatting (12-pt font size & Double-spaced).
How Many Paragraphs Will a 1000-Word Essay Be?
A 1000 word essay usually contains 5 paragraphs. It includes one paragraph introduction, three body paragraphs, and one conclusion paragraph.
However, there could be 4 to 6 paragraphs based on your essay’s topic and structure.
How Many References for a 1000 Word Essay?
The number of references for a 1000 word essay depends on how many sources you use in your essay. However, 12 references are enough for a 1000 word essay.
You can also consult your professor and add references to your essay because all professors have different requirements.
How Long Does It Take to Write 1000 Words?
On average, a 1000 word essay can take up to 3 hours to write. However, the time it takes to write this essay depends on your knowledge of the topic and your writing speed.
Watch this video to see a step-by-step live example of how to write a 1000 word essay in minutes.
How Long Will It Take Me to Write 150 Words?
To write 150 words, it will take you approximately 30 minutes.
How Long Will It Take Me to Write 300 Words?
Writing 300 words will take approximately 1 hour.
How Long Will It Take Me to Write 400 Words?
To write 400 words, it will take you approximately 1 hour 20 minutes.
How Long Will It Take Me to Write 500 Words?
To write 500 words, it will take you approximately 1 hour and 40 minutes.
How Long Will It Take Me to Write 600 Words?
To write 600 words, it will take you approximately 2 hours.
How Long Will It Take Me to Write 800 Words?
To write 800 words, it will take you approximately 2 hours and 40 minutes.
How Long Will It Take Me to Write 1000 Words?
To write 1000 words, it will take you approximately 3 hours and 20 minutes.
Go through this teacher’s rubric to gather relevant essay content for a 1000 word essay.
How to Write Different Types of 1000 Word Essays?
There are many different types of essays that you can write in 1000 words. Some of them are briefly discussed below;
Descriptive Essay: This essay is about giving a clear and vivid description. You might use an essay to describe a place, person, object, or memory that is special to you.
Narrative Essay: In a narrative essay, you write about a personal experience in the form of a narrative. That is, you need to tell a story in 100 words.
Persuasive Essay: This paper presents facts and arguments to convince the reader to agree with the writer. Use logic and evidence to support your argument.
Expository Essay: These essays offer an informative and balanced analysis of a topic. This means that you need to define or explain the topic in detail.
Tips for Writing a 1000-Word Essay
Below given are some tips that our professional writers recommend.
- Select the right essay topic.
- Follow the correct essay format.
- Use Times New Roman font, Calibri font, and Arial font.
- Use 250 words in each body paragraph.
- Write a brief conclusion and never extend it to 500 words.
- Keep the page count and number of words in mind.
- Follow the specific pattern so you don’t spend hours writing.
To sum up, that was everything you needed to know to get started on your 1000-word essay. Read some examples, choose an interesting topic, and follow the writing steps provided above, and you’ll be able to craft an excellent essay in no time.
Still require more help? No worries! If you need writing assistance from professional experts, you’re in luck! MyPerfectWords.com offers top-notch writing services online with quick turnaround and affordable prices!
So contact us today to get expert essay help.
Nova A. (Literature, Marketing)
Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.
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Importance of Newspaper Essay
The importance of newspapers is an underestimated factor. Understand its significance by reading the importance of newspaper essay, available at BYJU’S. Newspapers are a staple of society. They cover the headlines and events globally, including local news and articles. When it comes to learning more about the different happenings worldwide, newspapers have been an essential means of communication in many cultures for centuries.
Newspapers have long been an essential source of information and news, ever since the first newspaper was published in 1605. Newspapers are a way to stay up to date with the world through written words and entertain people by offering insight into things they might not hear about elsewhere.
News is also essential for society because it often helps people understand their world better, helps them prepare for what might happen and offers solutions when something goes wrong. The importance of reading newspaper essay is a great way to keep kids engaged and learn the significance of newspapers in this digital age.
Newspapers are not just a part of our lives; they are important in our culture. People might read newspapers to keep up with the latest news and current happenings, but they also cover many specific topics. Practising writing an essay on the importance of newspaper in our daily life plays a vital role in the kids learning phase.
Significance of Newspaper
The importance of newspaper essay describes the significance of reading news every day. Newspapers cover all aspects of society, from sports to business and science and technology to history. There is also a lot more than just news in the newspaper. It has articles about other informative pieces that make readers aware of the things they didn’t know before.
Newspapers play a critical role in our society. It is one of the essential factors for shaping public opinion and disseminating information. Without newspapers, it would be nearly impossible to know what is going on in the world.
Newspapers have been around for over 400 years, and they have changed the world. If it weren’t for newspapers, people wouldn’t know what was happening in other parts of the world. Furthermore, they provide an outlet for people to let their voices be heard and read about many different topics.
Frequently Asked Questions
Why is it important to read newspapers.
It is important to read newspapers because it covers all aspects of society, such as sports, business and science and technology, history, etc. The articles in newspapers also help people learn things they didn’t know before.
How do newspapers play an important role?
Newspapers play an important role by helping us to learn about the happenings worldwide. They have been an essential means of communication in many cultures for centuries.
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Original research article, lexical profile of newspapers revisited: a corpus-based analysis.
- School of Foreign Languages, University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City (UEH), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
The present study analyzed the vocabulary profile of the News on the Web (NOW) corpus, which contained 12 billion words from online newspapers and magazines in 20 countries to determine the vocabulary knowledge needed to reasonably understand online newspaper and magazine articles. The results showed that, in general, knowledge of the most frequent 4,000 word families in the British National Corpus/Corpus of Contemporary American English (BNC/COCA) wordlist plus proper nouns, marginal words, transparent compounds and acronyms was necessary to gain 95% coverage for the NOW corpus. However, when it came to the 98% coverage, online newspaper and magazine articles from different countries had relatively distinct lexical demands. In-depth analyses were carried out and the findings offered comprehensive insights into the issue. Implications for teaching and learning were also provided.
Newspapers have been a crucial of part people’s lives, with 52–85% of the people in different countries reading news more than once a day ( Cabrera, 2020 ). Together with the development of technology, most aspects of our lives have been digitized, and the way we receive our daily news is certainly no exception. Researches have shown that people are giving up traditional, paper-based news and giving their favor to its digital, online counterparts ( Cabrera, 2020 ; Pew Research Center, 2021a , b ). In a recent research conducted on American news habit by Shearer (2021) , 86% of United States adults got their news from a digital device (e.g., smartphone, computer, or tablet). These figures were significantly higher than television (68%), radio (50%) and print publications (32%) ( Shearer, 2021 ). The main reason for this shift could be due to convenience. Compared to print newspapers or magazines, online publications are more easily accessible, could be read from anywhere and are supported by state-of-the-art technology which offers better reading experience. On top of that, most, if not all, online newspapers are eco- and reader-friendly, that is, they are free to read and do not harm any tree.
Due to the popularity of online newspapers, the ability to read and comprehend this type of publication has been viewed as a critical goal for second language learning, and the use of newspapers has always been emphasized in language teaching ( Nation, 2013 ; Nation and Macalister, 2021 ). In fact, many language proficiency tests, like IELTS, have long incorporated newspaper and magazine articles in their reading component ( Moore et al., 2011 , 2015 ). As a result, it is crucial for English teachers and learners to be informed of the amount of vocabulary necessary to comprehend an online newspaper article, such a knowledge would strongly inform various decisions in goal setting, lesson planning and course book design. The aim of this manuscript is to offer an answer to such question, that is, to determine the number of words required to understand online newspaper or magazine articles.
Vocabulary demand and comprehension.
Vocabulary is the most important aspect in language and plays a fundamental role in most if not all language abilities or skills ( Laufer and Ravenhorst-Kalovski, 2010 ; Schmitt et al., 2011 ; van Zeeland and Schmitt, 2013 ; Cheng and Matthews, 2018 ; Lange and Matthews, 2020 ; Qian and Lin, 2020 ; Ha, 2021b ). In fact, the lexical resource of learners has been proven to be of even greater importance to their comprehension compared to the knowledge of grammatical structures and subject matters ( Lewis, 2002 ; Barcroft, 2007 ; Guo and Roehrig, 2011 ; Zhang, 2012 ; Zhang and Koda, 2013 ). As Wilkins (1972) pressed, “[…] while without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed” (pp. 111, 112).
The term “lexical demand” is now quite familiar in the field of applied linguistics and vocabulary these days. The idea behind the terminology is that a reader need to know a certain proportion of words in a text in order to reasonably comprehend it ( Nation, 2013 ; Webb and Nation, 2013 ). In general, it has been widely accepted that readers or listeners of different text genres need to be familiar with at least 95% and preferably 98% of the running words in a text to gain adequate comprehension ( Laufer and Ravenhorst-Kalovski, 2010 ; Schmitt et al., 2011 ; Laufer, 2013 ; van Zeeland and Schmitt, 2013 ). Despite a small gap of only 3% coverage, the difference between the two thresholds could be far more significant than some people may think. Simply speaking, with a 95% coverage, readers would encounter an unfamiliar word in every twenty words, but that ratio would be down to 1/50 if they were to know 98% of what they were reading ( Hu and Nation, 2000 ). In other words, the 98% coverage would reduce more than half of the unknown words in the text which would be encountered if readers only had 95% coverage. In support of that claim, studies on the lexical demands of various text genres pointed out that learners who have vocabulary knowledge at the 95% threshold would have to double or even triple their lexical resources if they wished to gain 98% coverage of the same text genres ( Nation, 2006 ; Coxhead and Walls, 2012 ; Webb and Macalister, 2013 ; Dang and Webb, 2014 ; Nurmukhamedov, 2017 ; Tegge, 2017 ). Hu and Nation (2000) also stated that 98% was the desirable threshold for adequate comprehension while 95% was only the acceptable threshold for minimal comprehension in which some may gain adequate comprehension but most may not.
Research have also shown a close relationship between lexical coverage and language teaching, especially when selecting materials for reading-related activities. According to Nation’s (2007) principles of the four strands, for language-focused or form-focused instructions, it is suggested that learners should know no less than 85% of the words in their reading texts ( Schmitt et al., 2011 ; Stoeckel et al., 2020 ). If the purpose involved supported reading comprehension, a 95% coverage would be demanded ( Laufer, 1989 ; Schmitt et al., 2011 ). For meaning-focused or extensive reading, learners would be required to be familiar with 98% of the tokens in their reading materials ( Nation, 2007 ; Webb and Nation, 2017 ). And for fluency development, a coverage threshold of 100% would be necessary ( Nation, 2007 ).
One of the reasons why findings of lexical profiling researches are of so much interest to linguists is because they are based on word-frequency lists. These lists classify English words into several 1,000-word levels according to how frequent they appear in authentic texts, which offers teachers and learners of English a clear and fast route to their learning goal ( Nation, 2013 ). The British National Corpus (BNC) lists that contain fourteen 1,000-word levels ( Nation, 2006 ) and the British National Corpus/Corpus of Contemporary American English (BNC/COCA) lists ( Nation, 2017 ) that consist of twenty-five 1,000-word levels are typical examples of these wordlists.
Most of these wordlists were built on a word counting unit called “word family” which refers to a headword and all of its inflectional and derivational forms through a level 6 affix criteria (also known as WF6) ( Bauer and Nation, 1993 ; Nation, 2020 ). The rationale for using WF6 was based on the assumption of learning burden, that was, when a learner knew a family member, he or she could understand or recognize the rest of the family with little or zero effort ( Nation, 2013 ; Laufer and Cobb, 2020 ; Laufer, 2021 ; Laufer et al., 2021 ). It is worth noting that the WF6 have served as a basis for most aspects of vocabulary researches including assessment ( McLean and Kramer, 2015 ; McLean et al., 2015 ; Webb et al., 2017 ; Ha, 2021a ) and other psycholinguistic areas ( Laufer and Ravenhorst-Kalovski, 2010 ; Lange and Matthews, 2020 ; Qian and Lin, 2020 ; Ha, 2021b ).
Lexical Demands of Written and Spoken Texts
Over decades, researchers in the field of vocabulary studies have documented a sound lexical profile of various spoken text genres. For example, Webb and Rodgers (2009a , b) told us that learners would need to know the most frequent 3,000 and 7,000 word families in the BNC list to understand 95 and 98% of the words in movies and TV programs, respectively. These figures aligned really well with what we would need to comprehend daily conversations ( Nation, 2006 ). It seemed that the language people used when they were in the stage did not differ much from what they used in their everyday talking. Songs, Soap opera, sitcom and podcast were relatively less demanding as they only required approximately 2,000–3,000 word families for 95% coverage, and 5,000–7,000 for 98% coverage ( Al-Surmi, 2014 ; Tegge, 2017 ; Nurmukhamedov and Sharakhimov, 2021 ). When we decided to take things a little bit more serious and look at spoken discourses in academic contexts, some scholars would be happy to give us the answers. For instance, to understand 95 and 98% of the words in academic lectures and seminars, audience would need to have a lexical resource equivalent to 4,000 and 8,000 word families in the BNC word list, correspondingly ( Dang and Webb, 2014 ). It was interesting to see that TED talks would share the same lexical demands ( Coxhead and Walls, 2012 ; Nurmukhamedov, 2017 ).
Compared to spoken discourses, the lexical profile of written texts received relatively less attention. In Hsu (2011) pointed out that 5,000 and 8,000 most frequent word families in Nation’s (2006) BNC word list would account for 95 and 98% of the words in business textbooks and business research articles. Seven years later, Hsu (2018) examined the lexical coverage of English-written Chinese medicine textbooks and found that 10,000 most frequent word families in Nation’s (2017) BNC/COCA word list would provide 98% coverage for the corpus. In 2013, Webb and Macalister examined the difference in lexical demands between written literatures for native English speakers and learners of English as a second language. Their results showed that, at 95% coverage threshold, only 3,000 and 2,000 most frequent word families in the BNC list was required for L1 and L2 literature, correspondingly, signaling a small difference of only 1,000 word families. However, at the 98% threshold, while L2 literature only required a vocabulary knowledge at the 3,000 level, written texts for L1 learners needed the lexical knowledge at 10,000 level, which was more than triple. In attempts to provide updates on the vocabulary profile of textbooks for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners, researchers have found that the knowledge of 3,000–4,000 most frequent word families in Nation’s (2017) BNC/COCA was sufficient to provide 95% coverage, and for learners to understand 98% of the words in those books, a word knowledge at 5,000–6,000 levels were required ( Yang and Coxhead, 2020 ; Rahmat and Coxhead, 2021 ).
The most influential manuscript that investigated the lexical demand of written English was undoubtedly Nation’s (2006) study. In his study, Nation (2006) found that learners would need about 4,000 most frequent word families in the BNC list plus proper nouns to reach 95% coverage in newspapers and novels, and approximately 8,000–9,000 word families plus proper nouns to gain 98% coverage. Despite the impact given by his study, those figures demand to be revisited for two reasons. First, this research was carried out approximately 15 years ago using a relatively small corpus (only 440,000 words), and therefore, those findings “now need to be checked with larger, more comprehensive corpora” ( Schmitt et al., 2017 , p. 217). The second reason lies with the methodology Nation (2006) used for indicating vocabulary size. In his study, Nation (2006) utilized the BNC wordlist based entirely on British English which “may be due for updating and revision” ( Schmitt et al., 2017 , p. 218). Fortunately, Nation made significant effort in improving his wordlists which eventually resulted in the introduction of BNC/COCA in 2012, which was updated in 2017 ( Nation, 2017 ). The BNC/COCA is a very powerful wordlist that covers both British and American Englishes and are proven to outperform other wordlists ( Dang and Webb, 2016 ; Dang et al., 2020 ). As Schmitt et al. (2017) wrote, “Assuming the new combined BNC-COCA lists are a better indication of word frequency, then everything that has been done using the original BNC-based lists is ripe for replication using these new lists” (p. 218).
The Present Study
The present study sets out to revisit Nation’s (2006) figures following the two major suggestions put forward by Schmitt et al. (2017) : increasing sample size and employing up-to-date research methodology.
To re-examine the lexical profile of newspapers from the perspective of a larger sample size, the present study analyzed Davies’s (2016/2021) News on the Web (NOW) corpus, the largest corpus of English newspapers available. Besides the ultra-large sample size, the current study also employed the most comprehensive and up-to-date BNC/COCA wordlist ( Nation, 2017 ). The word list contains twenty-five 1,000-word levels which reflects current English. In addition, the BNC/COCA is accompanied by four supplementary lists of proper nouns ( Aaron, Greece, Grecian, Greenberry , and Waterloo… ), marginal words ( hm, huh, er, ah , and phew… ), transparent compounds ( aftershock, afterword, airbag , and powerboat… ) and acronyms ( PHD, UFO , and UDA… ) ( Nation, 2020 ), which allow more detailed analyses compared to the BNC list which is only accompanied by two supplementary lists of proper nouns and marginal words.
Moreover, the use of the BNC/COCA lists in lexical profiling research also contributes to the methodological shift in the field of vocabulary studies. As the most widely used vocabulary tests have long utilized the BNC/COCA lists as the source for their test items ( McLean and Kramer, 2015 ; McLean et al., 2015 ; Webb et al., 2017 ), it would not take long for researches on most aspects of vocabulary knowledge and lexical development to follow. Therefore, it would be methodologically inconsistent to relate the lexical profile of a text based on the BNC lists to a study that reflected learners’ vocabulary knowledge of the BNC/COCA lists.
The study also responds to Webb’s (2021) call for more attention to the variation in lexical demands. In a recent manuscript, Webb (2021) expressed his concern that lexical profiling researches only “reflect the mean number of word families needed to reach a certain lexical coverage figure” and often ignore the fact that “each corpus is made up of a large number of texts, and there is likely to be a great deal of variation in the vocabulary of each text” (p. 286). It is true that we should not assume the same coverage to be reliably applied on different texts just because they belong to the same text genre, especially for newspapers. Researches have shown that the use of grammar and vocabulary could greatly vary among regions and generations ( Chambers, 2000 ; Davies and Fuchs, 2015 ; Davies, 2021 ; Wan and Cowie, 2021 ). Therefore, it would be reasonable to hypothesize that the lexical demands of newspaper and magazine articles from different countries and periods of time bear certain degrees of distinction. The NOW corpus comprises data from online newspapers and magazines collected from twenty countries over a period of 11 years. The analysis of such corpus not only provides reliable figures on the lexical demand of newspapers, but also offers deep insights into the variation of the vocabulary knowledge required to comprehend English newspapers written in different countries and years.
In particular, the study seeks to answer the following questions:
( 1 ) How many words do English learners need to gain 95 and 98% coverage of online newspapers?
( 2 ) Does the lexical profile of online newspapers and magazines vary over time and across countries?
The present study analyzed data from The NOW corpus ( Davies, 2016/2021 ), the corpus is available for purchase on Mark Davies’s website. 1 The NOW corpus contains data from articles on web-based newspapers and magazines collected from twenty different countries. The corpus has been continuously updated from 2010 to the present time and grows approximately 200 million words per month, which is equivalent to three or four hundred thousand articles. At the time of data collection, May 2021, the NOW corpus contains approximately 12.5 billion words of data. The full-text data of the corpus was purchased by the researcher and license for academic use was appropriately obtained.
A preliminary analysis was carried out for the NOW corpus by a lexical profiler software ( Heatley et al., 2002 ). After that, two major adjustments were made to the corpus. Firstly, words that were falsely classified as “Not in the lists” due to spelling errors or typos were corrected and returned to their frequency levels. Secondly, since the lexical profiler software cannot read hyphenated words (e.g., full-time, second-hand, money-driven, customer-focus , etc.), hyphens in the texts were replaced by spaces so that the words that made up hyphenated items could be classified in accordance with their frequency (e.g., second, hand, money, customer, focus , etc.). These processes were done using the mass replace (or Ctrl + Shift + F) function of Notepad++.
The RANGE program ( Heatley et al., 2002 ) was used for data analysis. RANGE classifies all the words in a text to their frequency levels according and the number of times they were used. The “frequency” that RANGE would base its lexical analysis on depends on the wordlist they are being used with. In other words, RANGE allows us to know exactly the number of words at each level in a wordlist, which would later facilitate various conclusions and predictions. Currently, there are three wordlists that can be used with RANGE: The General Service List/Academic Word List (GSL/AWL) which include 2,570 word families, the BNC wordlist consisted of fourteen 1,000-word levels plus two levels of proper nouns and marginal words, and the BNC/COCA wordlist which contains twenty-five lists of word families from the 1,000 to 25,000 levels plus four additional lists of proper nouns, marginal words, transparent compounds and acronyms.
The current study utilizes the BNC/COCA word list ( Nation, 2017 ). RANGE is available at: https://www.wgtn. ac.nz/lals/resources/paul-nations-resources/vocabulary-analysis-programs . The RANGE program automatically read and recognized contractions (can’t, don’t…) and connected speech (wanna, gonna, and kinda…). For instance, RANGE counted the word don’t as two separated words of do and not and wanna as a family member of want.
The second and third columns of Table 1 present the coverage of each word level for the NOW corpus. The most frequent 1,000 word families in the BNC/COCA wordlist accounted for the greatest proportion of tokens, 72.48%. The coverage then dropped significantly to 10.27% at the second 1,000-word level. After the 2,000 word families level, the number of tokens as well as its coverage gradually decreased as the word frequency went down. Lower-frequency levels from the 5,000 level onward only accounted for less than 1% of the running words in the corpus, which generally highlighted the importance of high-frequency words to reading comprehension.
Table 1. The proportions of tokens each word level and the cumulative coverage with and without proper nouns, marginal words, transparent compounds, and acronyms for the News on the Web (NOW) corpus.
Another worth noting detail was the proportion of proper nouns, marginal words, transparent compounds and acronyms in the corpus. Proper nouns alone were found to make up of 3.91% of the tokens in the NOW corpus. The combined coverage of PN, MW, TC, and acronyms made up of 5.39% of the running words, which was close to the coverage provided by the third most frequent 3,000 word families in the BNC/COCA word list. These figures demonstrate the relative importance of being able to recognize and understand proper nouns as well as marginal words, transparent compounds and acronym.
The last two columns of Table 1 show the vocabulary knowledge needed to reach 95 and 98% coverage of online newspapers. The results from the analyses displayed two hypothesized scenarios: one assumed that all proper nouns, marginal words, transparent compounds and acronyms were easily understood or recognized, and one supposed that they were not. Since more than 5% of the tokens accounted by the four supplementary lists, it was more than certain that understanding 95% of the running words in online newspapers with the sheer knowledge of the twenty-five thousand word families in Nation’s (2017) BNC/COCA lists was impossible. However, if proper nouns, marginal words, transparent compounds and acronyms were assumed to be known, then the knowledge of 4,000 and 7,000 most frequent word families were necessary to achieve 95 and 98% coverage, respectively.
However, when looking at the NOW corpus from another angle, we could easily realize that the corpus was made up of newspaper and magazine articles from twenty different countries over a period of 11 years. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to judge the corpus’s lexical demand by its twelve billion tokens in combination, and the lexical profile of the corpus deserves a deeper investigation into its variation. Supplementary Appendix offers data for such analysis.
Supplementary Appendix provides data about the cumulative coverage of each sub-corpora including proper nouns, marginal words, transparent compounds and acronyms. Results from the analyses of the sub-corpora yielded interesting findings. Figure 1 is a graphic representation of Supplementary Appendix and offers visual support for the amount of words needed to achieve 85, 95, and 98% coverage for online newspapers in different countries. Due to space limitation, Figure 1 can only demonstrate a rough summary of the vocabulary demands of newspaper and magazine articles in different nations. Several “middle” numbers like 3,500 or 6,500 could be spotted in Figure 1 , which did not necessarily mean that 3,500 or 6,500 word families were needed to understand 95 or 98% of the words in newspapers in certain countries. In fact, these “middle” figures signaled that a vocabulary knowledge of 3,000–4,000 or 6,000–7,000 word families was required for these coverage thresholds. This was due to the variation of vocabulary demands between different years or even between periods of time. Take Hong Kong as an example, although figures from 2012 to 2021 suggested that the 4,000 most frequent word families in the BNC/COCA lists were needed for 95% coverage, data from 2010 to 2011 showed us that it only took 3,000 word families to reach the same threshold.
Figure 1. The amount of vocabulary needed to achieve 85, 95, and 98% coverage for online newspapers.
It could be observed that 2,000 most frequent word families in the BNC/COCA wordlist covered 85–90% of the running words in online newspaper and magazine articles from all 20 countries. This highlighted the feasibility of using web-based newspapers as reading materials in English classes as well as the value of the BNC/COCA 2,000 to English learners. Although a one-size-fits-all threshold for 95 and 98% coverage could be said to be fictional, the data suggested that the vocabulary knowledge of the most frequent 3,000–4,000 word families in the BNC/COCA word list was necessary to gain 95% coverage. However, things became more complicated when it came to the 98% coverage. For some countries like Jamaica, New Zealand and Canada, the vocabulary knowledge at 6,000 level was enough to provide 98% coverage of web-based newspapers and magazines. Online newspaper and magazine articles from countries including Australia, Hong Kong, Ireland, Tanzania, and the United Kingdom seemed to be a little more demanding and required 6,000–7,000 for optimal comprehension. Online newspapers and magazines in the United States, South Africa, Singapore, Pakistan, Nigeria, Kenya, and Ghana needed the knowledge of the most frequent 7,000 word families to comfortably understand. For Malaysia and Sri Lanka, the required vocabulary knowledge for the 98% threshold was at 7,000–8,000 levels. Online newspapers and magazines written by publishers based in India and Philippines required readers to have a vocabulary knowledge at 8,000 level for optimal comprehension.
Bangladesh’ was the most unique country which required a range of vocabulary knowledge from 8,000 to 10,000 word families for 98% coverage. It was also worth noting that online newspapers and magazines in Bangladesh only needed a knowledge at 4,000 level for 95% coverage. The reason for the difference between the lexical demands for 95 and 98% coverage of Bangladesh’s newspapers might lie with the substantial proportion of words at the 13,000 level. Normally, lexical coverage at the 10,000 level and higher dropped below 0.2 or even 0.1 for most country sub-corpora in the NOW corpus. The same also went for the Bangladesh sub-corpus when the tenth, eleventh and twelfth 1,000-word level only represented the coverage of less than 0.2%. However, the coverage of the 13,000 level went up to 0.45–0.68% for the Bangladesh sub-corpora, which were relatively high for such a low-frequency word-level.
In answer to the first research questions, the vocabulary knowledge of the most frequent 4,000 families in the BNC/COCA list plus proper nouns, marginal words, transparent compounds and acronyms would reliably provide 95% coverage of the NOW corpus. This means that if 95% coverage was assumed to be sufficient for reasonable comprehension, then learning the most frequent 4,000 word families would be the ultimate learning goal for English learners in ESL and EFL contexts. As Laufer and Ravenhorst-Kalovski (2010) and Schmitt et al. (2011) suggested, 95% coverage of a text would result in acceptable comprehension, however, they also pointed out that the degree of comprehension at the 95% threshold is not really reliable and that 98% was truly the threshold for unsupported comprehension. If 98% were supposed to be the necessary threshold for text comprehension, then a one-size-fits-all answer would be nearly impossible to give. Although Table 1 showed that 7,000 most frequent word families in the BNC/COCA lists would be sufficient to provide 98% coverage for online newspapers and magazines, Figure 1 demonstrated that it was certainly not the case.
Still, if we were to take a broad view to the NOW country sub-corpora and consider Bangladesh as a special case, we could generally conclude that 4,000 and 8,000 most frequent word families in the BNC/COCA lists would reliably provide 95 and 98% coverage of the articles from online newspapers and magazines, which could be a rough answer to research question 1. The findings aligned really well with what Nation found in 2006 with the BNC wordlist. However, it is also worth noting that the 3,000-word level in some cases proved itself to be able to represent 95% coverage for online newspapers and magazines. Most importantly, a considerable proportion of data from the sub-corpora showed that the most frequent 6,000 word families can be a feasible learning goal to rely on. It is obvious that for some countries such as New Zealand, the readers’ vocabulary knowledge only needed to be at the 6,000 level to read online news and magazines for unsupported comprehension.
It is also interesting to compare the results to other researches that also employed the BNC/COCA lists. Specifically, online newspapers and magazines were found to share relatively similar lexical demands with English textbooks for EFL learners ( Yang and Coxhead, 2020 ; Rahmat and Coxhead, 2021 ) and reading passages in international tests of English proficiency like TOEFL, IELTS, TOIEC, etc. ( Kaneko, 2020 ). This proves that online newspapers and magazines could be a great source for English learners who are preparing for their IELTS or TOEFL tests. However, compared to academic books written in English ( Hsu, 2018 ; Lu and Coxhead, 2020 ), newspapers were shown to be less lexically demanding, which is normal due to the nature of general and academic English.
Data from Figure 1 as well as Supplementary Appendix , demonstrated a “yes” answer to the second research question. In fact, it was really interesting to see that the most lexically demanding newspapers and magazines came from countries where English was a second or even foreign language like Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Philippines, India, and Bangladesh. On the other hand, in countries where people spoke English as a first language or had native-like English language proficiency such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, United States, United Kingdom, Singapore, and Hong Kong, online newspapers and magazines written in English seemed to be easier to read and understand. Certain explanations could be given to this phenomenon, one of which was the components of the BNC/COCA wordlist. As its name suggested, the corpora that were used to create Nation’s (2017) BNC/COCA frequency lists contained spoken and written texts primarily collected from American and British contexts. As a result, the BNC/COCA lists may have aligned better with the written texts from countries that have been heavily influenced by American and British Englishes. In other words, newspapers and magazines articles that had similar wording patterns to those of American or British written English showed better lexical coverage compared to other countries that had different wording patterns.
The findings would be even more interesting if we were to consider word frequency as an indicator of text difficulty. As Hashimoto (2021) and Stewart et al. (2021) discussed, there was a really strong relationship between word frequency rank and word difficulty. Therefore, it could be said that English newspapers from certain countries may pose greater or lesser challenges to certain English learners. International students and immigrants that have been studying British or American English may find these findings interesting since being able to understand local news could be a great way to establish a sense of connection and belonging to the local communities and networks of a country ( Juang et al., 2018 ).
The study’s results would also of help for English teachers around the world, especially those who are thinking of using English newspapers in their own countries as teaching materials. In fact, articles from online newspapers and magazines could be a great source for English language teaching as they provide up-to-date and interesting information while offering a rich linguistic resources. Using newspapers as reading material could easily trigger learners’ interest and facilitate discussions, especially when they are about hot issues in the country or around the world. Teachers and course book writers would have different criteria when selecting teaching materials. But generally speaking, input resources selected for language learning should be lexically less challenging than what’s in the real world. For example, Tegge (2017) pointed out that songs selected by teachers were 1,000–2,000 word families less demanding than other songs on billboard chart. Collins’s (2017) study also indicated that reading passages in EFL textbooks were significantly easier to read than those appeared in standardized tests of English proficiency. If the lexical demands of the input texts have become the number one concern for lesson and material design, then the most obvious and maybe best practice would be to actively choose articles from English speaking countries including Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Newspapers and magazines from ESL contexts like Hong Kong, Ireland, Jamaica and Tanzania could also be put into consideration when choosing reading materials since their articles showed relatively low lexical demands.
It is also noteworthy that even the lowest figures of lexical demands suggested that a word knowledge at 3,000 level was needed to read online newspaper and magazine articles without having to depend too much on dictionaries. Therefore, it is suggestive that the use of authentic articles from online newspapers and magazines in language courses could only be feasible for upper-intermediate or advanced learners. Language teachers should also make sure that their learners know the 2,000 most frequent word families in the BNC/COCA word list, the knowledge threshold where more than 85% coverage could be guaranteed. This could be done by using vocabulary tests that employed the BNC/COCA lists as the source for test items such as the New Vocabulary Levels Test ( McLean and Kramer, 2015 ) the Listening Vocabulary Levels Test ( McLean et al., 2015 ; Ha, 2021a ) and Webb et al.’s (2017) Updated Vocabulary Levels Test. The vocabulary knowledge at 2,000 level generally ensures that learners could at least work with the material, of course with the support from teachers and/or more capable peers.
English teachers of advanced classes may use up-to-date newspaper articles as in-class reading activities where learners together read an interesting article and then discuss it. Language instructors can also assign learners to pick articles of their interest that reflect current situations around the world to read extensively, and then discuss what they have read with their peers when they come back to the class. Such practices might be especially suitable for English teachers of immigrants and refugees who would be in dire need of both the language and the updated information of the countries where they were currently based. However, it might be somewhat unrealistic to expect most immigrants and refugees to have knowledge of the most frequent 2,000 word families in the BNC/COCA word list.
The present study bears certain limitations that need to be addressed. As the study employed lexical profiler program accompanied by designed wordlists as the primary research methodology, it was unavoidably affected by the limitations of such approach ( Nation and Webb, 2011 ).
The first limitation was the inability of lexical profiler programs such as RANGE to identify homographs [e.g., proceeds (meaning continues ) and proceeds (meaning profits )]. Such a constraint may also have affected the classification of proper nouns since certain proper nouns bear the same spelling as other words ( Gates, Walkers, Bush , etc.), leading to the difficult situation where manually adding these words to the list of proper nouns would cause severe conflicts in processing, and leaving them alone would result in these words being ranked as high-frequency words.
Second, lexical profiler programs such as RANGE could not count multiword items as single items. This was, in my opinion, one of the most serious flaws which most lexical profiling research that utilized the same research methodology have been suffering. As the classification of RANGE and other programs like AntWordProfiler was guided by word lists that contained primarily single-item words, they would read phrasal verbs and idioms such as out of the blue, out of the box, sleep on it, come across, sit up… separately and rank the components words of these phrases according to their designed frequency levels. Although most the component words of phrasal verbs and idioms are high-frequency verbs, understanding every single item in such phrases could not guarantee the comprehension of the phrase as a whole ( Cornell, 1985 ; Gardner and Davies, 2007 ; Garnier and Schmitt, 2015 ).
The third point that deserves attention concerned how transparent and hyphenated compounds were treated. The present study adopted two assumptions that have been widely applied in vocabulary profiling research ( Dang and Webb, 2014 ; Nurmukhamedov, 2017 ; Tegge, 2017 ; Yang and Coxhead, 2020 ; Nurmukhamedov and Sharakhimov, 2021 ; Rahmat and Coxhead, 2021 ) that transparent and hyphenated compounds could be easily understood by knowing the meaning of their component words, which could be problematic to certain extents. For example, whether or not transparent compounds such as aftershock , afterglow or absentminded could be understood by the sheer knowledge of after, shock, glow , and mind was actually a myth. Similarly, assuming a learner could understand sale-driven based on his or her knowledge of driven in the sentence: “ The car is driven by Jack.” could be also be a questionable practice.
Besides the limitations concerning research methodology, there was another area that the present study could not address. Although the manuscript showed strong variations in the lexical demands between different countries, it only provided statistical arguments and did not address the issue from a socio-linguistic perspective. Therefore, future studies are encouraged to explore the link between cultural and social-economic factors of countries and their publications’ lexical profile.
The present study offers insights into the vocabulary load of the most popular sources of written English that people read every day. Its findings indicate that knowledge of the most frequent 3,000–4,000 word families plus proper nouns, marginal words, transparent compounds and acronyms could provide 95% coverage of the articles in online newspapers and magazines, which might be a degree of coverage for adequate comprehension and incidental vocabulary learning.
The study confirms Nation’s (2006) findings but emphasizes that coverage of newspaper and magazine articles varies greatly between countries, and that articles from English speaking countries are less lexically demanding than those in ESL and EFL contexts. The results also suggest that web-based newspapers and magazines could be good resources for language teaching and learning. However, it is advised that teachers and learners need to be very selective when choosing what to read as articles from certain countries were shown to be relatively more difficult to understand than others.
Data Availability Statement
The data analyzed in this study is subject to the following licenses/restrictions: the corpora that support the findings of this study are available from Mark Davies. Restrictions apply to the availability of these corpora, which were used under academic license for this study. Data are available from https://www.english-corpora.org/ with the permission of Mark Davies. Requests to access these datasets should be directed to [email protected] .
The author confirms sole responsibility for study conception and design, data collection, analysis and interpretation of results, and manuscript preparation.
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.800983/full#supplementary-material
BNC, British National Corpus; COCA, Corpus of Contemporary American English; ESL, English as a second language; EFL, English as a foreign language; MW, marginal words; NOW, News on the Web; PN, proper nouns; TC, transparent compounds; US, United States; UK, United Kingdom.
- ^ https://www.english-corpora.org/
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Keywords : lexical coverage, vocabulary profile, BNC, COCA, News on the Web
Citation: Ha HT (2022) Lexical Profile of Newspapers Revisited: A Corpus-Based Analysis. Front. Psychol. 13:800983. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.800983
Received: 24 October 2021; Accepted: 02 February 2022; Published: 24 February 2022.
Copyright © 2022 Ha. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Hung Tan Ha, [email protected] ; orcid.org/0000-0002-5901-7718
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Celebrating Literature That ‘Brings the World Close’
Words Without Borders, a magazine dedicated to literature in translation, is turning 20 at a fraught time. How to celebrate words when bombs are dropping?
By Robert Ito
Words Without Borders, one of the few magazines in the world dedicated to literature in translation, is turning 20 at a fraught time: Around the world, wars are raging. Writers are being jailed, dissident voices silenced and books banned.
As the magazine’s staff considered its anniversary celebrations — a virtual gala on Nov. 2, following a live one on Oct. 25 — one question was pressing: How do you find words, let alone celebrate them, when bombs are dropping?
The answer, said Karen M. Phillips, the magazine’s executive editor and publisher, was right there, baked into their mission — to gather and celebrate international literature, and in doing so, strengthen the connection between readers and writers around the world. Given the current political climate, the need for such conversations has never been more vital.
“Literature is a really powerful space for imagining new ways forward, or thinking through situations that are impossible if you take them head on as facts,” she said. “We’re always publishing contemporary writers who are reflecting, through their literature, the events and crises of the world.”
Over the years, Words Without Borders has presented literature about the war in Ukraine, the global pandemic and the refugee crisis in Greece. Launched in the wake of 9/11 and the subsequent American invasion of Iraq, the magazine’s first three issues in 2003 were dedicated to works from writers in Iran, Iraq and North Korea. The series’s title: “Literature from the ‘Axis of Evil.’”
“We saw it as an antidote to extremism and this war of abstractions that was going on,” said Alane Salierno Mason, the magazine’s co-founder and president. “But then, we were also publishers. We thought that if we were going to launch a magazine, we wanted people to pay attention to it.”
People did notice, and continue to in ever-growing numbers. Since its inception, Words Without Borders has expanded to include the works of over 4,600 authors and translators. Contributors represent 143 countries, from Albania to Zimbabwe, their works translated from 139 languages. One of the magazine’s primary goals has been to highlight works written in languages that typically weren’t being translated into English — Faroese, say, or Urhobo — and to showcase voices and viewpoints that most American readers would not otherwise encounter.
“Words Without Borders does this heroic job of bringing the world close to us,” said Courtney Hodell, the director of literary programs at the Whiting Foundation, which presented one of their inaugural Whiting Literary Magazine Prizes to the magazine in 2018. “At times like this, that feels like an essential and fundamental human act.”
Writers and poets including Ilya Kaminsky, Yolanda Arroyo Pizarro and Laila Lalami attended the live gala in Manhattan. The participants mentioned some of the magazine’s accomplishments, like publishing nine Nobel laureates — seven of them years before their works were recognized by the Swedish Academy.
“We can’t take all the credit, but I do think we have good taste,” said Samantha Schnee, the founding editor and board chair. “And we have a fantastic team of editors. But I also think it goes back to our translators who say, ‘Hey, this is someone you should take a look at.’”
A corps of translators double as talent scouts for the magazine, scouring the literatures they translate from for new voices. But there’s also another, simpler reason the magazine seems to spot so much international talent before others do, Mason said.
“Who else is doing this?” she asked. “The Paris Review, to name perhaps the best-known literary magazine, might do a few translations a year. Same with The New Yorker, but generally, they’re publishing people who already have some name recognition.”
The gala celebrants also looked to the magazine’s future, which includes an ongoing expansion of Words Without Borders Campus, the magazine’s educational component. Launched in 2017, the program offers students and teachers free access to contemporary literature from around the globe and trains educators on how to teach these stories.
Last December, the program got a major boost from the Whiting Foundation, who awarded the magazine the largest grant in the publication’s history. The multiyear Humanities in High Schools grant, which provides $75,000 in its first year, will help expand partnerships with school districts.
Around the same time last year, Poupeh Missaghi, a writer and translator from English and Persian, began a project for Words Without Borders called #WomanLifeFreedom: A Series on the Revolutionary Uprising in Iran, inspired by the death of Mahsa Amini in 2022. The yearlong series is an example of what the magazine does best: provide a range of accounts, from witness narratives to pen-and-ink drawings of protesters, to readers who otherwise would have no access to them.
One of the essays published in the series, “I am a Witness,” has been expanded into a book from Ithaka Press, “In the Streets of Tehran: Woman Life Freedom,” written by Nila (a pseudonym) and translated by Missaghi. “If we didn’t have outlets like Words Without Borders, how could we create these spaces for conversations about translation and world literature?” she asked.
Paris Photo 2023
Top five fair highlights, selected by alessandro merola.
A retrospective, exhibition review by mark durden.
Birds of passage, exhibition review by gem fletcher.
Book review by mariacarla molè.
Felipe Romero Beltrán
Book review by tanvi mishra.
Stepping out into this almost empty road, essay by natasha christia.
Carrie Mae Weems
Reflections for now, exhibition review by jermaine francis.
Essay by sergio valenzuela-escobedo.
Exhibition review by jilke golbach.
Fotografia Europea 2023
Top three festival highlights, selected by tim clark.
Issue 39 - Contents
Paris photo has returned to the grand palais éphémère with a diverse line-up of ambitious solo, group and thematic gallery presentations. amongst the highlights, contributions by artists working across mixed-media make for some of the most memorable viewings. here are five standout displays from the fair’s 26th edition – selected by 1000 words assistant editor, alessandro merola., presented on four floors of the photographers’ gallery, london, daido moriyama: a retrospective has been deftly curated by thyago nogueira of são paulo’s instituto moreira salles to offer an anti-modernist, pop, all over display of pictures that extends the montage aesthetic of print media to the gallery wall, writes mark durden., gem fletcher visits the latest exhibition at denny gallery, new york, sheida soleimani: birds of passage, an ongoing collaborative project which sees the artist work with her parents mâmân and bâbâ – two iranian pro-democracy activists and refugees – to translate their traumatic experiences of political exile leaving iran in the 1980s via densely layered images that half-document, half-mythologise family lore., an exhibition at centro pecci, prato, and accompanying book published by nero brings together nearly three decades of work from lina pallotta centred on the artist’s friendship with italian trans activist porpora marcasciano. what emerges is a family album shaped by alliances, complicit looks and shared visions; a newfound space of fabulousness, writes mariacarla molè., the foam paul huf award 2023 and 2022 aperture portfolio prize winner felipe romero beltrán has released a new book with loose joints titled dialect. presenting the temporal dimension of the period of asylum which a group of nine young minors from morocco navigate as they wait to be validated as documented citizens of spain, it offers a possibility of restoring a personhood to the immigrant body, writes tanvi mishra., stepping out into this almost empty road by monika orpik is set in the białowieża forest, a unesco world heritage site at the frontier of poland with belarus. transcending the dramatic twists of the ongoing political actuality in eastern europe, it is a stark political statement that calls attention to the ethical double standards currently applied to asylum seekers, depending on political agendas and a refugee’s place of origin, writes natasha christia., book review.
Photobooks of 2022
Selected by alex merola.
Hiroshi Sugimoto: Time Machine
Hayward gallery, london, interview with director, ralph rugoff, previous issue.
Kings of a Bereft Land
Interview with willemijn van der zwaan.
Photo London 2023
1000 Words is a leading online contemporary photography magazine. It commissions and publishes exhibition and photo book reviews, essays and interviews in response to the visual culture of our present moment. Founded by Tim Clark in 2008, the editorial commitment has always been to explore the possibilities for the medium whilst stimulating debate around current modes of practice, curation, discourses and theory internationally.
Newspaper Vocabulary Words with Meaning – A to Z
A newspaper is a publication which is printed on paper and published regularly and daily, usually once a day or once a week. The Paper provides information and ideas about current events and news. People generally like to read them in order to stay informed about their local city, state or country and globally.
Newspapers often cover a wide range of subjects. They often talk about politics, crime, business, sports, and the weather. Newspapers use pictures to illustrate stories; and it often includes humor and other forms of entertainment.
Newspaper Vocabulary Words
Following is a list of common words related to Newspaper:
- Ads : Summary of advertising; which usually refers to displaying ads.
- Add : Add the latest information to a pre-written article or your own version.
- Article : An informative discussion on the descriptive method of news events or technical topics.
- Assignment : Work assigned to the city planner; a story that a journalist has been widely considered to write
- Bank : Part of the title; a storage table of sorts after it has been set up.
- Banner : An article in capital letters that extends to the top of the home page.
- Body type : The type by which most newspapers are set.
- Bulletin : Last-minute important news.
- Captions : Description lines above or below a newspaper image, image or diagram
- Column : A feature of a regular newspaper.
- Deadline : The time at which a newspaper publication should be published.
- Deck : Different subject categories, usually separated by dashes.
- Ears : Small boxes printed on each side of the title area on the front page; usually contain weather forecasts, slogans, statistics or other information
- Editor : The person responsible for preparing a copy of a newspaper for publication.
- Features story : A story in which the number of stories is less important than the style in which the story is written
- Font : A specific type of font. For example, “Helvetica Bold”.
- Headline : A short, well-organized statement of the main point (s) of a story. It is usually crushed in large letters and precedes the story
- Jump : A dividing line in a story that is carried over to another page.
- Lead : The first paragraph of a story that contains a summary or introduction of a story.
- Lead Story : The story is placed in the right column on the first page because it is the most important story in the story.
- Make up : The process of placing news and advertisements on a newspaper page.
- Proofreader : A person who reads a copy to check and correct all errors.
- Type : Pieces and individual letters (letters, numbers) used to form words
- Headline : appearing on the top of the page or article
- Obituary : section made for the people who recently died
- Columns : news printed in vertical form
- Horoscopes : section for horoscope
- Weather report: section for weather forecast
- Business Section : a section with business news
- Caption : title matching a picture
- Editorial : news articles containing the editorial opinions
- Comic strip : cartoon series
- Advice column : where advice is given to people who write
- TV guide : section made for tv program channel
- Special feature : special story
- International news section : section which focuses the news from abroad
- Sensational news : news causes public excitement and interests
- Black and White : without color
- Direct quotation : words taken directly from the person what is said
- Hot off the press : the news that is just printed and is very recent
- Marketing and Advertising Vocabulary Words
Politics latest: Rishi Sunak considers whether to sack Suella Braverman after controversial article - as he's warned to 'tread carefully'
Rishi Sunak is under pressure to sack Suella Braverman after she defied Downing Street by publishing an article accusing the Met Police of bias over protests in support of Palestine.
Friday 10 November 2023 17:58, UK
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- Number 10 reiterates PM has full confidence in Braverman
- Recap: What home secretary said in her controversial article
- Sunak warned he needs to 'tread carefully'
- 'We can't continue like this,' senior minister tells Beth Rigby
- Ali Fortescue: A number of potential flashpoints loom
- Braverman ignores questions as speculation about future continues
- Chancellor declines to back home secretary's language
- Pledge tracker: Is the PM keeping his promises?
- Live reporting by Ben Bloch and (earlier) Faith Ridler
Ahead of the controversial pro-Palestine march in central London tomorrow on Armistice Day, the officer in charge of policing London tomorrow has refused to comment on Ms Braverman's assertions that the police are biased.
Metropolitan Police deputy assistant commissioner Laurence Taylor said: "We've got a really difficult weekend this weekend, I’m not going to comment on politics.
"It's not my place to comment on politics.
"We will police what we need to police with a robust policing pattern, recognising all of the concerns in our communities and for people coming to London over the weekend, so that we can keep them safe."
Mr Taylor also said the force will police London "without fear or favour" and said officers will "balance the rights of everybody – be that protesters, counter protesters, or people living or coming into London".
A Scottish government minister who racked up nearly £11,000 in data roaming fees on his parliament iPad while on a family holiday in Morocco has agreed to pay back the money.
Michael Matheson, who is now Scotland's health secretary, was said to have been using the device for work - but had not switched over from the parliament's old mobile contract to a new one.
The Scottish parliament confirmed that Mr Matheson's roaming charges - for the iPad and not phone calls - totalled £10,935.74.
Officials at Holyrood challenged the bill over the scale of the data fees and the late warning over the rising cost, but previous provider EE declined to waive it.
Mr Matheson had initially agreed to pay £3,000 towards the cost from his expenses budget. As the data use was reportedly for parliamentary business, the Scottish parliament had agreed to pay the rest.
But Mr Matheson has now announced that he will reimburse the full cost of the roaming charges having accepted that he should have switched to the new contract at an earlier date.
He said in a statement: "While the parliament agreed to pay the bulk of this sum as a legitimate expense, with the rest being met from my office allowance, I have reflected long and hard and accept that the Sim card on this device should have been replaced at an earlier stage.
"Much of the speculation in the past couple of days has questioned my integrity, and I take this extremely seriously. I take equally seriously the reputation of the Scottish Parliament, of which I have always striven to be a diligent member since its restoration in 1999.
"It is my decision to reimburse these costs in full, which I believe in all the circumstances to be the right one."
New polling today reveals that Britons overall want Rishi Sunak to sack Suella Braverman as home secretary.
It comes after she accused the police of bias in the way they police protests in an opinion piece that was not authorised for publication by Downing Street.
According to the poll conducted by YouGov, 49% of Britons think she should be sacked, 22% think she should stay, and 29% say they don't know.
Those results are broadly replicated by region and gender - although more men think she should remain in post (27%) than women (18%).
When broken down by politics, the poll reveals that both Conservatives and Leave voters think she should remain in post - by a small margin - while Labour and Lib Dem voters want her sacked - by a large margin.
The PM has yet to make a decision on Suella Braverman's future in the role of home secretary, while the Conservative Party remains deeply divided.
Senior Tory MP Tim Loughton has described the current feeling among backbench Conservative MPs as "one of exasperation", saying the party is divided.
It comes as Downing Street remains silent over the future of Suella Braverman as home secretary following her controversial opinion article accusing the Met Police of bias.
The former minister told The News Agents podcast: "We are in a very perilous position in the polls, we've had some bad by-elections, and an election is probably less than a year away now.
"The way you lose elections is to be divided and constantly internally looking and internally fighting. The public hates that and doesn't want to see that.
"And so, when you have particular individuals, high profile individuals, ministers and others, who appear to be singing from a different song sheet, that is really not helpful."
He said that all backbench MPs "just want a united cabinet and government" that is "getting on with the important stuff that we're elected to do".
"So, this is a really unhelpful distraction. And it needs to stop," he said.
Senior Tory MP Tim Loughton has refused to express a view on whether the prime minister should sack Suella Braverman as home secretary, amid the ongoing controversy after she accused the police of bias.
Speaking to The News Agents podcast, Mr Loughton said such things are "for the prime minister to decide".
He noted that we should see how the marches play out this weekend, as well as the outcome of the Supreme Court case judging the lawfulness of the Rwanda scheme, due on Wednesday.
"I think all of those things need to be looked at in the round before the prime minister makes any decisions, but those are decisions for him, not for me."
As Downing Street remains silent on the future of Suella Braverman as home secretary, the prime minister's MPs are making their views known.
Former minister Tim Loughton is the latest to speak out against Ms Braverman, describing her interventions as "unhelpful", both in terms of the operational independence of the police and electorally.
He was asked on The News Agents podcast if he believes the home secretary's position is now untenable, and he replied: "She's not making it easy, I have to say."
He said the issue "needs to come to head" as "it's doing quite a lot of damage".
"We cannot have senior members of the cabinet, on the face of it, defying No 10 and plying her own agenda."
Mr Loughton also said the home secretary is jeopardising the operational independence of the police, and called for a "clear distinction between policy and direction".
He said this weekend's protest coupled with Armistice Day services make it a "deeply difficult situation", with potentially hundreds of thousands taking to the streets, including "extremists, others who do want to spread hate and are likely to endeavour to commit crimes".
"So frankly, pouring any doubt on the police is in danger of undermining the credibility of them being able to get on with that job. And that's the last thing we want."
On Ms Braverman's description of the demonstrations as "hate marches", the long-serving MP for East Worthing and Shoreham said: "I don't agree that she's a force pushing people apart, but referring in general terms to hate marches, is not helpful and not accurate."
Speaking to journalists a little earlier, the prime minister's official spokesperson was asked if he has a message to the people set to attend tomorrow's pro-Palestine demonstration.
It has been a source of controversy because it clashes with Armistice Day - something many Conservative politicians have spoken out about.
Rishi Sunak's spokesperson said: "We recognise that the right to peaceful protest is a fundamental part of our democracy. And you heard from the prime minister directly on that in his statement.
"But at the same time, we would continue to urge people who do continue to plan to attend these events to be mindful of the signal that that can send, given some of the activity that we've seen at previous protests in recent weeks.
"And for people to be sensitive and mindful of the fear and distress that will be felt by many in Jewish communities, and indeed, in Muslim communities, as a result of these."
They added that it "does continue to be the prime minister's view that Saturday's planned protest is disrespectful, and this offends our heartfelt gratitude to the memory of those who gave so much to us so that we could live in freedom and peace today."
Home Secretary Suella Braverman's future remains in question today, after she published an "inflammatory" article on the matter of pro-Palestinian protests in The Times.
This came after the Metropolitan Police confirmed that planned protests on Armistice Day would be able to go ahead - and Ms Braverman made her opinion clear.
The article has gained furious reaction - here's a reminder of what she said:
- The minister accused the Met of "double standards" and "playing favourites" with certain protesters, after news a pro-Palestinian march will go ahead despite government objections;
- She claimed that "pro-Palestinian mobs" are " largely ignored , even when clearly breaking the law";
- For context, Metropolitan Police chief Sir Mark Rowley has faced pressure from senior Tories to ban Saturday's march in London, but has said the law would only allow him to do so only in "extreme cases";
- Writing in The Times, Ms Braverman said: "I do not believe that these marches are merely a cry for help for Gaza. They are an assertion of primacy by certain groups - particularly Islamists - of the kind we are more used to seeing in Northern Ireland. Also disturbingly reminiscent of Ulster are the reports that some of Saturday's march group organisers have links to terrorist groups, including Hamas";
- She also claimed "there is a perception that senior police officers play favourites when it comes to protesters";
- Ms Braverman wrote: "Right-wing and nationalist protesters who engage in aggression are rightly met with a stern response yet pro-Palestinian mobs displaying almost identical behaviour are largely ignored, even when clearly breaking the law?"
- She once again described the protests as " hate marches ".
In January this year, Rishi Sunak made five pledges for voters to judge him on.
The prime minister could well be on track to meet at least one of them - halving inflation by the end of the year.
Sky News has developed a tool to track the government's progress in delivering these pledges - and you can see the progress for yourself below:
The experts at Sky's Data and Forensics team have updated our poll tracker with the latest surveys overnight.
The tracker aggregates various surveys to give an indication of how the UK currently feels about different political parties.
Currently, Labour sits on an average of 44.8%, compared with the Tories on 25.5% - a roughly 19-point lead.
While Sir Keir Starmer's lead has shrunk very slightly in recent days, his party still has a very significant gap.
In third are the Lib Dems on 10.7%, followed by Reform on around 7.3% and the Greens on 6.4% - with the SNP on 3.0%.
See the latest update below - and you can read more about the methodology behind the tracker here .
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Install the Sky News app for free
October 30, 2023
This article has been reviewed according to Science X's editorial process and policies . Editors have highlighted the following attributes while ensuring the content's credibility:
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Journal information: Nature Human Behaviour
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