proposal draft summary

How to Write a Proposal and Get What You Want (Free Templates)

' src=

A proposal has a lot of different purposes, but there’s only one good way to write one: the way that pulls together all of the information in a concise and persuasive way and helps you get what you want … whether that’s a whole new software system, or just a tweak to your marketing strategy.

This Process Street article isn’t about a business proposal — also known as a quote — but instead about the document required when formally pitching an idea for action and execution by managers or department heads .

To explain how to write a proposal document and get what you want, we’ll go through the following:

Free proposal writing template

When are proposals necessary, why are proposals important, examples of proposals, how to write a proposal: step-by-step, last steps before submitting the proposal, more free proposal writing checklists, even more free proposal writing checklists, customize your proposal checklists with process street.

Let’s get started.

If you fancy taking a quick look at a free interactive template, that will help you write your proposals right away, feel free to dive straight into this!

Writing a Proposal: Step-by-Step Guide

There are more templates, like this one, further down in this post, so stick around.

Any project you don’t have the clearance or authority to start without a higher-up’s approval, you need to submit a proposal for.

According to SSWM , a proposal is “a detailed description of a series of activities aimed at solving a certain problem”.

That problem  could be anything, from:

  • Process improvement
  • Cost reduction
  • A new marketing strategy

If it’s an idea you need to ask permission to execute, or to get action on, it needs a proposal.

A proposal is a way to pitch an idea and state your requirements, so it’s important for supervisors because they can get information in writing (not casually in the elevator), and be able to act knowing the full implications of their decision.

They’re also a chance for you to make a structured, logical argument and lay down everything in favor of your idea. A well-written proposal shows your manager you care about the cause, and it’s not just a mid-meeting whim you blurted out.

To write a top proposal you need to scrutinize it before you present it.

It’s a broad topic, but it’s best explained with examples.

  • Proposal for Process Improvement
  • Proposal for Server Replacement
  • Proposal for Cost Savings

Below is a simple proposal example with some basic sections.

proposal draft summary

Now let’s take a look at how to write a proposal — whether it’s as simple as the one above, or more complex.

Here’s the general structure of a proposal:

proposal draft summary

As you can see, a proposal generally consists of:

  • Introduction : A brief overview of the problem, solution, costs, and benefits.
  • Issue : The main definition of the issue, including subject, purpose, main argument, background information and importance.
  • Solution : The main definition of the solution, including your step-by-step plan, the benefits, and how potential obstacles will be overcame.
  • Qualifications : Overview of the personnel required, experience.
  • Conclusion of the costs and benefits, and wrap-up : Balance the cost against the benefit, reinforce your point one last time.

1. Identify and define your reader

Just like with any kind of persuasion, it helps if you understand how to appeal to your audience. Who will be reading your proposal and deciding if it’s accepted or rejected? What do they care about? What kind of language and benefits would resonate with them? This is the first step because it’s an important thing to keep in mind as you go along and as information that informs the way you write from here on.

2. Define the problem your proposal will solve

Who : Who will the proposal affect?

What : What’s the reason for you to write the proposal in the first place? Explain the current situation and the problems that come with it.

3. Define the solution

How : How are you going to solve the problem? Explain step-by-step in detail.

Who : Identify the personnel you need, along with their prior experience to add persuasion to the proposal

4. Conclusion: costs, benefits and wrap-up

Reiterate : The purpose and main argument

Costs : Break down the projected costs involved for different elements of the project

Benefits : Break down the benefits to the organization, monetary and non-monetary, to persuade the reader there’ll be a return on investment

Thanks : Thank the reader for their time.

Contact information : Where can the reader get in touch with you? Make sure to be crystal clear to make the details easily discoverable.

Clear writing is your best friend when you’re trying to write persuasively. For that reason, there are a few checks to run before you submit your proposal.

Remember, what’s clear to you might not always be clear to other people.

1 .Check for jargon (then destroy it)

Although jargon is popular in the business world, not everyone shares the equal love for it. It’s terms like right-size, blue sky (verb), turn-key, and synergize. They might mean something to you, or make you feel intelligent, but there are simpler alternatives that will help people understand what you mean !

2. Change the passive voice to the active voice

The passive voice is defined as :

“The noun or noun phrase that would be the object of an active sentence (such as Our troops defeated the enemy) appears as the subject of a sentence with passive voice (e.g. The enemy was defeated by our troops).”.

It’s a long-winded way of expressing something that could be expressed in simple terms:


The passive voice sounds distant and even deceptive, and, since the reader might even just be skimming your proposal, you don’t want to add extra words to cloud your point.

3. Proofread the proposal

Install a tool like Grammarly and check the proposal in an online text editor. Grammarly will manage to pick up on anything that is grammatically incorrect and sometimes even flags up stylistically poor phrases. Poor spelling and grammar will only discredit the value of what you’re saying and could be a problem that leads to your proposal being rejected.

As promised, check out the below five templates that have each been designed by the team at Process Street — makers of the finest remote work software for processes around — to help you write winning proposals.

Proposal Template Checklist Process

This proposal template is a checklist that should be used alongside the proposal document you are planning to submit. Use it to make sure that all the elements have been considered, that the proposal contains everything it needs to and that it meets all set requirements.

Click here to access the Proposal Template Checklist Process!

Business Proposal Template Checklist

Whether your business proposal is solicited or unsolicited, use this business proposal template checklist to ensure you include all the required information in your proposal and cover key areas such as these the problem the organization is facing, the proposed solution, the budget, and a key CTA.

Click here to access the Business Proposal Template Checklist!

How to Write a Grant Proposal Checklist

Use this template to make sure your grant proposal includes all the relevant information, that it contains everything it needs to, and that it meets all stated RFP requirements.

Click here to access the How to Write a Grant Proposal Checklist!

Research Proposal Example Checklist

Use this template to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it.

Click here to access the Research Proposal Example Checklist!

Project Proposal Template Checklist

Use this template, alongside the proposal document you are planning to submit, to set the project vision, define the project requirements, describe the deliverables, and specify the deadlines.

Click here to access the Project Proposal Template Checklist!

If you’re looking for more inspiration, give these alternative proposal writing templates a go too.

  • Bid Proposal Template Checklist
  • Budget Proposal Template
  • Construction Proposal Template Checklist
  • Consulting Proposal Template Checklist
  • Continuation Project Proposal Template
  • Contractor Proposal Template Checklist
  • Event Proposal Template Checklist
  • Marketing Proposal Template Checklist
  • Project Proposal Template
  • Renewal Project Proposal Template
  • Simple Proposal Format Checklist
  • Sponsorship Proposal Template Checklist
  • Supplemental Project Proposal Template
  • Website Proposal Template Checklist

If the above templates don’t quite fit your company, industry, or the proposal document you are writing, don’t worry!

Process Street to the rescue!

Process Street is super-powered checklists . We are a super-charged, state of the art BPM SaaS platform which allows you to create templates and run individual checklists from these. You can check tasks off as you work through them, set deadlines, request approvals, assign various tasks , and work through your proposal workflows with ease.

Watch this to get an idea about who we are and what we do:

To help you customize your proposal writing template, and make your proposal wriitng easier, you can use all these different types of Process Street features:

  • Dynamic due dates
  • Task permissions
  • Conditional logic
  • Approval tasks
  • Embed widget
  • Role assignments

You can also connect your templates to thousands of apps through Zapier , webhooks, or API access to automate your proposal processes and workflows.

If you’re unfamiliar with process automation, what it means, and the benefits it can bring to your business, watch this Process Street webinar on automation:

Remember, if you want to get access to any of our proposal writing checklists, just click the links above and they will be added to your Process Street account where you can use them over and over again. Or, if you haven’t yet signed up for a Process Street account, click here and start your free trial.

Has this guide helped you out? I’d love to hear about it in the comments.

Get our posts & product updates earlier by simply subscribing

' src=

Benjamin Brandall

Benjamin Brandall is a content marketer at Process Street .


I am strongly looking forward to learning how to write a proposal, thanks

Thanks Honar, it’s an honor to have you here 😉

I am looking forward to learning how to write a great proposal. Thanks for posting this site.

Practice makes perfect, just keep it up and you will get there!

Looking forward for you to checklist and using it to edit my proposal…. thx a lot

Awesome, and remember you can sign up for a free account for life, no credit card required to run up to 5 checklists for proposals or anything else!. Check out more about Process Street here:

I really loved your paper on how to write a proposal. I looked up others and found total satisfaction when I came across yours! Thanks again Tanya Palacios

We are very pleased to hear that.

thanks a lot for helping me understand proposal writing more clearly. Am very grateful.

Of course, proposal writing can be tricky, but if you follow the templates we provide you will quickly see it’s not that difficult. Proposals follow the same structure most of the time, once you learn that structure it’s easy to create proposals quickly.

Very nice and excellent advice and coaching on proposals writing. I will always keep in touch for more information.

Excellent writing Benjamin. Definitely agree with the destroying jargons part. There’s no need for these kinds of words for project proposals. Anyway, here’s an informative step-by-step guide that I’d like to share regarding writing project proposals: . I believe that this will complement your well-written article and your readers too. 🙂

Great post Evatt, thanks for sharing!

I am in the process of drafting a proposal for a multi-million deal. Looking forward to getting pointers to make my proposal a seller!

After reading your post,it now became crystal clear that proposals are not easy…But thanks alot. You’re a good teacher

Hey Vitalis, yes they take some practice but you will get there. Just keep it up!

i want to write proposal for study PhD but i dont know how to write it can you send to me example thank you very much best regards

Hi Mays, There’s some good advice here in regards to writing a PhD proposal:

My personal advice would be to really demonstrate strength when outlining your methodology. This section is a great opportunity to display deep knowledge of methodological approaches and their academic grounding. Make sure to cite the foundational texts for the approach you want to take and to reference current academic discussions pertinent to your particular application of that approach. If you can find a recently published PhD thesis which takes a similar methodological approach to you own then you can read through their methodology section to give yourself both inspiration and a great starting point for building a methodology reading list for yourself.

Best of luck!

Además, asimismo desarrolla otros proyectos de formación en línea sobre marketing digital y nuevas tecnologías con la finalidad de instruir a emprendedores de qué forma crear un proyecto digital para vender sus conocimientos.

Your blog is very informative. Nice you tried to provide a crystal clear information on this topic!

Nice one, at least have got an idea now about proposal writing

Appreciate the guidelines on how to write an explicit formal proposal.

You are most welcome Ogoh, we’d love any feedback you may have in the future!

Appreciate for providing knowledge on proposal writing

I’m really happy to learn from this paper.I’ve increased my knowledge in proposal writing.Thanks

Wow! You’re really doing a nice work, really haven’t got it detailed and simplified before.

Nice job. I am a professional proposal writer in lagos Nigeria and I must confess that you have done a good job on this article. I learnt a few new things. Keep up the god work

Thanks Mr Sam, always good to have the support of an expert.

the explanation is very complete I am happy to be able to find articles on various types of letters and I can learn here thanks for all the articles

We tried our best Zaki, thanks for the kind words

nice suggestions. thanks

Thanx for the great work U have done towards my exprienc on Proposal writing.May God bless U.

You did a great job in outlining all the nitty-gritty of writing a great proposal in this article. Kudos!

Thank for sharing this knowledge

It was a pleasure!

Write a comment…great work but I need a proposal on how to start car wash business inside school

Thank you for the little experience I have achieved on proposal writing. Can you give me a broad idea on a proposal I wan to write, I want to do a Clean City proposal…

Hey Darious, check out these posts we wrote on sustainability:

so grateful for the information.

Very happy to learn how to write a proposal from you.

Very happy to help you 🙂

Very informative, really appreciated your expertise. I learned quite a bit. Thank you, I’m all set, also number two (2.) Change the passive voice to the active voice is something for me to remember when I’m writing.

Yes that’s a great tip!

It is really great, I would like to know more about writing a great proposal about enhancing bank customer service

Sounds like an important project, you might also enjoy this post:

I sincerely appreciate you for this brilliant presentation. I still need to know more about the solicited proposals. Thanks!

I would like to know how to write a good proposal .

I’m looking forward to be the best in writing proposal, in the organization

Good luck with your endeavors Paul!

I want to learn how to write project proposals

I have an idea of how to write the proposal but would am unsure and would rather see what the experts have to say about it. Thanks!

I want to write a proposal to get a generator for my hospital as a back up

This piece has given me a clearer understanding on how to and what to look out for in writing a proposal. But I will be more grateful if u can give me a template and points on how to write a proposal to a state government to train their young people on drug abuse and how to minimize the current menace it is causing to our society. Thanks, it was a nice experience.

Glad to hear you liked it. We don’t have any templates specific to that use case, but we will look to create some more soon. Cheers, Adam

Glad you enjoyed the experience 🙂

Thanks very much for the well explained presentation.

Hello. This is very good and helpful, I need help to write a proposal for freelancing and content writing. Thanks

I’m not sure if this is what you’re looking for, but we have an article here about pitching to TechCrunch:

I hope it helps!

Cheers, Adam

You are most welcome!

I never knew on how to write a proposal but now I have got something from you thank you. But I would like an example of a professional proposal …… as for me am writing a proposal on the need to make clubs for youth of East Africa based science, technology and arts plz I need it very soon even today

We don’t currently have any examples for you, but we are working on a set of processes to follow to help people write proposals like these. It should be published in a few weeks.

For the time being, perhaps look at what different organizations say they want. Here are a few examples from the UK:

– Warwickshire Community And Voluntary Action (CAVA) have this document where they ask people to send them proposals to start youth programmes. They explain what they are looking for and how they will judge the proposal.

– Here is another example but this time from an organization in Manchester, UK. This has instructions and requirements, and you can use its specifications as inspiration for how to create your proposal.

I hope some of this makes the proposal writing process clearer.

Best of luck, Adam

This may also help:

Good luck with your proposal Naomi! Sounds like it’s for a great cause..

Thats great. I have learned alot thanks.

I need to know how to write a proposal writing. Can u give an example plzz…..

Hi Sapioamoa, you can find a collection of examples here:

I hope this helps! Adam

i thank you for that and now i am requesting for help, i am a student first year and my ambition is to help the orphans i would like you to help me how to write a proposal of that kind. thank you.

Hey Deo. It sounds like you’re doing great work. Check out these proposal templates . They should help you!

thank you so much sir

Living in a rural setting in Uganda- am writing a proposal to ask for financial donations to buy agricultural inputs, medical assistance etc for my community- this website has helped to put ideas together and to hopefully come out with a winner! Thank you!.

That’s great to hear we’ve been able to help! Best of luck Catherine!

am very greatful to receive such an skillful knowledge from you,but may i pls receive a sample of how to write a proposal for starting a small scale printing firm just in kenya.

thank you in advance

Thanks for the kind comment, Elijah. You might be able to find some more useful information in our most recent article about proposals (with lots more templates) here:

Nice one. Thanks for this.

Glad to hear it helped, Deji!

Glad you enjoyed this, Lillian! ⭐️

This is what i was looking for so long. Thanks for summing up all these informations about how to write a proposal. I’m really glad that you add these free template 🙂

Awesome, glad you enjoyed the templates. Was there a particular one that you found most helpful?

Are you still free to give feedback? Happy New Year btw.

Sure we are here to give feedback! Just leave your question about proposal writing in the comments and we will get back to you as soon as we can.

I feel this is among the most vital information for me.

And i’m glad reading your article. But want to statement on few normal things, The web site style is perfect, the articles is truly excellent : D. Excellent activity, cheers

Glad to hear you enjoyed it!

Hi,have learned a lot from you,could you please help me to write a proposal how to spend on projects in a christian organization Thanks

Not sure how that would be any different, but if you have a specific question about writing proposals I’d be happy to answer it 🙂

Thanks sir for your post. I’am very greatful to receive such an skillful knowledge from you

Any organization needs a visual identity these days. It includes a unique logo, colors, wordmark, typeface, and some visual elements like illustrations and iconography that makes a memorable first impression and sets the brand apart from the competitors.

Am glad to have gotten more ideas than I expected on how to write a proposal. All in one article.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Take control of your workflows today

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Starting the research process
  • How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on June 13, 2023.

Structure of a research proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:


Literature review.

  • Research design

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Table of contents

Research proposal purpose, research proposal examples, research design and methods, contribution to knowledge, research schedule, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research proposals.

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application , or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation .

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation , only without the results , conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

  • Example research proposal #1: “A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management”
  • Example research proposal #2: “Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use”

Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

  • The proposed title of your project
  • Your supervisor’s name
  • Your institution and department

The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

  • Introduce your topic
  • Give necessary background and context
  • Outline your  problem statement  and research questions

To guide your introduction , include information about:

  • Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)
  • How much is already known about the topic
  • What is missing from this current knowledge
  • What new insights your research will contribute
  • Why you believe this research is worth doing

Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

  • Academic style
  • Vague sentences
  • Style consistency

See an example

proposal draft summary

As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review  shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

  • Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates
  • Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
  • Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship

Following the literature review, restate your main  objectives . This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

  • Improving best practices
  • Informing policymaking decisions
  • Strengthening a theory or model
  • Challenging popular or scientific beliefs
  • Creating a basis for future research

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list . To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator .

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

  • Cost : exactly how much money do you need?
  • Justification : why is this cost necessary to complete the research?
  • Source : how did you calculate the amount?

To determine your budget, think about:

  • Travel costs : do you need to go somewhere to collect your data? How will you get there, and how much time will you need? What will you do there (e.g., interviews, archival research)?
  • Materials : do you need access to any tools or technologies?
  • Help : do you need to hire any research assistants for the project? What will they do, and how much will you pay them?

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.


  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3–5 years writing a dissertation , which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

A PhD is intended to prepare students for a career as a researcher, whether that be in academia, the public sector, or the private sector.

A master’s is a 1- or 2-year graduate degree that can prepare you for a variety of careers.

All master’s involve graduate-level coursework. Some are research-intensive and intend to prepare students for further study in a PhD; these usually require their students to write a master’s thesis . Others focus on professional training for a specific career.

Critical thinking refers to the ability to evaluate information and to be aware of biases or assumptions, including your own.

Like information literacy , it involves evaluating arguments, identifying and solving problems in an objective and systematic way, and clearly communicating your ideas.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. & George, T. (2023, June 13). How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved November 4, 2023, from

Is this article helpful?

Shona McCombes

Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, how to write a problem statement | guide & examples, writing strong research questions | criteria & examples, how to write a literature review | guide, examples, & templates, what is your plagiarism score.

  • 6.5 Writing Process: Creating a Proposal
  • 1 Unit Introduction


  • 1.1 "Reading" to Understand and Respond
  • 1.2 Social Media Trailblazer: Selena Gomez
  • 1.3 Glance at Critical Response: Rhetoric and Critical Thinking
  • 1.4 Annotated Student Sample: Social Media Post and Responses on Voter Suppression
  • 1.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About a “Text”
  • 1.6 Evaluation: Intention vs. Execution
  • 1.7 Spotlight on … Academia
  • 1.8 Portfolio: Tracing Writing Development
  • Further Reading
  • Works Cited
  • 2.1 Seeds of Self
  • 2.2 Identity Trailblazer: Cathy Park Hong
  • 2.3 Glance at the Issues: Oppression and Reclamation
  • 2.4 Annotated Sample Reading from The Souls of Black Folk by W. E. B. Du Bois
  • 2.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically about How Identity Is Constructed Through Writing
  • 2.6 Evaluation: Antiracism and Inclusivity
  • 2.7 Spotlight on … Variations of English
  • 2.8 Portfolio: Decolonizing Self
  • 3.1 Identity and Expression
  • 3.2 Literacy Narrative Trailblazer: Tara Westover
  • 3.3 Glance at Genre: The Literacy Narrative
  • 3.4 Annotated Sample Reading: from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass
  • 3.5 Writing Process: Tracing the Beginnings of Literacy
  • 3.6 Editing Focus: Sentence Structure
  • 3.7 Evaluation: Self-Evaluating
  • 3.8 Spotlight on … The Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives (DALN)
  • 3.9 Portfolio: A Literacy Artifact
  • Works Consulted
  • 2 Unit Introduction
  • 4.1 Exploring the Past to Understand the Present
  • 4.2 Memoir Trailblazer: Ta-Nehisi Coates
  • 4.3 Glance at Genre: Conflict, Detail, and Revelation
  • 4.4 Annotated Sample Reading: from Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain
  • 4.5 Writing Process: Making the Personal Public
  • 4.6 Editing Focus: More on Characterization and Point of View
  • 4.7 Evaluation: Structure and Organization
  • 4.8 Spotlight on … Multilingual Writers
  • 4.9 Portfolio: Filtered Memories
  • 5.1 Profiles as Inspiration
  • 5.2 Profile Trailblazer: Veronica Chambers
  • 5.3 Glance at Genre: Subject, Angle, Background, and Description
  • 5.4 Annotated Sample Reading: “Remembering John Lewis” by Carla D. Hayden
  • 5.5 Writing Process: Focusing on the Angle of Your Subject
  • 5.6 Editing Focus: Verb Tense Consistency
  • 5.7 Evaluation: Text as Personal Introduction
  • 5.8 Spotlight on … Profiling a Cultural Artifact
  • 5.9 Portfolio: Subject as a Reflection of Self
  • 6.1 Proposing Change: Thinking Critically About Problems and Solutions
  • 6.2 Proposal Trailblazer: Atul Gawande
  • 6.3 Glance at Genre: Features of Proposals
  • 6.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Slowing Climate Change” by Shawn Krukowski
  • 6.6 Editing Focus: Subject-Verb Agreement
  • 6.7 Evaluation: Conventions, Clarity, and Coherence
  • 6.8 Spotlight on … Technical Writing as a Career
  • 6.9 Portfolio: Reflecting on Problems and Solutions
  • 7.1 Thumbs Up or Down?
  • 7.2 Review Trailblazer: Michiko Kakutani
  • 7.3 Glance at Genre: Criteria, Evidence, Evaluation
  • 7.4 Annotated Student Sample: "Black Representation in Film" by Caelia Marshall
  • 7.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About Entertainment
  • 7.6 Editing Focus: Quotations
  • 7.7 Evaluation: Effect on Audience
  • 7.8 Spotlight on … Language and Culture
  • 7.9 Portfolio: What the Arts Say About You
  • 8.1 Information and Critical Thinking
  • 8.2 Analytical Report Trailblazer: Barbara Ehrenreich
  • 8.3 Glance at Genre: Informal and Formal Analytical Reports
  • 8.4 Annotated Student Sample: "U.S. Response to COVID-19" by Trevor Garcia
  • 8.5 Writing Process: Creating an Analytical Report
  • 8.6 Editing Focus: Commas with Nonessential and Essential Information
  • 8.7 Evaluation: Reviewing the Final Draft
  • 8.8 Spotlight on … Discipline-Specific and Technical Language
  • 8.9 Portfolio: Evidence and Objectivity
  • 9.1 Breaking the Whole into Its Parts
  • 9.2 Rhetorical Analysis Trailblazer: Jamil Smith
  • 9.3 Glance at Genre: Rhetorical Strategies
  • 9.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Rhetorical Analysis: Evicted by Matthew Desmond” by Eliana Evans
  • 9.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically about Rhetoric
  • 9.6 Editing Focus: Mixed Sentence Constructions
  • 9.7 Evaluation: Rhetorical Analysis
  • 9.8 Spotlight on … Business and Law
  • 9.9 Portfolio: How Thinking Critically about Rhetoric Affects Intellectual Growth
  • 10.1 Making a Case: Defining a Position Argument
  • 10.2 Position Argument Trailblazer: Charles Blow
  • 10.3 Glance at Genre: Thesis, Reasoning, and Evidence
  • 10.4 Annotated Sample Reading: "Remarks at the University of Michigan" by Lyndon B. Johnson
  • 10.5 Writing Process: Creating a Position Argument
  • 10.6 Editing Focus: Paragraphs and Transitions
  • 10.7 Evaluation: Varied Appeals
  • 10.8 Spotlight on … Citation
  • 10.9 Portfolio: Growth in the Development of Argument
  • 11.1 Developing Your Sense of Logic
  • 11.2 Reasoning Trailblazer: Paul D. N. Hebert
  • 11.3 Glance at Genre: Reasoning Strategies and Signal Words
  • 11.4 Annotated Sample Reading: from Book VII of The Republic by Plato
  • 11.5 Writing Process: Reasoning Supported by Evidence
  • 12.1 Introducing Research and Research Evidence
  • 12.2 Argumentative Research Trailblazer: Samin Nosrat
  • 12.3 Glance at Genre: Introducing Research as Evidence
  • 12.4 Annotated Student Sample: "Healthy Diets from Sustainable Sources Can Save the Earth" by Lily Tran
  • 12.5 Writing Process: Integrating Research
  • 12.6 Editing Focus: Integrating Sources and Quotations
  • 12.7 Evaluation: Effectiveness of Research Paper
  • 12.8 Spotlight on … Bias in Language and Research
  • 12.9 Portfolio: Why Facts Matter in Research Argumentation
  • 13.1 The Research Process: Where to Look for Existing Sources
  • 13.2 The Research Process: How to Create Sources
  • 13.3 Glance at the Research Process: Key Skills
  • 13.4 Annotated Student Sample: Research Log
  • 13.5 Research Process: Making Notes, Synthesizing Information, and Keeping a Research Log
  • 13.6 Spotlight on … Ethical Research
  • 14.1 Compiling Sources for an Annotated Bibliography
  • 14.2 Glance at Form: Citation Style, Purpose, and Formatting
  • 14.3 Annotated Student Sample: “Healthy Diets from Sustainable Sources Can Save the Earth” by Lily Tran
  • 14.4 Writing Process: Informing and Analyzing
  • 15.1 Tracing a Broad Issue in the Individual
  • 15.2 Case Study Trailblazer: Vilayanur S. Ramachandran
  • 15.3 Glance at Genre: Observation, Description, and Analysis
  • 15.4 Annotated Sample Reading: Case Study on Louis Victor "Tan" Leborgne
  • 15.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About How People and Language Interact
  • 15.6 Editing Focus: Words Often Confused
  • 15.7 Evaluation: Presentation and Analysis of Case Study
  • 15.8 Spotlight on … Applied Linguistics
  • 15.9 Portfolio: Your Own Uses of Language
  • 3 Unit Introduction
  • 16.1 An Author’s Choices: What Text Says and How It Says It
  • 16.2 Textual Analysis Trailblazer: bell hooks
  • 16.3 Glance at Genre: Print or Textual Analysis
  • 16.4 Annotated Student Sample: "Artists at Work" by Gwyn Garrison
  • 16.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About Text
  • 16.6 Editing Focus: Literary Works Live in the Present
  • 16.7 Evaluation: Self-Directed Assessment
  • 16.8 Spotlight on … Humanities
  • 16.9 Portfolio: The Academic and the Personal
  • 17.1 “Reading” Images
  • 17.2 Image Trailblazer: Sara Ludy
  • 17.3 Glance at Genre: Relationship Between Image and Rhetoric
  • 17.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Hints of the Homoerotic” by Leo Davis
  • 17.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically and Writing Persuasively About Images
  • 17.6 Editing Focus: Descriptive Diction
  • 17.7 Evaluation: Relationship Between Analysis and Image
  • 17.8 Spotlight on … Video and Film
  • 17.9 Portfolio: Interplay Between Text and Image
  • 18.1 Mixing Genres and Modes
  • 18.2 Multimodal Trailblazer: Torika Bolatagici
  • 18.3 Glance at Genre: Genre, Audience, Purpose, Organization
  • 18.4 Annotated Sample Reading: “Celebrating a Win-Win” by Alexandra Dapolito Dunn
  • 18.5 Writing Process: Create a Multimodal Advocacy Project
  • 18.6 Evaluation: Transitions
  • 18.7 Spotlight on . . . Technology
  • 18.8 Portfolio: Multimodalism
  • 19.1 Writing, Speaking, and Activism
  • 19.2 Podcast Trailblazer: Alice Wong
  • 19.3 Glance at Genre: Language Performance and Visuals
  • 19.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Are New DOT Regulations Discriminatory?” by Zain A. Kumar
  • 19.5 Writing Process: Writing to Speak
  • 19.6 Evaluation: Bridging Writing and Speaking
  • 19.7 Spotlight on … Delivery/Public Speaking
  • 19.8 Portfolio: Everyday Rhetoric, Rhetoric Every Day
  • 20.1 Thinking Critically about Your Semester
  • 20.2 Reflection Trailblazer: Sandra Cisneros
  • 20.3 Glance at Genre: Purpose and Structure
  • 20.4 Annotated Sample Reading: “Don’t Expect Congrats” by Dale Trumbore
  • 20.5 Writing Process: Looking Back, Looking Forward
  • 20.6 Editing Focus: Pronouns
  • 20.7 Evaluation: Evaluating Self-Reflection
  • 20.8 Spotlight on … Pronouns in Context

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Describe the elements of the rhetorical situation for your proposal.
  • Apply prewriting strategies to discover a problem to write about.
  • Gather and synthesize information from appropriate sources.
  • Draft a thesis statement and create an organizational plan.
  • Compose a proposal that develops your ideas and integrates evidence from sources.
  • Implement strategies for drafting, peer reviewing, and revising.

Sometimes writing a paper comes easily, but more often writers work hard to generate ideas and evidence, organize their thoughts, draft, and revise. Experienced writers do their work in multiple steps, and most engage in a recursive process that involves thinking and rethinking, writing and rewriting, and repeating steps multiple times as their ideas develop and sharpen. In broad strokes, most writers go through the following steps to achieve a polished piece of writing:

  • Planning and Organization . Your proposal will come together more easily if you spend time at the start considering the rhetorical situation, understanding your assignment, gathering ideas and evidence, drafting a thesis statement, and creating an organizational plan.
  • Drafting . When you have a good grasp of the problem and solution you are going to write about and how you will organize your proposal, you are ready to draft.
  • Review . With a first draft in hand, make time to get feedback from others. Depending on the structure of your class, you may receive feedback from your instructor or your classmates. You can also work with a tutor in the writing center on your campus, or you can ask someone else you trust, such as a friend, roommate, or family member, to read your writing critically and give honest feedback.
  • Revising . After reviewing feedback from your readers, plan to revise. Focus on their comments: Is your thesis clear? Do you need to make organizational changes to the proposal? Do you need to explain or connect your ideas more clearly?

Considering the Rhetorical Situation

Like other kinds of writing projects, a proposal starts with assessing the rhetorical situation —the circumstance in which a writer communicates with an audience of readers about a subject. As a proposal writer, you make choices based on the purpose for your writing, the audience who will read it, the genre , and the expectations of the community and culture in which you are working. The brainstorming questions in Table 6.1 can help you begin:

Summary of Assignment

Write a proposal that discusses a problem you want to learn more about and that recommends a solution. The problem you choose must be a current problem, even though it may have been a problem for many years. The problem must also affect many people, and it must have an actual solution or solutions that you can learn about through research. In other words, the problem cannot be unique to you, and the solution you recommend cannot be one you only imagine; both the problem and the solution must be grounded in reality.

One way to get ideas about a problem to write about is to read a high-quality newspaper, website, or social media account for a week. Read widely on whatever platform you choose so that you learn what people are saying, what a newspaper’s editorial board is taking a stand on, what opinion writers are making cases for in op-eds, and what community members are commenting on. You’ll begin to get a handle on problems in your community or state that people care about. If you read a paper or website with a national or international audience, you’ll learn about problems that affect people in other places.

You will need to consult and cite at least five reliable sources. They can be scholarly, but they do not have to be. They must be credible, trustworthy, and unbiased. Possible sources include articles from reputable newspapers, magazines, and academic and professional journals; reputable websites; government sources; and visual sources. Depending on your topic, you may want to conduct a survey, an interview, or an experiment. See Research Process: Accessing and Recording Information and Annotated Bibliography: Gathering, Evaluating, and Documenting Sources for information about creating and finding sources. Your proposal can include a visual or media source if it provides appropriate, relevant evidence.

Another Lens. Another way to approach a proposal assignment is to consider problems that affect you directly and affect others. Perhaps you are concerned about running up student loan debt. Or perhaps you worry about how to pay your rent while earning minimum wage. These concerns are valid and affect many college students around the United States. Another way is to think about problems that affect others. Perhaps students in your class or on your campus have backgrounds and experiences that differ from yours— what problems or challenges might they have encountered during their time in college that you don’t know about?

As you think about the purpose and audience for your proposal, think again about the rhetorical situation, specifically about the audience you want to reach and the mode of presentation best suited to them and your purpose. For example, say you’re dissatisfied with the process for electing student leaders on your campus. If your purpose is to identify the problems in the process and propose a change, then your audience would include other students, the group or committee that oversees student elections, and perhaps others. To reach other students who might also be dissatisfied, you might write an article, editorial, or letter for the campus newspaper, social media page, or website, depending on how students on your campus get news. In addition, you might organize a meeting of other students to get their input on the problem. To reach the decision makers, which may include elected students, faculty, and administrators, you might need to prepare an oral presentation and a slide deck.

Below in Figure 6.7 are three slides from Shawn Krukowski’s proposal that he adapted for a presentation: the title slide, a slide on one aspect of the problem, and a slide introducing one of the proposed solutions.

Shawn Krukowski adapted the proposal for a presentation. One slide shows the title SLOWING CLIMATE CHANGE: A CALL TO ACTION. The second slide shows an infographic of the 2020 hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean with specific numbers and the named storms. The third slide shows a graphical representation of the global carbon emissions in the Industrial Age.

Quick Launch: Finding a Problem to Write About

A proposal must address a real-life problem and present one or more workable solutions. Usually, problems worth writing about are not easily solved; if they were, they would no longer be considered problems. Indeed, problems in proposals are often complex, and solutions are often complicated and involve trade-offs. Sometimes people disagree about whether the problem is a problem at all and whether any proposed solutions are viable solutions.

Exploring a Problem

One way to generate ideas about a problem is to brainstorm. To explore a topic for your proposal, use a graphic organizer like Table 6.2 to write responses to the following statements and questions:

For example, perhaps you’re considering a career in information technology, and you’re taking an IT class. You might be interested in exploring the problem of data breaches. A data breach is a real-world problem with possible solutions, so it passes the first test of being an actual problem with possible solutions. Your responses to the questions above might look something like those in Table 6.3 :

Narrowing and Focusing

Many problems for a proposal can be too broad to tackle in a single paper. For example, the sample above reveals that data breaches are indeed a problem but that several aspects can be explored. If you tried to cover all the aspects, you would be left writing general paragraphs with little specific information. The topic needs to be narrowed and focused.

The data breaches example above could be narrowed to the following problems—and possibly even more. Note that the questions start to zero in on possible solutions, too. In your own writing, as you brainstorm, try placing subtopics you discover into their own categories and asking more questions, as shown in Table 6.4 .

Sample Proposal Topics

The following broad topics are potentially suitable as a start for a proposal. Choose one of these or one of your own, and ask the exploring questions. Then look at your responses, and ask focusing questions. Continue to focus until you have a specific problem that you can discuss in sufficient depth and offer a concrete solution or solutions.

  • Health fields: cost of medical and dental care for uninsured people, management of chronic conditions and diseases, infection control, vaccinations, access to mental health care, drug use and addiction, sports injuries, workplace safety
  • Education: gaps in academic achievement, curriculum, recruitment and retention of staff and/or students, buildings and grounds, graduation rates, cocurricular activities
  • Environment: forest management and fires, hurricanes and other extreme storms, water and air pollution, sustainable development, invasive species, waste management, recycling and composting, community gardening
  • Engineering and computer science: robotics, vehicles and transportation, digital divide, online privacy, misinformation and misbehavior on social media, video games
  • Business and manufacturing: quality improvement, process improvement, cost control, communication, social media, pay equity, fundraising, sourcing of materials, net-zero energy processes, workplace safety
  • Policy and politics: public institutions, such as public schools, libraries, transportation systems, and parks; taxes, fees, and services; donations to political campaigns; healthcare, such as Medicare and Medicaid; social security; unemployment insurance; services for active military and veterans; immigration policy
  • Society and culture: social media and free speech; inequality in housing, employment, education, and more; cancel culture; bullying; wealth and poverty; support for the arts; athletes and sports; disparities related to race, sex, gender identity and expression, age, and/or ability

Gathering Information

Proposals are rooted in information and evidence; therefore, most proposal assignments require you to conduct research. Depending on your assignment, you may need to do formal research, an activity that involves finding sources and evaluating them for reliability, reading them carefully and taking notes, and citing all words you quote and ideas you borrow. See Research Process: Accessing and Recording Information and Annotated Bibliography: Gathering, Evaluating, and Documenting Sources for detailed instruction on conducting research. If you are proposing a solution to a problem in your local community or on your campus, you may need to conduct primary research as well, such as a survey or interviews with people who live or work there.

Whether you conduct in-depth research or do background reading, keep track of the ideas that come to you and the information you learn. You can write or dictate notes using an app on your phone or computer, or you can jot notes in a journal if you prefer pen and paper. Then, when you are ready to begin to organize what you have learned, you will have a record of your thoughts and information. Always track the source of the information you gather, whether from your reading or a person you interviewed, so that you can return to that source if you need more information and can credit the source in your paper.

Kinds of Evidence

You will use evidence to demonstrate that the problem is real and worthy of being solved and that your recommended solution is workable. Choose evidence for your proposal that is rooted in facts. In addition, choose evidence that best supports the angle you take on your topic and meets your instructor’s requirements. Cite all evidence you use from a source. Consider the following kinds of evidence and examples of each:

Definition : an explanation of a key word, idea, or concept.

The Personal Data Notification & Protection Act of 2017 defines a security breach as “a compromise of the security, confidentiality, or integrity of, or the loss of, computerized data that results in… (i) the unauthorized acquisition of sensitive personally identifiable information; or (ii) access to sensitive personally identifiable information that is for an unauthorized purpose, or in excess of authorization.”

Example : an illustration of an idea or concept.

Every month, university staff members receive a fake phishing email from the IT department. The goal is to train employees of the university to be critical readers of every email they receive.

Expert opinion : a statement by a professional whose opinion is respected in the field.

In The Sixth Extinction , science writer Elizabeth Kolbert observes that humans are making the choice about “which evolutionary pathways will remain and open and which will be forever closed” (268).

Fact : information that is true and can be proven correct or accurate. Statements of fact are built on evidence and data.

In March and April of 2020, 43 states in the United States issued orders directing residents to stay home except for essential activities.

Interview : a person-to-person, phone, or remote conversation that involves an interviewer posing questions to another person or group of people.

During an interview, I asked about parents’ decisions to vaccinate their children. One pediatrician said, “The majority of parents see the benefits of immunizations for their children and for public health. For those who don’t, I talk to them and try to understand why they feel the way they do.”

Quotation : the exact words of an author or speaker.

According to the Federal Aviation Administration, SpaceX was required to conduct a “comprehensive review of the company’s safety culture, operational decision-making, and process discipline,” in addition to investigating the crash of its prototype spacecraft (Chang).

Statistics : numerical fact or item of data.

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, more than 40 million tons of food waste were generated in 2017, comprising 15.2% of all trash sent to landfills (DeSilver).

Survey : a structured interview in which respondents are all asked the same questions and their answers are tabulated and interpreted. Surveys reveal attitudes, beliefs, or habits of the general public or segments of the population.

In a survey of adults conducted in July 2020, 64 percent of respondents said that social media have a mostly negative effect on American society (Auxier).

  • Visuals and other media : graphs, figures, tables, photographs, diagrams, charts, maps, videos, audio recordings, etc.

Thesis and Organization

Drafting a thesis.

When you have a solid grasp of the problem and solution, try drafting a thesis . A thesis is the main idea that you will convey in your proposal and to which all the paragraphs in the paper should relate. In a proposal, you will likely express this main idea in a thesis statement of one or two sentences toward the end of the introduction.

For example, in the thesis statement Shawn Krukowski wrote for his proposal on climate change, he identifies the problem and previews the solutions he presents:

student sample text What is needed to slow climate change is unified action in two key areas—mitigation and adaptation—spurred by government leadership in the United States and a global commitment to addressing the problem immediately. end student sample text

Here is another example that identifies a problem and multiple solutions:

student sample text The number of women employed in the IT field is decreasing every year, a trend that can be changed with a multifaceted approach that includes initiatives in middle schools, high schools, and colleges; active recruitment; mentoring programs; and flexible work arrangements. end student sample text

After you draft a thesis statement, ask these questions and revise it as needed:

  • Is it engaging? A thesis for a proposal should pique readers’ interest in the problem and possible solutions.
  • Is it precise and specific? If you are interested in curbing the spread of invasive plant species, for example, your thesis should indicate which environment the plant or plants are invading and that you are proposing ways to stop the spread.

Organizing Your Ideas

A proposal has a recognizable shape, starting with an introduction, followed by discussions of the problem, possible solutions, potential objections to the solutions, and a conclusion with a recommendation. A graphic organizer like Table 6.5 can help you organize your ideas and evidence.

Drafting a Proposal

With a tentative thesis, an organization plan, and evidence, you are ready to begin drafting your proposal. For this assignment, you will discuss a problem, present possible solutions, address objections to the solutions, and conclude with a recommendation.

You may choose to write the introduction first, last, or midway through the drafting process. Whenever you choose to write it, use it to draw readers in. Make the proposal topic clear, and be concise. End the introduction with your thesis statement.

Opening a proposal with an overview of your topic is a reliable strategy, as shown in the following student-written example on women working in IT. The thesis statement, which appeared earlier in this section, is underlined:

student sample text People who work in the information technology (IT) field often start their careers fixing computers and other electronic devices for others. Through experience and education, an IT worker’s career path can branch out to specialize in everything from programming new software to setting up and maintaining networks. The IT field is growing because of the constant development of technology, and the demand for employees also is growing. underline Yet the number of women employed in the IT field is decreasing every year, a trend that can be changed with a multifaceted approach that includes initiatives in middle schools, high schools, and colleges; active recruitment; mentoring programs; and flexible work arrangements end underline . end student sample text

Body Paragraphs: Problem, Solutions, Objections

The body paragraphs of your proposal should present the problem, the solution or solutions, and potential objections to the proposed solution(s). As you write these paragraphs, consider using the point , evidence , and analysis pattern:

  • The point is the central idea of the paragraph, usually given in a topic sentence stated in your own words at or toward beginning of the paragraph.
  • With the evidence you provide, you develop the paragraph and support the point given in the topic sentence. Include details, examples, quotations, paraphrases, and summaries from sources. In your sentences and paragraphs, synthesize the evidence you give by showing the connections between sources. See Position Argument: Practicing the Art of Rhetoric and Argumentative Research: Enhancing the Art of Rhetoric with Evidence for more information on quoting, summarizing, paraphrasing, and synthesizing.
  • The analysis comes at the end of the paragraph. In your own words, draw a conclusion about the evidence you have provided and relate it to the topic sentence.

The paragraphs that follow show the point-evidence-analysis pattern in practice.

Body Paragraphs: Problem

Follow the introduction with a discussion of the problem. Using paragraph structure, define the problem and discuss it, drawing on evidence from your sources. This paragraph (or paragraphs) should answer these questions: What is the problem? Why is this a problem? The following example, from the proposal on women working in IT, answers the first question:

student sample text The information technology (IT) field is continuously expanding, with many more positions available than workers to fill them. In fact, the pool of IT professionals was so small that in 2001, Congress raised the visa limit in an effort to fill the gap with employees from overseas (Varma, 2002). And yet the number of women represented in the occupation is decreasing. From 1990 to 2020, the percentage of women in IT declined from 31 percent to 25 percent, even though women make up 47 percent of all employed adults in the United States. According to White (2021), only 19 percent of women pursue a computer science major in college, compared to 27 percent in 1997. Of those women who graduated with a computer science degree, 38 percent are working in the field compared to 56 percent of men, a statistic that indicates women are not staying in the field. Although gender diversity supposedly is valued in the workplace, the underrepresentation of women in IT is clearly a problem. end student sample text

The writer then goes on to answer the second question: Why is this a problem? The writer discusses stereotypes, lack of encouragement and role models, workplace culture, pay, and prospects for advancement (not shown here).

Body Paragraphs: Solutions

After presenting and explaining the problem, use specific information from the sources you consulted to present the solution or solutions you have discovered through your research. If you are proposing more than one solution, present them one at a time, using headings as appropriate.

The solutions section will likely be the longest part of your proposal. Below are two paragraphs from the proposal about women working in IT. Note how the first paragraph introduces the solutions and how the second paragraph uses evidence to develop the first proposed solution. Also note the informative boldface headings.

student sample text The following suggestions are ways to encourage women to enter IT and build their careers, with the eventual goal of achieving gender balance in the field. The solutions discussed include encouraging interest in computer technology among girls in middle school and high school, actively recruiting college-age women to study IT, and within the field, mentoring women and expanding workplace flexibility to improve retention. end student sample text

student sample text The National Center for Women & Information Technology (NCWIT) is an organization that encourages girls in middle school and high school to explore their interest in IT. One program, the NCWIT’s Aspirations in Computing, supports women in high school by showing them that they can succeed in technology and introducing them to other students with similar interests. The same program matches middle-school girls with female high-school and college students and awards scholarships for computing and programming competitions. In addition, internships and IT courses in middle school and high school provide opportunities to learn what a career in IT entails, with or without a degree in IT. Opportunities like these give girls and women support and a sense of belonging. end student sample text

The paragraphs that follow (not shown here) continue the discussion of the possible solutions.

Body Paragraphs: Objections

Depending on the problem and solution, consider the objections readers may raise, and explain why your proposal is necessary and worthwhile. For example, the proposal on women in IT does not discuss objections because few people would object to the writer’s proposal. Shawn Krukowski, however, in his proposal on climate change, includes a section on objections to taking action. He focuses the discussion on people who deny that climate change is a problem. Would you do the same? Consider whether this section of Shawn’s proposal might have been stronger had he addressed objections to the solutions he proposed—mitigation and adaptation—instead of objections to the problem.

student sample text Despite scientific evidence, some people and groups deny that climate change is real or, if they admit it exists, insist it is not a valid concern. Those who think climate change is not a problem point to Earth’s millennia-long history of changing climate as evidence that life has always persisted. Most of the change, however, predates human civilization, which has benefited from thousands of years of stable climate. The rapid change since the Industrial Revolution is unprecedented in human history. end student sample text

student sample text Those who deny climate change or its dangers seek primarily to relax or remove pollution standards and regulations in order to protect, or maximize profit from, their industries. To date, their lobbying has been successful. For example, the world’s fossil-fuel industry received $5.3 trillion in 2015 alone, while the U.S. wind-energy industry received $12.3 billion in subsidies between 2000 and 2020 (Green America, 2020). end student sample text

Conclusion and Recommendation

The conclusion and recommendation section of your proposal is the part in which you interpret your findings and make a recommendation or give a call to action. At this point, focus on the solution that will best solve the problem, suggesting or summarizing specific actions.

Below is the recommendation section from the proposal about women in IT. In the full conclusion (not shown here), the writer summarizes the main points of the proposal. In the recommendation paragraph that follows, the writer calls for specific actions:

student sample text Many researchers have studied why few women choose IT as a career and why some decide to leave the field. Although the numbers cannot be improved immediately, the following changes in school and the workplace could recruit and retain more women in IT: end student sample text

  • Include technology education courses and formal IT programs in middle- and high-school curricula to give girls and young women opportunities to develop an interest at an early age.
  • Develop internship and mentor programs in high schools and colleges to combat stereotyping and encourage women to enter the field.
  • Develop and encourage workplace mentor programs, flexible work options, and open communication for professional growth and retention.

student sample text With time and effort, these actions may result in more women seeing themselves in long-term IT careers. end student sample text

References or Works Cited Page

Including any data you gathered through primary research, such as a survey you created and administered, interviews you conducted, or observational notes you took, you must cite the sources you consulted. These sources appear in the text of your proposal and in a bibliography at the end. The paragraphs in the previous section, including Shawn Krukowski’s proposal, use APA documentation style. For more on documenting sources, see Index and Guide to Documentation , MLA Documentation and Format , and APA Documentation and Format .

Abstract or Executive Summary

An abstract (or executive summary) summarizes your proposal. The purpose is to present information briefly and economically so that readers can decide whether they want to read further. Include your main points, but not the evidence.

Although an abstract or executive summary comes first in a proposal, it is advisable to write it after you have completed your proposal and are certain of your main points. The example below is the abstract from the proposal about women in IT.

student sample text The purpose of this proposal is to raise awareness of the small number of women working in the information technology (IT) field, to examine the factors that contribute to discouraging women from entering IT, and to propose ways to draw women into the field and retain them. Although the IT field is growing, the number of women employed within it remains low. Women may be reluctant to pursue a career in IT because of stereotypes, few role models, and lack of encouragement. Women who have already established a career in IT report leaving the field for these reasons, as well as family responsibilities and lack of advancement. There are several potential ways to raise the number of women in IT. Encouraging interest in computer technology among girls in middle school and high school, recruiting college-age women to study IT, mentoring young professional women, and improving workplace flexibility will, over time, break down stereotypes and increase the number of women in the IT field. end student sample text

Peer Review: Getting Feedback from Readers

With a complete draft in hand, you may engage in peer review with your classmates, giving feedback to each other about the strengths and weaknesses of your drafts. For peer review within a class, your instructor may provide a list of questions or a form for you to complete as you work together.

Conferencing in Writing Groups

Other people can provide feedback on your writing beside your classmates. If you have an on-campus writing center, it is well worth your time to make an online or in-person appointment with a tutor at any point in your writing process. You will get valuable comments and improve your ability to review your own writing.

Another way to get fresh eyes on your writing is to ask a friend or family member to read your draft. To get useful feedback, provide a list of questions or a form such as the one shown in Table 6.6 for them to complete as they read.

Revising Your Proposal

A strong college paper is rarely written in a single draft, so build in time to revise your work. Take time with the comments you receive from your readers, and read your own work with a critical eye.

A student sits at a desk in front of a laptop computer. The student writes information on a notepad.

Responding to Reviewers’ Feedback

When you receive feedback from readers—whether from your instructor, your classmates, a writing tutor, or someone else—read each comment carefully to understand what the reader is communicating. Do your best not to become defensive, and be open to suggestions for improvement. Remind yourself that your readers are trying to help. As someone who hasn’t thought about your proposal as much as you have, a new reader can often see strengths and weaknesses that you cannot. Analyze each response, and decide whether acting on a suggestion will make your writing better. Remember that you remain the author, and you make the final call on your writing.

As you read, keep track of the comments your readers make. Pay special attention to strengths and weaknesses that more than one reader identifies. Use that information to improve later assignments as well as your proposal.

Revising on Your Own

The following revising strategies can help you read your draft critically and carefully:

  • Read your draft aloud. Read the entire text from the beginning slowly and carefully, marking spots that need revision. Reading in this way allows you to see areas that need clarification, explanation, or development that you may have missed when you wrote the first draft. You can also have someone read your draft aloud to you.
  • Make a paragraph outline. The most common unit of thought in writing is the paragraph, a group of sentences set off from other groups because they focus on a single idea. Writing a paragraph outline creates a map of your whole paper that can help you determine whether the organization is effective or needs changing. Number each paragraph and write a phrase describing its topic or focus. Check that each paragraph has a topic sentence that states the main idea of the paragraph.
  • Test your evidence. Check whether each piece of evidence is factual and supports the main idea of the paragraph. Check that each piece of evidence is introduced, woven into your sentences, and cited.
  • Listen for your voice. In most college papers, your language should sound like a real person. If your instructor requires a formal style for the assignment, the language should be objective and in third-person point of view .
  • Let go if you need to. View change as good. Learn to let go of words, sentences, paragraphs, and maybe even your entire first draft. Sometimes the best way to revise is to start fresh. The knowledge you have built in writing a first draft will serve you well if you need to start over.
  • Create a new file for each revision. Each time you revise a draft, save the new version with a new file name so that you don’t lose your previous work. That way, you can return to an earlier version of your draft if you are not happy with the revision.
  • Edit and proofread. When you are satisfied with the overall shape of your paper, reread it once again to check for sentence-level errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, and source citations.

Taking It Public: Publishing or Presenting Your Proposal

Publishing is a final step in the writing process. You may want to consider publishing your full proposal in your campus newspaper (or rewriting it as a letter to the editor) if your topic is related to your school. Or you may want to present it to an organization or committee on campus that can help you make your solution a reality. If your topic is related to the community in which you live, consider submitting your proposal to the local newspaper or presenting it at a city council meeting. (Note that if you decide to present your proposal orally, you’ll need to figure out in advance the procedure for speaking or getting on a meeting agenda.) If your topic is more general and involves substantial research, consider submitting your proposal to one of these journals that publish undergraduate research work in all fields:

  • American Journal of Undergraduate Research
  • Midwest Journal of Undergraduate Research
  • PURSUE Undergraduate Research Journal

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Access for free at
  • Authors: Michelle Bachelor Robinson, Maria Jerskey, featuring Toby Fulwiler
  • Publisher/website: OpenStax
  • Book title: Writing Guide with Handbook
  • Publication date: Dec 21, 2021
  • Location: Houston, Texas
  • Book URL:
  • Section URL:

© Apr 5, 2023 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.

  • Contact Sales
  • Download App
  • Project planning |
  • 6 steps for writing a persuasive projec ...

6 steps for writing a persuasive project proposal

Team Asana contributor image

A project proposal is a written document outlining everything stakeholders should know about a project, including the timeline, budget, objectives, and goals. Your project proposal should summarize your project details and sell your idea so stakeholders buy in to the initiative. In this guide, we’ll teach you how to write a project proposal so you can win approval and succeed at work.

All projects have creation stories, but they don’t start with someone declaring, “Let there be resources!” To move forward with a project, teams must submit a proposal to decision-makers within their organization or to external stakeholders. 

What is a project proposal?

A project proposal is a written document outlining everything stakeholders should know about a project, including the timeline, budget, objectives , and goals. Your project proposal should summarize your project details and sell your idea so stakeholders feel inclined to get involved in the initiative.

[inline illustration] What is a project proposal? (infographic)

The goal of your project proposal is to:

Secure external funding

Allocate company resources to your project

Gain stakeholder buy-in

Build momentum and excitement

Project proposals vs. project charters vs. business cases

Project proposals and project charters serve different purposes in the project creation process, and it’s important to understand the difference between the two. While a project proposal takes place in the initiation phase of the project, the project charter takes place in the planning phase. 

As mentioned above, a project proposal is a persuasive document meant to convince stakeholders why the project should be carried out. A project charter is a reference document that defines project objectives, and it can’t be created until the project proposal is approved.

People also confuse the business case with the project proposal, but the business case also comes after the proposal. Once the project is approved through a proposal, a business case may be used to secure additional funding for the project.

Types of project proposals

There are six types of proposals you may encounter as a project manager, and understanding the different formats can be useful as you write yours. Each type has a different goal.

[inline illustration] Types of project proposals (infographic)

Solicited: You’ll send solicited proposals in response to a Request for Proposal (RFP). An RFP announces a project in detail and asks for bids from qualified teams. Because you’re competing against other companies for this type of proposal, you must do thorough research and write persuasively.

Unsolicited: You’ll send unsolicited proposals without an RFP, meaning no one asked for your proposal. In this case, you won’t be up against other companies or teams, but you’ll still need to be persuasive because you have no knowledge of whether the stakeholder you’re pitching to needs you.

Informal: You may have a client send you an informal request for a project proposal, in which case you can respond with your project pitch. Because this isn’t an official RFP, the rules are less concrete.

Renewal: You’ll send renewals to existing clients in hopes that they’ll extend their services with your organization. In this type of project proposal, the goal is to emphasize past results your team has produced for the client and persuade them you can produce future results.

Continuation: You’ll send continuations as a reminder to a stakeholder letting them know the project is beginning. In this project proposal, you’ll simply provide information about the project instead of persuading the stakeholder.

Supplemental: Similar to a continuation proposal, you’ll send a supplemental proposal to a stakeholder already involved in your project. In this type of proposal, you’re letting the stakeholder know the project is beginning, while also asking for additional resources. You should persuade the stakeholder to contribute more to the project in this proposal.

The tone of voice and content of your project proposal will differ based on the type of proposal you’re sending. When you know your project goals, you can write your proposal accordingly.

How to write a project proposal

These step-by-step instructions apply to most project proposals, regardless of type. You’ll need to customize your proposal for the intended audience, but this project proposal outline can serve as a reference to ensure you’re including the key components in your document. 

[inline illustration] How to write a project proposal (infographic)

1. Write an executive summary

The executive summary serves as the introduction to your project proposal. Similar to a report abstract or an essay introduction, this section should summarize what’s coming and persuade the stakeholder to continue reading. Depending on the complexity of your project, your executive summary may be one paragraph or a few paragraphs. 

Your executive summary should include:

The problem your project plans to solve

The solution your project provides for that problem

The impact your project will have 

You should only address these items briefly in your executive summary because you’ll discuss these topics in more detail later in your proposal. 

2. Explain the project background

In this section, you’ll go into the background of the project. Use references and statistics to convince your reader that the problem you’re addressing is worthwhile.

Some questions to include are:

What is the problem your project addresses?

What is already known about this problem?

Who has addressed this problem before/what research is there?

Why is past research insufficient at addressing this problem?

You can also use this section to explain how the problem you hope to solve directly relates to your organization. 

3. Present a solution

You just presented a problem in the project background section, so the next logical step in proposal writing is to present a solution. This section is your opportunity to outline your project approach in greater detail. 

Some items to include are:

Your vision statement for the project

Your project schedule , including important milestones

Project team roles and responsibilities  

A risk register showing how you’ll mitigate risk

The project deliverables

Reporting tools you’ll use throughout the project

You may not have all these items in your proposal format, but you can decide what to include based on the project scope . This section will likely be the longest and most detailed section of your proposal, as you’ll discuss everything involved in achieving your proposed solution. 

4. Define project deliverables and goals

Defining your project deliverables is a crucial step in writing your project proposal. Stakeholders want to know what you’re going to produce at the end of your project, whether that’s a product, a program, an upgrade in technology, or something else. As the stakeholder reads through your vision, this will be the section where they say, “Aha, this is what they’ll use my resources for.”

When defining your deliverables, you should include:

The end product or final objective of your project 

A project timeline for when deliverables will be ready

SMART goals that align with the deliverables you’re producing

While it’s important to show the problem and solution to your project, it’s often easier for stakeholders to visualize the project when you can define the deliverables.

5. List what resources you need

Now that you’ve outlined your problem, approach, solution, and deliverables, you can go into detail about what resources you need to accomplish your initiative.

In this section, you’ll include:

Project budget : The project budget involves everything from the supplies you’ll need to create a product to ad pricing and team salaries. You should include any budget items you need to deliver the project here.

Breakdown of costs: This section should include research on why you need specific resources for your project; that way, stakeholders can understand what their buy-in is being used for. This breakdown can also help you mitigate unexpected costs.

Resource allocation plan : You should include an overview of your resource allocation plan outlining where you plan to use the specific resources you need. For example, if you determine you need $50,000 to complete the project, do you plan to allocate this money to salaries, technology, materials, etc.

Hopefully, by this point in the proposal, you’ve convinced the stakeholders to get on board with your proposed project, which is why saving the required resources for the end of the document is a smart strategic move.

6. State your conclusion

Finally, wrap up your project proposal with a persuasive and confident conclusion. Like the executive summary, the conclusion should briefly summarize the problem your project addresses and your solution for solving that problem. You can emphasize the impact of your project in the conclusion but keep this section relevant, just like you would in a traditional essay. 

Tips for writing an effective project proposal

Following the steps listed above will ensure your project proposal has all the right elements. But if you want to impress your readers and win their approval, your writing must shine. In addition to the above, a project proposal includes:

Know your audience

As you write your proposal, keep your audience (i.e. the stakeholders) in mind at all times. Remember that the goal of the proposal is to win your audience over, not just to present your project details. For example, if you’re creating a new editing tool for a children’s publishing house, can you determine whether your stakeholders are parents and appeal to their emotional side when persuading them to buy in to your product?

Be persuasive

Persuasion is important in a project proposal because you’re hoping your audience will read your proposal and do something for you in return. If your reader isn’t intrigued by your project, they won’t feel inclined to help you. If you describe your editing tool but don’t mention the many features it will offer, how it will benefit clients, and its positive impact in the industry, your audience will wonder, “Why should I care about this project?” 

Keep it simple

While you should go into detail on your problem, approach, and solution, you shouldn’t make your project proposal overly complex. This means you can discuss the project plan for your proposed editing tool without discussing what codes the engineers will use to make each feature work. 

Do your research

A successful project proposal includes thorough research. Be prepared to back up your problem—and solution—with reputable sources, case studies, statistics, or charts so you don’t leave your audience with questions. When writing your proposal, put yourself in the reader’s shoes and ask:

Why is this a problem?

How is this a solution to the problem?

Has anyone addressed this problem before?

What are the project costs?

If you can answer these questions, then you’ve likely done enough research to support your proposed initiative.

Use project management tools to strengthen your project proposal

Good project proposals require team collaboration . With the right management tools, your team can communicate, share information, and work together on one shared document. 

When you store all your project information in one place, it’s easy to access that data when you need it. Project proposals stem from well-organized and properly planned projects, which is why project management software is a key resource to effectively write a project proposal. Ready to get started? Try Asana .

Related resources

proposal draft summary

SMART Goals: How To Write Them and Why They Matter

proposal draft summary

4 tips to use email and Asana together

proposal draft summary

6 tips to use portfolios for cross-project planning

proposal draft summary

What is resource management? Your guide to getting started

FSU | Office of Research

Florida State University Seal

Writing the Project Summary and Project Description

Project summary.

The project summary is a one page document that consists of separate overview, intellectual merits, and broader impacts sections. Each of these three sections is required to be present and must be clearly defined. All NSF proposals must have project summaries.

The project summary is one of the most important parts of the proposal. It is likely the first thing a reviewer will read, and is your best chance to grab their interest, and convince them of the importance, and quality, of your research before they even read the proposal.

Though it is the first proposal element in order, many applicants prefer to write the project summary last, after writing the project description. This allows the writer to better avoid any inconsistencies between the two.

Suggested Project Summary Outline

Project Description

Applicants have considerable freedom in developing the format Project Descriptions. NSF requires that CAREER Project Descriptions contain" a well-argued and specific proposal for activities that will, over a 5-year period, build a firm foundation for a lifetime of contributions to research and education in the context of the PI's organization".

Project Descriptions must include:

A description of the proposed research project, including preliminary supporting data where appropriate, specific objectives, methods, and procedures to be used, and expected significance of the results

A description of the proposed educational activities, including plans to evaluate their impact on students and other participants

A description of how the research and education activities are integrated with one another

results of prior NSF support if applicable

Successful applicants will propose creative, effective, integrated research and education plans, and indicate how they will assess these components.

While excellence in both research and education is expected, activity of an intensity that would lead to an unreasonable workload is not. In other words, make sure that what you propose to do is reasonable given your time and resources, and make sure that the proposal convinces the reviewers of this.

  • Work With Me
  • Education & Training
  • Free Resource Library
  • Contractor Application

A Beginner’s Guide to Proposal Drafts

Writing a proposal is a process that will likely have multiple draft milestones. The first milestone you’ll work towards is the outline draft, which will evolve into a content draft, which will become a technical draft, and then the final document. Each stage of proposal drafts is a team effort and it’s important to have all members involved in this process. However, as the proposal evolves from outline to final draft, the team members involved may change.

This draft process may not work for every team, or every proposal – there could be times when your process has an outline, a content draft, and a final document. Or, you might have six content drafts and a final. This post is a guide for what you and your proposal team should be looking for and doing at each stage.

Don’t forget to always make sure to run spell-check and save your team from reviewing distracting spelling errors.

Outline Proposal Drafts

The first draft you’ll want to put together is the outline. These are also known as ‘skeleton’ drafts; or ‘swiss cheese’ drafts (makes sense, right?) It’s exactly what you’re thinking: a synopsis of the proposal with as many pieces filled in as possible. For your outline draft, you’ll have all the RFP questions/requirements in place and loosely spaced out and so that you are able to see how many pages you could/should budget for each question/section. This is also where you will identify areas missing information and note that those holes will need to be filled.

Outline drafts are a good way to view the raw content you have available – rough template narratives, project sheets, resumes, and any required appendices/forms. You are able to see the amount of space available and also the space needed for each section of the proposal.

In your outline, you may want to mark or denote sections that are being completed by other members of the proposal team. For example, highlighting the text in a different color (I choose to go with the color pink) is an easy way to ‘mark’ which sections are missing and notify the other members of your team where they are needed.

proposal draft summary

Who is involved in the outline proposal draft?

You will likely need other proposal team member input on certain sections of the proposal drafts (that may or may not have been discussed during the kick-off meeting). These team members might include the project manager, capture manager, design team members, or even team members not on the proposal that may have the information you will need (like project data or photographs).

Content Drafts

Content drafts are where the bulk of the proposal should be in place for content review. Members of the team will look over each section and begin to refine narratives, making sure that the win themes (strategies that give our proposals structures) are carried throughout the whole proposal. It is key to make sure the ‘voice’ of the proposal stays consistent, even if the content comes from numerous sources. Be able to identify any areas where content may need to be added, expanded upon, or cut down/edited. It is possible there will be multiple content drafts/revisions of a proposal, meaning there will be numerous versions sent back and forth between the team until the final product is ready.

The members involved will be dependent on who is responsible for providing content, as well as who is responsible for reviewing content. For example, an intern might be responsible for developing a figure or graphic, but wouldn’t necessarily be involved in the overall proposal draft review.

Who is involved in the content proposal draft?

  • Project manager
  • Principal-in-charge
  • Client handler

Bonus: Sending updates of the proposals can give a sense of motivation to the team by letting them see the proposal start to take shape and the ideas visibly on paper.

Technical Drafts

Technical drafts are the last content drafts where only a minor clean-up is necessary. This is the last chance for the team to go through and make sure they stuck to the win themes, utilized a single voice, and none of the content conflicts. At this point, you may want to double-check and make sure the concepts in the proposal match the requirements of the RFP.

Key tasks to complete:

  • Final spell check
  • Final grammar check
  • Quality Assurance (QA) process: make sure the proposal is completely responsive to all the RFP requirements – all forms are completed, signatures are included, all aspects of all questions are answered, no content is missing

During the technical draft, it can be a good opportunity to have a Red Team review the proposal. This is an independent group of outside reviewers who are not a part of the proposal process that assesses the completeness of a proposal. They give fresh eyes and an outside perspective, letting you know if the proposal makes sense.

Final Drafts

Finally, you’re about to cross the finish line. There should be nothing left to edit and the document should be ready for print/submission at this point. The final draft should be submitted to the principal-in-charge and/or project manager to get final approval for submission.

Keep in mind, not every proposal or team will follow this process, and that’s okay. But, if you are to complete these draft steps, I hope this guide on proposal drafts will help you to know what to look for and do. Now that I’m done explaining my draft process, tell me, what is your review process?

proposal draft summary

Audrey Gutgsell | Marketing & Communications Intern

Audrey is a rising fourth-year student in the Moody College at the University of Texas at Austin pursuing a Bachelor’s in Public Relations. She is always open and ready to learn more when it comes to enhancing her skills in both communication and writing. She is a passionate advocate for diversity, equity, and inclusion. Audrey would describe herself as intuitive, positive, and goal-oriented. She is looking forward to starting a career in PR and cultivating meaningful relationships with clients, media, influencers, and community partners. 

Share with a fellow marketer:

Related Posts

Leave a comment cancel reply, ready to start writing better proposals.

proposal draft summary

  • More Networks

We use essential cookies to make Venngage work. By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts.

Manage Cookies

Cookies and similar technologies collect certain information about how you’re using our website. Some of them are essential, and without them you wouldn’t be able to use Venngage. But others are optional, and you get to choose whether we use them or not.

Strictly Necessary Cookies

These cookies are always on, as they’re essential for making Venngage work, and making it safe. Without these cookies, services you’ve asked for can’t be provided.

Show cookie providers

  • Google Login

Functionality Cookies

These cookies help us provide enhanced functionality and personalisation, and remember your settings. They may be set by us or by third party providers.

Performance Cookies

These cookies help us analyze how many people are using Venngage, where they come from and how they're using it. If you opt out of these cookies, we can’t get feedback to make Venngage better for you and all our users.

  • Google Analytics

Targeting Cookies

These cookies are set by our advertising partners to track your activity and show you relevant Venngage ads on other sites as you browse the internet.

  • Google Tag Manager
  • Infographics
  • Graphic Design
  • Graphs and Charts
  • Data Visualization
  • Human Resources
  • Training and Development
  • Beginner Guides

Blog Business

How to Write Winning Business Proposals: Examples & Free Templates (2023)

By Aditya Sheth , May 25, 2023

how to write a business proposal

The great Mark Cuban once said, “Sales cure all.” If a business doesn’t sell, it doesn’t make money and by extension the business fails. That’s why you need to write business proposals .

A well-written business proposal can often mean the difference between winning or losing a prospective client.

In this in-depth guide to creating business proposals, we show you how to close more deals, make more sales and crush your business goals — all by using easy-to-edit professional business proposal templates .

Here’s what this guide will cover (click to jump ahead):

What is a business proposal.

  • How to write a business proposal step by step

What should you include in a business proposal?

Business proposal format, what are the types of business proposals, more business proposal examples + writing and design tips.

  • FAQs about business proposals

Looking for a shortcut? Watch this quick video for an overview of everything to include in your business proposal:

An effective business proposal is a document used by a B2B or business-facing company (this may not always be the case) where a seller aims to persuade a prospective buyer into buying their goods or services.

A business proposal outlines what your business does and what you can do for your client . It can be general like this business proposal example:

general business proposal template

Or it can be more specific, like this business proposal template which focuses on proposing a project for the Newton Center Rail:

simple business proposal project proposal template

Or this business proposal sample, which presents a plan for a social media strategy and campaign:

social media marketing business proposal template

To design a business proposal that holds the client’s attention, identify their pain points . Then provide your buyer with the right solution to alleviate those frustrations.

Return to Table of Contents

How to write a business proposal step by step

Before you start creating your business proposal template, you need to know what it comprises. At a high level, your effective business proposal should include the following:

  • Table of contents
  • Executive summary
  • The problem statement
  • The proposed solution
  • Qualifications
  • The timeline

Pricing, billing, and legal

  • Terms and conditions
  • The acceptance

Below, you can see business proposal examples that demonstrate how to include these 10 sections.

Business proposal title

A compelling title could mean the difference between someone reading your proposal or ignoring it in favor of a competitor’s. 

What makes a good title page? Here are the essential elements to include: 

  • Your name along with your company’s name
  • The name of the prospect (or their business) 
  • The date you’re submitting the proposal

Gray Business Consulting Proposal Template Cover Page_Venngage

The gray business consulting proposal template above contains all the details a prospect would want to know. The title also offers a strong tangible benefit to the prospective buyer. Honestly, “Who doesn’t want to grow their business?”

Return to business proposal content sections

The table of contents is a fundamental part of every winning business proposal template. It makes your proposal scannable and easy to read.

The people you will be pitching to are usually C-level executives. These are busy people who don’t have time to read your entire proposal in one go.

That’s why most of the business proposal examples in this list include a table of contents.

Adding a table of contents to your document makes it easy for them to go through it at their own pace. They can also skim through parts of the proposal that they deem more important. You can see how this abstract business proposal template uses the table of contents:

Creative Social Media Business Proposal Template Table of Contents

You can also make your business proposal template easier to navigate by adding hyperlinks to the document, particularly in the table of contents. This way your clients can jump to specific sections without having to scroll through the entire document. 

It’s easy to add hyperlinks in the Venngage editor. Select the text you’d like to turn into a link, then click the link icon in the top bar. From there, select the page you want to link to! Then download your completed design as an Interactive PDF .


The executive summary is a staple in all kinds of annual reports , leadership development plan , project plans and even marketing plans . It is a concise summary of the entire contents of your document. In other words, write a business proposal outline that is easy to glance over and that highlights your value proposition.

The goals of your executive summary are:

  • Introduce your company to your buyer
  • Provide an overview of your company goals
  • Showcase your company’s milestones, overall vision and future plans
  • Include any other relevant details

This gray business proposal example has a detailed yet short executive summary including some social proof in the form of clients they’ve worked with:

Gray Business Consulting Proposal Template About Us

Take note of how precise this business proposal example is. You want to keep your executive summary concise and clear from the get-go. This sets the right tone for the rest of your proposal. It also gives your buyer a reason to continue reading your proposal.

Pro Tip: Try to write an executive summary such that, even if your prospective client doesn’t read the entire proposal (with a good executive summary, they most likely will), they should have a clear idea about what your company does and how you can help them.

The point of writing a business proposal is to solve a buyer’s problem. Your goal is to outline the problem statement as clearly as possible. This develops a sense of urgency in your prospect. They will want to find a solution to the problem. And you have that solution.

 A well-defined problem statement does two things: 

  • It shows the prospect you have done your homework instead of sending a generic pitch
  • It creates an opportunity for you to point out a problem your prospect might not be aware they had in the first place. 

Texture Business Proposal Template

This bold business proposal template above clearly outlines the problem at hand and also offers a ray of hope i.e. how you can solve your prospect’s problem. This brings me to… 

The good stuff. In the proposed solution section, you show how you can alleviate your prospective buyer’s pain points. This can fit onto the problem statement section but if you have a comprehensive solution or prefer to elaborate on the details, a separate section is a good idea.

Spare no details regarding the solution you will provide. When you write a business proposal, explain how you plan to deliver the solution. Include an estimated timeline of when they can expect your solution and other relevant details.

For inspiration, look at how this business proposal template quickly and succinctly outlines the project plan, deliverables and metrics :

Sales Plan Proposal Table Template_Venngage

At this point, the prospect you’re pitching your solution to likes what they’re reading. But they may not trust you to deliver on your promises. Why is this?

It’s because they don’t know you. Your job is to convince them that you can fix their problem. This section is important because it acts as social proof. You can highlight what your company does best and how qualified your team is when you write a business proposal for a potential client.

business proposal qualifications section

This free business proposal template showcases the company’s accolades, client testimonials, relevant case studies, and industry awards. You can also include other forms of social proof to establish yourself as a credible business. This makes it that much more likely that they will say yes!

Pro Tip: Attaching in-depth case studies of your work is a great way to build trust with a potential client by showcasing how you’ve solved similar problems for other clients in the past. Our case study examples post can show you how to do just that.

To further demonstrate just how prepared you are, it’s important to outline the next steps you will take should your buyer decide to work with you.

Provide a timeline of how and when you will complete all your deliverables. You can do this by designing a  flow chart . Or add a  roadmap  with deadlines. Pitching a long-term project? A timeline infographic would be a better fit.

If you look at this abstract business proposal template below, even something as simple as a table can do the trick.

Abstract Business Consulting Proposal Template Timeline_Venngage

The timeline is not always set in stone, rather it’s an estimation. The goal is to clarify any questions your potential client might have about how you will deliver for the underlying B2B sales process.

On this page, you can outline your fees, payment schedule, invoice payment terms , as well as legal aspects involved in this deal.

The key to good pricing is to provide your buyer with options. A  pricing comparison table can help with this. You want to give your client some room to work with. Make sure you’re not scaring off your client with a high price, nor undervaluing yourself. 

Breaking up your pricing in stages is another great way to make sure your potential client knows what he’s paying for. Look at how this simple business proposal template does this:

Bold Business Proposal Template Pricing Page_Venngage

The legal aspects can slot right into the terms and conditions section. Alternatively, you can add them to the signature section of the proposal to keep things simple.

Summarize everything you have promised to deliver so far. Include what you expect from your prospective buyer in return.  Add the overall project timeline from start to end, as well as payment methods and payment schedule. This way, both of you will be clear on what is being agreed on.

This step is very important as it outlines all the legal aspects of the deal. That is why the terms and conditions section of your proposal needs to be as clear as possible.

Modern Business Proposal

I recommend consulting a lawyer or your legal team when working on this section of the business proposal. If you’re a business veteran and understand the legalities of your business, you can use the same terms and conditions across all your proposals.

The final step of this whole process. Your client has read your business proposal and they want to buy what you have to offer.

Add a small section at the end of your proposal to get the necessary signatures. This way, you and your client can sign the proposal and the partnership becomes official.

Be sure to also include your contact information in your business proposal template. It acts as a gentle prompt to your client to contact you in case they have any questions.


A business proposal usually aims to answer the following questions: 

  • Who you are and what your company does
  • The problem your buyer is facing
  • The solution your company offers to alleviate the problem
  • How your company will implement this solution effectively
  • An estimate of resources (time, money, etc) required to implement the solution

You can see how this sample business proposal template covers the above points.

business project proposal template

Notice how this proposal template addresses the same project like in one of the previous templates, but uses a completely different design style (more retro, while the previous business proposal template is more modern and minimalistic).

You can remove or add more sections depending on the goal of your business proposal. Essential, your business proposal can follow this format:

  • Pricing, billing and legal

We go into detail on how you can write a business proposal (plus different business proposal templates you can apply the tips to) in the next section . But you can also click on the format items above to learn how you can best write them!

If you aim to create a holistic business proposal, feel free to just edit from the two templates right above. You can also add your brand colors and logo to your design, using My Brand Kit :

Here’s another example of a business proposal template that you can edit:

simple b2c business growth proposal template

Generally, there are three types of business proposals:

1. Formally solicited 

A formally solicited business proposal is made when you respond to an official request to write a business proposal.

In this scenario, you know all the requirements and have more (if not all) information about a prospective buyer. You simply need to write the business proposal for your buyer to evaluate so you can begin the sales process .

2. Informally solicited 

Informally solicited business proposals are written when there isn’t an official request for a proposal. A prospective buyer is interested in your services and asks for a proposal so they can evaluate it.

An informally solicited proposal requires a lot more research from your end. These types of proposals are usually created out of informal conversations. They are not based on official requests which often contain more detail.

3. Unsolicited 

Think of this as a marketing brochure or a cold email . Unsolicited business proposals will often take a generic, one-size-fits-all approach to business proposals. Unsolicited proposals lack any understanding of the buyer or their requirements.

But with additional  market research , personalization and identifying customer pain points , you can propose a customized solution based on your buyer’s needs. This can be a very persuasive approach, such as in this business proposal example:

corporate business proposal example

Now that you know how to write a business proposal, let’s look at how you can optimize your proposal to deliver results!

Below you’ll find some winning business proposal templates and examples to get you started. I’ve also included some design tips to keep in mind when you’re creating your next business proposal: 

1. Know your audience 

If you have some clarity on who your ideal buyer is — their pain points, their budget, deadlines, among other things — you’ve already won half the battle.

If you are a business that helps clients with everything from running giveaways or helping grow their blog , identify which customers to pitch. This is a sure-shot way to close the deal.

Mapping user personas  for your ideal buyer can help bring some clarity. It will also help you position your business proposal correctly. This improves the chance of your buyer moving your business proposal to the “Yes!” pile.

2. Put your brand front and center

If your company follows certain brand guidelines, incorporate them in your business proposal templates. Consider how business proposal examples like the one below highlight brand identity :

content marketing plan business proposal example

From the color palettes to the company logos , everything follows their brand guidelines. The result: a business proposal that’s consistent across the board.

Pro Tip: Switching this template to match your brand assets is actually pretty easy. Venngage’s My Brand Kit feature allows you to import your color palettes, logos as well as font choices. Any Venngage template can now be your template.

You can also consider this sample business proposal template:

Example of a Business Proposal

Design companies sure do know their design. They did a phenomenal job keeping their brand colors consistent while opting for a black design. This unique color scheme also makes their white logo prominent throughout the proposal.

3. Try less text, more visuals

Have you ever read a proposal and thought to yourself, “Wow, this is all text and has no images, I love it!”? Yeah, me neither.

The free business proposal template below is a perfect example of the “less is more” principle. It does a phenomenal job of communicating what it needs to. By substituting some of the text with icons and visuals, you get a clean business proposal that’s much more scannable.

Social Media Plan Proposal Template

Want to keep things strictly professional? Instead of icons, you can always add your team’s headshots. This shows your buyer exactly who they’ll be working with.  

Check out this formal business proposal format for some inspiration:

Red Human Resources Consulting Proposal Template Team

4. Switch up your business proposal designs

It doesn’t hurt to go above and beyond once in a while. Jazz up your business proposal template with some extra colors. This helps make your business proposal more engaging. It also helps your buyers retain information faster.

Simple Business Proposal Example

The business proposal example alternates between black, white and grey backgrounds. It still manages to maintain consistency in its branding . Just switching up your backgrounds once in a while can also bring in some variety to an otherwise standard business proposal.

This SEO business proposal sample proves that it’s possible to switch up the colors in every other page. But it still maintains the same color scheme across the entire proposal just like a professionally designed website : 

SEO Marketing Proposal

Pro Tip: Not a color expert? Our guide on picking colors can help you pick the right color scheme for your proposals.

FAQ about business proposals

What is the purpose of a business proposal.

A business proposal aims to streamline the B2B sales process (which is often complex) between you as a seller and a buyer.

It does this by serving the dual purpose of acting as a source of information. The proposal also acts as a sales pitch aimed at convincing your buyer why they should buy what you have to offer.

What are the best practices for business proposal design?

  • Do a thorough spell-check. The goal of your business proposal is to convince your buyer why you’re the perfect person for the job. A proposal with typos or grammatical errors communicates the opposite. A thorough spell-check before you send your proposal is a must.
  • Keep things clear and readable: Clarity is an important aspect that you have to ensure in your business proposal. If you want your proposal to hit home and make an impact on the buyer, you have to write it in an understandable way. To keep things clear and readable, there are a couple of things that you can do. You can, for one, take care to use easy wording and segmented sentences from the get-go. You can also try paraphrasing the hard parts of your proposal once you are done writing it.
  • Let your brand shine. As discussed before, writing a business proposal is all about knowing your ideal buyer and focusing on their pain points. But that doesn’t mean your business proposal template has to be boring. Demonstrate how different you are compared to other companies. You can do this through your brand guidelines , by using more visuals, switching up your proposal design or showing off your personality in your writing . 
  • Create a business proposal PDF. Downloading your business proposal in PDF format allows you to attach other collaterals with your business proposal. These can include a company explainer video or case studies showcasing the work done with past clients. Also, who doesn’t love saving paper?

How long should your business proposal be? 

The length depends on the scope of the work as well as the complexity of the project. Here is a one-page business proposal template:

one page business proposal template

Can your business proposal template really be one page? Yes, as long as you understand who your buyer is and their pain points. You should also have the ability to communicate everything your ideal buyer needs to know about your business in a succinct manner.

Or if you’re feeling adventurous how about just two pages? Often, clients prefer if you go straight to the point and avoid all the fluff.

For example, this green modern marketing proposal template wastes no time in getting down to brass tacks:

Project Business Proposal

Need more inspiration? Check out this blog on the 5 marketing proposal examples that’ll help elevate your business.

There is no one size fits all approach when it comes to deciding how many pages you should include in your business proposal template. And at the end of the day, “the only rules are the ones you set for yourself”.

At the end of the day, writing winning business proposals that sell is all about you understanding your buyer, their potential pain points and positioning yourself as someone who can alleviate those pain points. 

Now that you know how to write compelling business proposals, what are you waiting for?

Take action and start creating your own business proposals to close more deals and grow your business today!

More business communications templates + writing tips you might be interested in…

31 Consulting Proposal Templates to Close Deals

How to Write a Project Proposal [10+ Templates]

20+ Professional Business Letterhead Templates + Branding Tips

How to Write a White Paper [Tips & Templates]

How to Write a Proposal in 10 Easy Steps [Templates Included]

You’re tasked with writing a proposal, and a lot is at stake.

Now is not the time to guess. What should you write? How can you appeal to the client’s deepest desires? How do you satisfy client expectations for your specific industry?

Now is the time to follow a proven process. We’ve analyzed millions of proposals sent with our software to see which tips and tricks actually have an impact on closing rates.

We’re covering all that and more.

Keep reading for our step-by-step guide that shows you exactly how to write a proposal simply by customizing the sections in one of our proposal templates . The right template will show you exactly what to include while helping you save hours on design and formatting.

Graphic showing the elements needed to write a proposal

What’s in this guide:

What is a proposal?

How to write a proposal in 10 easy steps, industry-specific proposal writing guidelines, 3 proposal templates, next steps: write your own proposal.

A proposal is a document that outlines a project or service to clarify the details and get agreement from all parties involved. Proposals typically include the overall service approach, important timelines, and key deliverables.

For best results, use proposal software instead of a PDF. This way, you’ll get important features for sales like e-signatures, brand and content control, and full visibility into the client’s viewing activity.

The 9 Important parts of a proposal

There are many different ways to structure a proposal . Through our research of successful proposals , we’ve found that the winning documents usually include these key sections:

Executive Summary


Terms and Conditions

Case Studies (or Social Proof)

Each proposal might name these key sections differently, or put them in a different order.

No matter the sections you choose, make sure you include a table of contents. If you use Proposify , the table of contents is automatically shown on the left-hand side, so clients can easily click around to review different sections again. As you might imagine, the pricing section is often viewed a few times before a decision is made.

Proposals vs reports

While a proposal is used to pitch a new project or service (either to a client or internally to your boss), a report is designed to share details on a project that’s already taken place. Use reports to audit business operations or share the success of a marketing campaign.

Follow along with our step-by-step process, as we use our advertising proposal template . While the content of the examples is specific to advertising, this template can easily be adjusted to fit any industry or project type.

Step 1. Discover the needs and requirements

You can’t write a great proposal without a great pitch.

Take the time to understand what your client needs, what their goals are, what they’re concerned about, and what results they care about most.

If you’re pitching a project internally, be sure to talk with different stakeholders and members of your team.

Tips for discovery:

During discovery sessions , ask the appropriate questions to find out if the client is worth your time. Do they fit your ideal client profile? Are they ready to implement your solution? Set criteria to determine if this prospect is ready to even receive a proposal for you. And make sure to update your criteria over time as you learn more about your ideal client.

Proactively discover and handle objections . Ask the client about any concerns, hesitations, or times they’ve been burned by service providers before. This way, you know exactly what points to cover in your proposal.

Get verbal agreement from the client on your pitch and approach before putting it in writing with a proposal.

Step 2. Create the cover page

Kick off your proposal writing with a compelling cover page (also known as the title page). The visuals and style take center stage here—it’s your first impression after all. As for the text, you just need a proposal title and key details such as your company’s name, the client’s name, the date, and your contact information.

Our proposal example features a bright, bold design and all of the details you need. There’s no “one way” to do this right, as long as you’re following your brand guidelines.

Writing a proposal. Advertising packages

Tips for creating cover pages:

Give your project a results-driven title that will immediately put the entire pitch and investment into perspective.

Make sure to choose a proposal template that matches the style of your brand, as it will be easy to change the colors and text later.

Step 3. Write the cover letter

Now it’s time to write your cover letter. This is one of the most challenging proposal sections to write because it really sets the tone for the rest of your pitch.

The cover letter (also known as the executive summary) should do more than just provide an overview. This section must be persuasive enough to convince your client to read the rest of the proposal.

Appeal to their desires, hit their key pain points, and get them excited about the transformation you can provide. Make sure you’re crafting compelling, relevant messaging specifically for each individual buyer.

Writing a proposal. Cover letter.

Tips for writing cover letters:

Make sure the copy is on brand. That might mean funny and irreverent or serious and formal.

Put the focus on the outcome of the service, whether that’s customer acquisition, improved facility safety, or a memorable event.

Step 4. Create a company bio

Before you move on to the project approach and pricing, it’s smart to tell the potential client a bit about your company.

This section could include basic information such as your founding date and the niche you focus on, as well as small business bragging rights, such as awards, average results, or audience reach.

If this is an internal pitch, you can write about your team instead of the entire company.

In our example proposal, there’s one page for a company bio and one page for company statistics that matter to the potential client.

Writing a proposal. Who are we?

Tips for writing company bios:

Even though this section is about you, find ways to make it about your prospective client. Include the company details that show that you can get them the results they’re looking for.

Get creative. Instead of just a wall of text, can you use icons or statistics to show who you are?

Make sure to save this section as a template to re-use it for future proposals. You don’t have to modify this for each client, but you might want to create slightly different company bios for different services (if you offer very different services).

Step 5. Add social proof

We recommend that you include social proof immediately after your company bio section. This way, you use the words of your previous clients to back up the nice things you just said about yourself.

Social proof can be testimonials, mini case studies, reviews, and star rating averages.

If you’re doing creative or construction work, you might also want to include a couple of portfolio samples.

What people are saying.

Tips for using social proof:

Match the testimonial or review to the pitch. Have a bank of testimonials to choose from so you can always pick the most relevant ones.

Be concise. You may want to trim or edit long testimonials so each one is under 50 words. Otherwise, prospective clients might not read them.

Continue to proactively collect social proof. Ask happy clients to write a testimonial or review you online

Step 6. Outline the core approach

Now it’s time to sell your services. Create an approach section to showcase what you want you plan to offer the client.

There are so many different ways to write this section, as it really depends on what you’re pitching. You might break the work down into categories with bullet points or descriptions for each category. Or, you might write a few paragraphs describing your proposed solution and why you believe it’s the best fit for the client.

Your advertising media mix.

Tips for writing approach sections:

Consider giving this section a unique name, such as The Project Path , Our Plan , or Let’s Get to Work .

Beef it up with additional details. You might include a list of deliverables, a more detailed breakdown of the scope of services, or a timeline illustration with important milestones.

If you don’t have package options and there’s only one price listed, then this section should be very detailed. If there are pricing and service options, then this section will be simpler, and the following section will have the service breakdowns (per package options).

Step 7. Create a pricing table

When writing proposals, make sure to give plenty of time and attention to the pricing section. All of the details and options you provide will help clients better understand what they’re getting.

We recommend naming this section "Your Investment" as it helps remind potential buyers of the investment they’re making in their business.

In our example below, you’ll see 3 package options on the first page of the pricing section. And then, the client can select their package choice on the second page. This will automatically update the total pricing of the proposal.

Advertising with us: Your investment

Tips for proposal pricing:

Use optional pricing when possible, such as packages, project lengths, or add-ons, because these methods are known to positively affect closing rates .

Make sure to clarify the different types of costs, such as hourly costs versus fixed costs for an event management pitch.

Step 8. Write bios for your team members

In Step 4, you created a bio for your company to sell your company’s expertise and prove that you have what it takes to succeed at the service you’re pitching.

Now it’s time to show your client the real humans they’ll be working with if they decide to work with you. Think of this as the “you’re in good hands” section.

Include the faces the client will interact with, making sure to specify your team’s unique talents and what they bring to the table.

Our Sales Team

Tips for writing team bios:

Only include bios for up to 6 people. You could write bios for the entire company (for a very small business), the executive team, or the people who will handle the account if the proposal is won.

Use this section to show off not only your credentials but your personality. Have fun with it, but as always, stay on brand. A formal proposal might skip the jokes and stick just to the accolades.

Step 9. Add your business contract

This section of the proposal should include the contractual details that will formalize the agreement. This way, you can send the business proposal, and you don’t have to also send a separate contract.

You might have multiple pages of legal clauses or a simple statement of work.

Statement of work and contract

Tips for writing proposal contracts:

If the statement of work isn’t already clarified in the meat of the proposal, make sure to include it here.

Include a clause on refunds, cancellations, and project modifications.

Make sure to have your legal team help you craft the contract section so you know it satisfies your company’s requirements.

Step 10. Sign and send it for signature

And lastly, you need to write your e-signatures page and add an e-signature for yourself and one for your client.

As soon as a client has chosen their pricing options, they can sign the proposal to begin the project.

Writing a proposal. Standard legal content and sign-off

Tips for adding proposal e-signatures:

Write a message above the signature that helps to seal the deal. Talk about how excited you are to get started and clarify what the immediate next steps will be after the proposal is signed.

Always sign your proposals before you send them! Our research shows that a proposal is more likely to close if you’ve already signed it by the time the client opens it.

Review your proposal analytics to know how to follow up with clients. For example, if a client hasn’t opened the proposal yet, remind them to do so. But if they’ve opened it several times, ask if they have any questions or if they would like to modify the project.

Every industry has its own proposal writing best practices. Here are some tips to consider.

When writing a software proposal, ensure you include ample information on how you will help the client implement and utilize your software. That might look like staff training sessions, custom integrations, a pilot rollout, etc.


In the construction industry, you will likely receive a request for proposals (RFPs) from large corporations and government agencies. So make sure you check the details of the RFP so that your solicited proposal covers all required information.

You typically need to include a very detailed pricing and timeline breakdown, and you might need to showcase your adherence to state and county requirements , whether for certifications, environmental protections, etc.

Marketing is all about results. You should include a couple of different formats of social proof, such as statistics with client results and testimonials. Marketing also requires a lot of creativity regardless of the channel, so make sure you showcase your company’s creative side with unique proposal headings and imagery.

When you’re writing a proposal for event management, catering, or some other service, you need to keep a couple of things in mind. First, make sure that you source testimonials from event attendees, not just your direct clients. Also, your pricing section should include the fixed costs (such as a venue) and the variable costs (like your team’s hours decorating the event or the venue’s bar tab at the end of the night). For any variable costs, provide an estimate that’s 10% higher that what you actually expect.

Proposify offers dozens of proposal templates to guide your writing and help you win deals. Here are some of our favorites.

1. Construction job proposal template

Construction Job Proposal

Ready-made for the construction industry, this template includes previous projects to serve as portfolio pieces, a detailed project summary with items the client is expected to provide, and a project schedule.

2. Accounting proposal template

Accounting Proposal

While this template was created for accounting services , it can be easily modified to fit various consulting services. The top sections include the introduction letter, about us page, project summary with goals and service breakdown, and a detailed pricing estimate.

3. Catering proposal template

Catering proposal

With this event catering proposal template , you’ll get a short and sweet introduction page, a longer company bio, a food showcase, event details (great for proactively handling any confusion or mix-ups), a theme moodboard, and a menu sample.

This proposal could be adapted for other types of creative work, such as photography, retail store decorating, or makeup services.

To write an effective proposal, you must start with a solid understanding of the client’s needs. This way, you can put their desired results and transformation front and center. Write a cover letter, project summary, company bio, and pricing table to clarify what the client will receive while also selling your company as the best solutions provider.

You can easily write a proposal using our detailed, beautifully designed proposal templates .

Ready to close deals faster? Start your free trial of Proposify.

essential grammar tips image

10 Essential Grammar Tips For Better Proposal Writing

July 20, 2021

Plain language proposal writing tips

7 Business Proposal Writing Tips to Better Convey Your Message

August 31, 2021

writing language and tone for business proposals

Tips for Writing Better Business Proposals: Language, Tone, and Style

May 23, 2017

Proposify's mascot, P, in a blue suit. Coffee is for closers

Ready to make every deal a closed deal?

Get started with a free Proposify 14-day trial. No credit card required. Just more closed deals.

How to Write a Business Proposal [Examples + Template]

Meredith Hart

Published: August 09, 2023

Free Business Proposal Template

proposal draft summary

Propose your business as the ideal solution using our Free Business Proposal Templates.

  • Problem summary
  • Proposed solution
  • Pricing information
  • Project timeline

Thank you for downloading the offer.

It's finally happened. You've started a new business, and your customer base is starting to expand. But even though you're making progress, you still feel like you could be doing better.

how to write a business proposal: image shows a person holding a pen and another person typing on a laptop

There's a whole world of untapped potential around you — prospects you know would benefit from your product or service. And the issues you're running into are less about your solution's soundness and more about how you can reach your potential base.

→ Download Now: Free Business Proposal Template

That's where business proposals come in. They can bridge the gap between you and potential clients. A solid proposal can outline your value proposition and persuade a company or organization to do business with you.

Here, we'll take a look at the various kinds of business proposals and go over how to write one. We’ll also see some ideas and examples to help guide yours.

Know exactly what you need? Jump to one of the following sections:

What is a business proposal?

Types of business proposals, how to write a business proposal, business proposal templates, business proposal example, tips for writing a business proposal, business proposal ideas.

A business proposal is a formal document that’s created by a company and given to a prospect to secure a business agreement.

It's a common misconception that business proposals and business plans are the same. The proposal helps you sell your product or service rather than your business itself.

Instead of assisting your search for investors to fund your business, a proposal helps you seek new customers.

Follow Along With HubSpot's Business Proposal Template


Download the Template for Free

There are two types of business proposals: unsolicited and solicited.

  • Unsolicited Business Proposals : With unsolicited business proposals, you approach a potential customer with a proposal, even if they don't request one, to gain their business.
  • Solicited Business Proposals : Solicited business proposals are requested by prospective clients so that they can decide whether to do business with your company.

In a solicited business proposal, the other organization asks for a request for proposal (RFP). When a company needs a problem solved, they invite other businesses to submit a proposal that details how they'd solve it.

proposal draft summary

Propose your business as the ideal solution using our Free Business Proposal Templates

You're all set!

Click this link to access this resource at any time.

Fill out the form to get your template.

Whether the proposal is solicited or unsolicited, the steps to create your proposal are similar. Make sure it includes three main points:

  • A statement of the organization's problem
  • Begin with a title page.
  • Explain your why with an executive summary.
  • State the problem or need.
  • Propose a solution.
  • Share your qualifications.
  • Include pricing options.
  • Summarize with a conclusion.

Before writing your business proposal, it's crucial you understand the company. If they've sent you an RFP, make sure you read it carefully, so you know exactly what they want. It can also be helpful to have an initial call or meeting with the new client to ensure you fully understand the problem they're trying to solve and their objectives.

Once you've done your research, it's time to begin writing your business proposal. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to writing a business proposal, but let's take a look at some elements proposals often include. (I designed this example business proposal using Canva .)

1. Begin with a title page.

You have to convey some basic information here. Introduce yourself and your business. Be sure to include:

  • Your company's name
  • The date you submitted the proposal
  • The name of the client or individual you're submitting the proposal to

Your title page should reconcile engagement with professionalism. It's a tone-setter, so you need to make sure yours is sleek, aesthetically appealing, and not too "out there."

Here's an example of what a business proposal template looks like when done right:

How to Write a Business Proposal: Business Proposal Example Title Page

The executive summary details exactly why you're sending the proposal and why your solution is the best for the prospective client.

Specificity is key here. Why are you the best choice for them?

Like a value proposition, your executive summary outlines the benefits of your company's products or services and how they can solve your potential client's problem.

After reading your executive summary, the prospect should offer a clear idea of how you can help them, even if they don't read the entire proposal. Here's what one should look like:

How to Write a Business Proposal: Sample Executive Summary

3. State the problem or need.

This is where you share a summary of the issue impacting the potential client. This is your opportunity to show them you understand their needs and the problem they need help solving.

How to Write a Business Proposal: Example Event Overview

This section should show your authority in your industry. With this in mind, be sure to include:

  • Case studies
  • Client testimonials
  • Relevant awards
  • Industry accreditations

6. Include pricing options.

Pricing is where things can get a bit tricky, as you don't want to under or over-price your product.

How to write a business proposal: Include Pricing Options

The pricing section of your proposal could include:

  • A detailed pricing breakdown, including packages, tiers, and add-ons or optional services
  • How product features and benefits align with pricing choices
  • Pricing for different needs and budgets
  • How your pricing compares with competitors
  • An FAQ section to respond to anticipated objections and explain your pricing strategy

7. Summarize with a conclusion.

After sharing the above information, simplify it all into one final section.

  • First, briefly summarize the proposal. Be sure to share your qualifications and why you’d serve as the best choice.
  • Then, to prompt further conversation, confirm your availability to go over the next steps.
  • At the end of the proposal, the goal is to have the client ready to work with you. So, be sure to offer your contact information for easy follow-up.

In need of some inspiration before you begin writing? Here are example business proposal templates from popular business proposal software companies you can use to help create your proposal.

1. HubSpot's Free Business Plan Templates

HubSpot Business Proposal Template

Download these Templates

We know how crucial a great business proposal is to your and your client’s success. That's why we've compiled 2 Free Business Proposal Templates for you to use and customize for any of your projects.

You'll gain access to a concise, one-page template (pictured above), as well as a longer template for you to refine your plan and proposal.

Download the templates now to get started on building your proposal.

2. Web Design Proposal

Business Proposal Templates: Web Design

Companies, big and small, dedicate resources to establishing a noticeable social media presence. With advertising on social networks projected to reach $82.23 billion dollars in 2025 , it's in your business's best interest to have a plan for growing your client's social media presence.

To help you in that effort, the information in this social media marketing proposal includes an executive summary to help introduce your high-level ideas, an assessment of the client’s company to show your diligence, and a breakdown of billing to show how your company charges for posting, content creation, and analytics.

8. Content Marketing Proposal

Business Proposal Templates: Content Marketing

When pitching your content marketing services to clients, this template can help you organize your ideas. While it walks you through initial objectives and how to communicate your prospected results, one of the most helpful parts of this template is the pricing ideas it gives you when charging for your services.

Business proposal templates are helpful places to get started, but what should your business proposal look like when it's complete? Below, we share an example of a business proposal template that will inspire you.

In the business template example below, Social Portal Consulting (SPC) pitches a marketing proposal to Graphic Bean. At first sight, this proposal appeals to the creative. A nice touch would include designing the layout in your or your client’s brand colors.

Business Proposal Example: Social Media

Besides the design, the social media icons quickly tell the prospect what platforms Social Portal is pitching. Because we see Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest icons, the client instantly knows that this proposal doesn’t include LinkedIn, YouTube, or other platforms.

While maintaining its design, this example outlines Social Portal Consulting’s plans efficiently. It begins by providing insight into Graphic Bean and its goals before elaborating on how SPC can leverage its expertise to help them achieve them.

This business proposal template includes an easy-to-follow timeframe for goals and objectives while keeping the client abreast of how payment will happen across the project.

Overall, this is an excellent example of how to combine the elements of social media marketing into a creative and concise business proposal. Finally, we'll leave you with some business proposal ideas to get you started on your own.

  • Start with an outline.
  • Keep it simple.
  • Stay on brand.
  • Quality control.
  • Include data and visuals.
  • Add social proof.
  • Use a call-to-action.
  • Create a sense of urgency.
  • Make the decision for them.
  • Incorporate video into your proposal.
  • Include up-sell and add-on opportunities.
  • Clarify your terms and conditions.
  • Include a space for signatures to document agreement.
  • Create a table of contents.

1. Start with an outline.

If you want to produce a thoughtful, effective business proposal, you need to have some idea of what you're hoping to achieve with it.

So before you dive into writing, outline the major sections of your business proposal and the pertinent information you want to include. This will help you stay focused and make sure your message stays intact as you write.

Use these free business proposal templates to make sure that your outline includes everything you need.

2. Keep it simple.

There's no definitive blueprint for how long a business proposal has to be. Yours should be however long it takes to convey the information you want to get across.

That said, you're best off focusing on quality over quantity. Keep your sentences short and simple, and avoid including too much business jargon.

You want anyone who picks up your proposal to make sense of it. So, be straightforward and don't get too fancy. Aim for substance over flash.

3. Stay on brand.

Don't be afraid to let your company's personality shine through in your proposal. Stay true to your brand and show the client what sets you apart from your competitors.

4. Quality control.

A quick spelling and grammar check before you hit send isn't enough for a business proposal.

Your proposal needs to be clean and airtight. So, as you draft your proposal, and after checking for the basics, keep scanning this document until it's just right.

Check to make sure your proposal:

  • Meets client needs and expectations
  • Highlights your value proposition
  • Is well-structured and easy to read or skim
  • Complies with legal, ethical, and regulatory requirements
  • Looks professional and engaging

5. Include data and visuals.

You want your business proposal to capture your prospect's attention and help set you apart from any other ones they might have received. One of the best ways to do that is to include hard, quantitative data that helps stress the value of your business.

Use relevant, compelling figures that highlight what you have to offer. This can establish authority and make your proposal more convincing. It also helps to include visuals such as charts and graphs to enhance your proposal.

6. Add social proof.

You can only be so convincing when you're personally talking up how great your business is. Adding social proof lends your proposal another degree of credibility.

Prospects are skeptical. They may not take you at your word. But they'll likely trust peers and fellow customers. That's why including elements like customer quotes and testimonials can go a long way.

7. Use a call-to-action.

Prospects need direction. The best proposal in the world can only take you so far if you don't clearly define the next steps. That's why you have to make sure the reader knows what to do after reading your proposal.

A clear call-to-action is the best way to get there.

Define and highlight exactly what they should do to act on the interest your proposal has generated. Without that guidance, you might leave your reader in limbo.

HubSpot customers : Use this CTA builder to create powerful customized CTAs.

8. Create a sense of urgency.

No one wants to feel as if they missed out on a great opportunity. Without urgency, your prospect might drag their feet and put off making a decision.

So, as you create your business proposal, your goal should be to create a sense of urgency.

When prospective clients read your business proposal they should feel that the best time to sign up for your service is now.

One way you can accomplish this is by stating your short and long-term goals for their business. They'll have to wait for the long-term goals, but you can make the short-term goals so enticing that they'll be ready to begin a collaboration.

9. Make the decision for them.

Craft your copy in a way that seems like saying "no" to the proposal would be stepping over dollars to pick up pennies. Your offer should go above and beyond their expectations. Do everything in your power to remove friction and objections along the way.

10. Incorporate video into your proposal.

If you're creating an online proposal using document file formats like PDF, add multimedia elements. This will enhance the proposal experience, make your document richer, and keep them engaged.

Try adding a video at the beginning as an intro to your proposal. Or, put a video in the project breakdown to verbally discuss some of the more confusing parts.

Extras like this can make an impression. This tip works especially well with prospects who are visual or auditory communicators.

Pro tip : HubSpot Video makes it easy to record and embed video into a website or email for a big proposal boost.

11. Include up-sell and add-on opportunities.

They say you won't receive unless you ask. And readers won't explore the upper tiers of your solutions if you don't give them the opportunity.

So, share some upsells and add-ons about your business that they can act on. Call out a specific pain point and how this extra can add value.

With this step, balance is important. Show them everything your business has to offer without overwhelming your recipient.

12. Clarify your terms and conditions.

Your business proposal should include details on your project timeline and payment schedule. This summary is basically what you and the client agree to if they accept your proposal.

How to write a business proposal: Example Terms and Conditions

2. Design a business proposal website.

Impress your potential clients with a professional business proposal website. A standalone website for your proposal can help you:

  • Showcase your company
  • Highlight industry expertise
  • Offer easy access to relevant information
  • Add interactivity to your proposal

This idea will leave a lasting impression and show your commitment to your reader's experience.

New to designing websites? Try HubSpot's free CMS to build a website for your business proposal.

3. Start with a custom animation or video.

It's easy to add a premade video, like your brand video, to a business proposal. But if you really want to capture attention, try adding a custom animation or video to your business proposal.

A visual presentation of your proposal can help you break down new or complex concepts in a format that's both easy to understand and engaging. It will also set your offer apart from more traditional, text-heavy proposals.

Pro tip : Check out this post for a list of animation tools that can help you create custom animated presentations.

4. Add a VR or AR demo.

Drop in a virtual reality (VR) or augmented reality (AR) demo for an immersive proposal experience. These technologies can help you add interactivity to your product or service proposal. It also offers a unique and memorable experience with lasting impact.

Check out these resources for inspiration, and to help you decide which technology is best for your business proposal:

  • VR marketing examples
  • AR marketing examples

5. Weave sound into your proposal.

Compose a memorable song or jingle, plug in sound effects, or add royalty-free music to your business proposal.

This idea can create an emotional hook that makes your message stick in the memory of your audience.

6. Create a proposal with multiple start and end points.

If you play video games, you know the fun of playing a game over and over until you've experienced every possible ending.

So, try customizing your business proposal for different entry points. Then, allow your reader to choose which section they want to end with. This flexibility lets your audience focus on the areas that interest them most, making your proposal more relevant and engaging.

Or, add a storytelling element to your proposal with different start and end sections. This strategy can highlight your knowledge of their business and industry. It can also be a way to offer a prospect more than one relevant solution.

7. Try direct mail.

Your readers probably see a lot of digital communication. To set yourself apart, try adding a thoughtful and personalized direct mail element .

Write a handwritten note, send a small gift, or pull together a beautiful mailer. This tangible approach will make your business proposal a memorable and unique experience. This idea will express your attention to detail and commitment to personalized communication.

8. Ask an influencer to present or vouch for your proposal.

If you're already working with influencers, you know that an influencer can boost credibility and trust for your proposal.

Their endorsement can validate your ideas and show that respected figures in the industry support your proposal. This idea can add authority and appeal to your business proposal, increasing your chances of success.

Learn more about brand influencers and check out our free guide to influencer marketing here.

9. Hide one or more Easter Eggs.

Surprise and delight your audience by adding hidden Easter eggs throughout your business proposal. Whether it's a hidden message, a playful animation, or a secret section, these little surprises add a touch of fun and intrigue.

Easter eggs encourage exploration. This idea can get your readers to spend more time getting into the details of your proposal — all the while having an incredible and unique experience.

Let your business proposal do the talking.

Depending on the type of business you're in, your business proposal elements will vary based on the prospect's needs. After reading through your plan, prospective clients should have very few questions about your company and what it can do for them. With the tips and examples in this article, you have all the tools to guide you through the process. With a professional, customized business proposal, you're sure to delight your client and potentially gain their business.

Editor's note: This post was originally published in February 2020 and has been updated for comprehensiveness. This article was written by a human, but our team uses AI in our editorial process. Check out our full disclosure to learn more about how we use AI.

business proposal

Don't forget to share this post!

Related articles.

How to Start a Business: A Startup Guide for Entrepreneurs [Template]

How to Start a Business: A Startup Guide for Entrepreneurs [Template]

Product Differentiation and What it Means for Your Brand

Product Differentiation and What it Means for Your Brand

Amazon Affiliate Program: How to Become an Amazon Associate to Boost Income

Amazon Affiliate Program: How to Become an Amazon Associate to Boost Income

How to Write a Business Proposal [Examples + Template]

70 Small Business Ideas for Anyone Who Wants to Run Their Own Business

The 25 Best PayPal Alternatives of 2023

The 25 Best PayPal Alternatives of 2023

The First-Mover Advantage, Explained

The First-Mover Advantage, Explained

Intrapreneurship vs. Entrepreneurship: What's the Difference?

Intrapreneurship vs. Entrepreneurship: What's the Difference?

What Are Current Assets? Definition + Examples

What Are Current Assets? Definition + Examples

The Straightforward Guide to Value Chain Analysis [+ Templates]

The Straightforward Guide to Value Chain Analysis [+ Templates]

Propose your business as the ideal solution using this free template.

100% Free CRM

Nurture and grow your business with customer relationship management software.

  • Contact sales

Start free trial

How to Write a Project Summary (Free Template Included)


There’s a lot of work involved in getting a project approved. You need to convince stakeholders or clients that the project is worthwhile. This should be done upfront and is usually accomplished via the project summary.

That’s a lot of responsibility for a project summary, which by definition is a short overview of the project. Therefore, nothing can be wasted. Every word must count towards proving that the project is viable and will deliver a return on investment.

What Is a Project Summary?

To start, let’s define the term. A project summary is a document or part of a larger document that’s comprehensive but concise in providing an overview of the proposed project, including key details. It also outlines the project’s objectives, background information to place it in context, requirements, problems, analysis and ends with a conclusion.

While the project summary can be a standalone document or a preface to other types of project documentation, it is most commonly used as the introduction for the project proposal. As noted, a project summary has to hook the reader. Like an opening sentence in a book that keeps you reading, the project summary must capture your attention and pull you through the project proposal.

proposal draft summary

Get your free

Project Summary Template

Use this free Project Summary Template for Word to manage your projects better.

When Should You Use a Project Summary?

The project summary is created during the project pitch. It provides a big-picture view of the project, including a brief description and the essential parts. This is where you’ll start to define the project’s goals, the schedule of tasks that must be executed to deliver the project, an estimation of its budget, etc. to ensure everyone understands the basic plan.

The project summary might be the most important part of your project proposal as it’s the first time the reader will be exposed to the project and why you believe it’s worth executing. Make sure to conduct thorough research to create a well-rounded project summary. This can help convince a client or stakeholder of the value of the project.

Even though a project proposal opens with the project summary, it’s not uncommon for this to be the last section that’s written. If you’re thoroughly researching the topic, you’ll be addressing issues that come up in other sections of the project proposal. Therefore, when you complete the proposal, you’ll have all the information you need to properly create an executive summary .

If done right, the project summary will lead the client through the project proposal and once they’re done, they’ll approve the work. It’s good to have all that documentation in project management software so you can easily turn the project summary into a project plan. ProjectManager is online project management software with unlimited file storage to act as the hub for your project documentation. If you collect the project proposal in our list view, it’s easy to toggle to the Gantt chart where you can create a visual schedule on a timeline. Get started with ProjectManager today for free.

ProjectManager's list view

What Should Be Included In a Project Summary?

A project summary should be short, but you don’t want to shortchange the project and not give the summary enough room to sell the project to the stakeholder or client. You’ll want to avoid jargon and proprietary or confidential information, such as trade secrets. Write in plain, easy-to-understand sentences. The project summary shouldn’t be difficult to comprehend.

Project Information

You’ll begin by outlining high-level information about the project, including:

  • Project name
  • Project manager
  • Project sponsor

You can add the project team if they’ve been assembled at this point. It’s also a good idea to provide a brief overview of the project, goals and objectives , benefits, etc. Note what it is you’re going to accomplish and how. Plus, when dealing with projects outside of your organization, a background is advisable.

Project Schedule

The project schedule is a chronological timeline that charts the project from beginning to end. On that timeline are the activities and tasks that must be executed to achieve the final project deliverable. This includes dates, duration, milestones and all deliverables. You don’t have to be as thorough as when planning your project plan, but a brief outline is necessary.

Project Budget

The budget is often included in the project schedule and isn’t a detailed forecast of costs, but it’s still an important component and should be included. You’ll want to have some financial projections to show how much the project will cost and what sort of return is expected. A budget baseline is also helpful.

Resource Plan

To further help stakeholders understand the project you want to include a list of resources. Resources are anything you need to complete the project. This includes the project team, materials, equipment, etc.

Risk Management Overview

Every project has inherent risks. Stakeholders want to know what risks you identify as potentially occurring in the project, their impact and how you’ll mitigate them. This includes roadblocks and challenges—anything that will impact the scope, cost and time of the project. Briefly outline your risk management plan . You can go into detail if the project is approved.

Writing a project summary takes a lot of preparation. One thing you shouldn’t have to worry about is the format. Use our free project summary template for Word and you’ll simply have to fill in the blank fields. Everything you need is there and the project summary template is customizable so you can add your logo and edit the document to suit the specific needs of the project you’re proposing.

free project summary template

How to Write a Project Summary

We’ve gone over the basic components of a project summary. Now let’s look at how to write one. While the project summary is brief by definition, the research is extensive. Follow these steps to make sure you do a thorough job.

1. Talk to Your Team

No single person is equipped to tackle the challenges of a project summary. You need to bring together your project team . They’re the ones who will be executing the project on the front lines, so to speak. They have the expertise and knowledge. Use them as a resource as you research the project.

2. Know Your Audience

The research is one part of convincing stakeholders of the value of the project. How you present it is the other. You need to speak the language of the stakeholders. The tone, word choices and more are all going to change whether you’re speaking to a client or a stakeholder. This is especially true in terms of industry. You’ll address construction differently than manufacturing or IT.

3. Define Your Objectives

You’ll want to make it clear what the objective of the project is and what indicates that the project has been successfully completed. That requires sharing the metrics you’ll use to measure the project. You also need to know the project intent, similar to its mission statement .

4. Write Your Project Summary

Work with your team to write a clear and concise project summary. Make sure you’ve included all the components we’ve mentioned above. Don’t forget to proofread the project summary as nothing looks more unprofessional than bad grammar or misspellings.

Other Project Management Templates to Help Create a Project Summary

The project summary is one of the dozens of free project management templates we have for both Excel and Word. There are templates for every phase of a project. Here are a few that relate to the project summary.

Budget Proposal Template

You can estimate the cost of a project with our free budget proposal template for Excel. It shows potential stakeholders how much the project will cost, from salaries to materials and equipment. There’s also space to add travel, communications and other direct and indirect costs.

Project Timeline Template

A project summary needs to include a brief project timeline. The free project timeline template for Excel can help. It has a column on the left-hand side where you can add tasks, start and end dates, as well as duration, which then automatically populates a visual timeline to the right.

Project Proposal Template

The project summary is part of the larger project proposal. You need to have one to get a project approved and funded. Our free project proposal template for Word includes everything from a summary to the solution, implementation to deliverables.

ProjectManager Is Ideal for Keeping Track of Your Project

Templates can help you organize your ideas and deliver a great project summary and proposal, but once it’s approved you’ll need project management software to plan, manage and track the work. ProjectManager is online software that empowers teams to work more efficiently while giving managers tools to monitor their work in real time.

Track Progress With Real-Time Dashboards

Once you have your project schedule on our robust Gantt chart , you can set a baseline, which makes it possible for you to track the planned effort against the actual effort in real time. This data also feeds into our real-time dashboard and is displayed in easy-to-read graphs and charts. You get a high-level view of the progress and performance of your project whenever you want. Unlike competing software products, there’s no time-consuming configuration. It’s ready when you are.

Get Deeper Into the Data With Customizable Reports

When you want to get more detail than a dashboard can provide, generate a report . You can do it with a couple of keystrokes and then customize each to show only the data you want to see. Get status and portfolio reports as well as variance, workload and more. All reports can be easily shared in a variety of formats with stakeholders to keep them updated.

ProjectManager's workload report filter

Of course, you need to do more than monitor and track your project in real time to deliver your project on time and within budget. That’s why we have features to help you manage risk, tasks and resources. Our tool makes it fast and easy to onboard your team and helps them collaborate, add comments to tasks and share files. We help you turn a project summary into project success.

ProjectManager is award-winning software that gives you the tools to achieve your project goals and objectives. Get real-time data to help you make more insightful decisions and give your teams a collaborative platform that lets them work better together. Join the teams at Avis, Nestle and Siemens who use our tool. Get started with ProjectManager today for free.

Click here to browse ProjectManager's free templates

Deliver your projects on time and under budget

Start planning your projects.

How to Write a Proposal Summary

by Ben Taylor

Published on 26 Sep 2017

A proposal summary, sometimes called an executive summary, provides a concise overview of the proposal itself. Summaries are an important part of a proposal because they're usually the first part of the summary a supervisor or other authority reads. A person’s impression of the summary influences whether or not he decides to continue reading the proposal. If he stops reading, he most likely won’t approve the proposal. To write the most effective proposal summary, condense in plain language the most important aspects of the proposal, including the proposal’s objectives, methodology, anticipated outcomes, financial necessities and time constraints.

Write the summary last. Though it's the first thing a reviewer reads, writing the summary last ensures familiarity with every aspect of the proposal, which allows you to be thorough when writing the summary. One goal of a summary is to persuade the reader to further consider the proposal, but it's also important to convince the reviewer that the solution is practical and appropriate, according to Georgia Perimeter College. Identify the most important aspects of the entire proposal, then think of ways to express them in writing so that anyone can understand them.

Outline the most important proposal aspects that will be in the summary. Judge and prioritize these aspects based upon information that's unique to your proposal and the requirements of the authority to which the proposal is addressed. Start with bullet points for the introduction, conclusion and major points in the body. The body of the summary should include a unique paragraph or section for each part of your proposal narrative, such as a problem statement, objectives, methodology, evaluation and anticipated outcomes. If the proposal is submitted to a foundation, include the total cost of the project, the amount of time it will take and the amount of money requested, according to the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Enhance the outline with specific details from the body of the proposal. Focus on the details that make your project unique and enhance its appeal to the reviewers. Be clear, direct and nontechnical — predicting the reviewers’ background is difficult. Write no more than 750 words or one single-spaced page for the summary. Spend an equal amount of time on each section, and consider all sides of the issue at hand, but be sure to demonstrate how your approach is superior to others, according to Georgia Perimeter College.

Document any research or other work on which the proposal summary depends. State the sources clearly and attribute them to the correct author. If the agency to which you're submitting the proposal asks for a specific format, be sure to adhere to it. After checking facts, proofread the summary and then the entire proposal. Giving the document two separate readings allows your mind to focus on one task at a time and decreases the likelihood of factual, spelling or grammatical errors. Place the summary at the beginning of the proposal and submit it to the appropriate agency.

How to Write a Project Summary? (Examples & Templates)

The importance of a project summary.

Externally, a project summary is used as a brief to present or provide updates to the project stakeholders, and can be helpful in obtaining funding or support for future projects. For this purpose, the document resembles a set of project proposals to give the reader a quick impression of the nature, status, and overall context of the project.

How to title a project summary

Project summary subject line examples, how to write a project summary, what to include in a project summary, project summary examples and templates, [project name]: project summary – [current date], [project id]: marketing strategy for [product name] launch, project status report template:, [project id]: [product name] launch update – [current date], [project name] – new software implementation, [project id]: customer service improvement – [current date], executive summary template:, business plan executive summary for [project name], business proposal template:, [project name] – business proposal, project proposal template:, project summary good practices, frequently asked questions, when should i use a project summary template, how long should a project summary be, what are some of the benefits of a project summary, how does a summary help towards successful completion of a project, what are some common mistakes when writing a project summary, how does an executive summary differ from a project summary, what are some project summary and executive summary sample uses.

LiveAgent offers a customer care solution with 130+ ticketing features, 200+ integrations, and excellent customer service across all channels.

Learn how to effectively document your business systems and processes, so you can delegate tasks and focus on growing your business. Identify the what, why, win, how, and who to create clear and efficient procedures.

LiveAgent offers a WYSIWYG editor and AI-powered features for customer service. It promotes a knowledge base for independent problem-solving.

Knowledge bases are valuable tools for businesses, offering improved customer self-service, cost-effective support, and enhanced communication. They also boost efficiency, foster collaboration, and ensure business continuity. From healthcare to IT and education, knowledge bases revolutionize operations and drive success.

Try all communication channels while your LiveAgent is ready.

❤ Learn how Nifty inspires productivity!

  • Discussions
  • Milestones (Gantt Chart)
  • Docs & Files
  • Time Tracking
  • Project Home
  • Project Portfolios

❤ Nifty is very flexible. Here are a few examples of how you can use it.

  • Agile Development
  • Client Management
  • Digital Agencies
  • Legal Case Management
  • Marketing Teams
  • Product Teams
  • Integrations
  • Help Center
  • Got Clients?
  • Try for Free
  • Log in arrow_right_alt

#ezw_tco-3 .ez-toc-widget-container ul.ez-toc-list{ background-color: #ffffff; } Table of Contents

How to write a project proposal in 2023 (+ examples & templates).

Updated on June 27, 2023 by Jeffrey Kagan

Project Proposal

Coming up with a project and completing it successfully is hard work. This hard work does not happen overnight, either. It takes tons of careful planning and strategic implementation from ideation to completion. But it all starts with a project proposal .

Writing an effective project proposal can place any project in the fast lane toward success. But figuring out how to write a project proposal can be daunting. But it doesn’t have to be.

In this article, we’ll show you six types of project proposals, five key tips for writing one, and how to write a project proposal for project success. But let’s get the definition out of the way first.

What is a project proposal?

A project proposal is a document that describes a project, includes a timeline, budget, objectives, and goals, and answers every question that may arise concerning it. 

The proposal outlines everything stakeholders need to know about the proposed project, including;

  • Project goals or what the project aims to achieve
  • Objectives or the problem(s) the project aims to solve
  • Timeline within which the project will be implemented
  • Budget of the resources to be used in project implementation  

The project proposal gives the stakeholders a glimpse into what you intend to achieve through the project. 

The goal of a project proposal can be to secure project funding, gain stakeholder buy-in, or build excitement and momentum for the project. 

Here’s an example.

Project proposal template by Nifty

One of the best answers to “ how to write a project proposal ” is to write it clearly and confidently. That way, your confidence in the project will be transferred to the stakeholders. 

If you’re not confident about your project, it will show in the proposal and compromise your desired outcome.

6 Types of project proposals

When creating a project proposal, you’ll come across six types of proposals. As a project manager, you need to understand each type. 

1. Solicited

A solicited project proposal is written or prepared in response to a Request for Proposal (RFP) or a Request for Application (RFA). Sponsors and stakeholders use these requests to get proposals from businesses and other institutions.

A Request for Proposal is used to announce a project in detail for qualified teams to prepare proposals and bid for project funding. 

Therefore, do in-depth research and write persuasively to win the bid. Keep in mind that you are competing against other companies for project funding. 

2. Unsolicited

Unlike a solicited project proposal, an unsolicited proposal was not requested by the sponsors or stakeholders. It is defined as a proposal written to a government agency but not requested by the government. 

It often proposes a public-private partnership submitted by a private company to enter an agreement with the government agency.

With unsolicited project proposals, you’re not under any competition with other companies. However, you must still be convincing enough to get the stakeholders you are pitching to interested in your project. It’s important to note that verifying the email of the stakeholders beforehand can also help ensure that your proposal reaches the right people and doesn’t end up in their spam folders.

3. Informal

This short document (only a few pages long) is formatted as a memo or a letter and gives general details concerning a project. It has fewer sections than a formal proposal. 

These sections are the introduction, background, plan, project team structure , budget, and authorization.

Informal business proposal

Your client can send you an informal request for a proposal. When this happens, you reply by preparing and sending them an informal project proposal. The rules are less strict when writing this kind of proposal.

Project managers need to learn how to write a renewal proposal. A renewal project proposal is written to the client after an ongoing project has contractually ended. 

The proposal is prepared to request the client to renew the contract for a similar project. Here’s an example.

Renewal project proposal

This proposal is written to clients or project sponsors with the hope that they will extend their engagement with your company. 

For instance, let’s say you run a SaaS marketing agency. You can write a renewal proposal to convince your clients to continue working with you. 

Take time to emphasize your past results, milestones , and achievements that you’ve helped the client to achieve. This may persuade them that you’re the right fit for them to achieve even more success in the future.

5. Continuation

There’s no need to persuade or convince the stakeholders when writing a continuation proposal. It is simply a reminder to them that the project is kicking off. 

This proposal is key to getting stakeholders to release the project funds they already approved. Here’s an example.

Continuation project proposal

It can also act as a progress report and budget breakdown before they release additional funds for the project to continue. 

However, keep in mind that continuation proposals can only be written for budget years that were already approved by the sponsors in the original award.

6. Supplemental

A supplemental project proposal is written to request increased support for a proposal already written, approved, and funded. The requested resource increase may result in the broadening of the project scope . 

Additionally, a new budget must be written to include the supplementary resources included in this new arrangement. 

Persuasion is vital when writing a supplementary proposal because you must convince the stakeholders of the importance of the additional resources you’ve requested.

5 Essential tips for writing a project proposal

A few important tips will guide you on how to write a project proposal effectively. Let’s look at the five top tips you should follow.

1. Know your audience

Your project proposal will have a positive impact on your stakeholders if you have a good understanding of who they are and what they’re looking for. 

Get to know how familiar they are with the proposed project. This will guide you on how to communicate your idea to them. 

It’ll also help you decide whether to provide supplemental information or materials to the stakeholders. 

Remember to adjust the information and formalities you include in the proposal to suit each stakeholder and their preference. You may, therefore, need to write more than one version of the project proposal for each stakeholder.

2. Keep it simple

It’s advisable to use language that is easy to understand when writing a project proposal. Try and avoid jargon to ensure you don’t lose your audience in the process of trying to make an impression. 

Remember also to use simple sentences and an easy-to-follow format to enhance the readability of your proposal further. Consider using a good content generator to help you with this. These content writing tools can help you detect complex sentences and words that can be simplified for your audience.

Additionally, keep the proposals short. Even if you’re the best writer in your region, you can only sustain your readers’ attention for so long. So know your limit and ensure your project proposal is not any longer than it needs to be.

3. Be persuasive

When talking about how to write a project proposal, persuasion is an invaluable asset to have. It helps you get the stakeholders to act favorably toward the project. 

There are several persuasive tools that you can use to grab your sponsors’ attention. Use;

  • Historical data from similar projects in the past
  • Marketing predictions from trusted institutions
  • Survey results from reputable sources
  • Testimonials from previous studies
  • Case studies from studies done in the past

Don’t be shy to highlight your past achievements and qualifications too. This will help instill confidence and trust in your readers, leading them to take action on your project proposal.

4. Do your research

Facts, graphs, figures, charts, and numbers are very important in helping you substantiate your project proposal. These also help prove that the project is a worthwhile investment for your sponsors.

So get your hands dirty and dig for all the information you can get about past projects. Look at both successful and unsuccessful projects alike. This data will serve as evidence and examples that you can follow to craft a convincing project proposal for your stakeholders and sponsors.

5. Use a template

You know what they say; when in doubt, use a template. 

Okay, I made that up. But you get the point.

Templates help your company establish a consistent way of creating proposals while preventing anyone from missing any critical details. Here’s an example.

Template from Nifty

Templates also save time since anyone using them will know what details should be included and where each section should appear in the final draft.

6 Steps to writing a project proposal 

Even though you need to customize each proposal for the intended audience and project in question, these six steps can act as guidelines to ensure you create a compelling project proposal.

1. Write the executive summary

Like an essay introduction or a report abstract, the executive summary briefly describes your project. 

proposal draft summary

The executive summary is meant to give the reader an overview of the project and persuade them to keep reading until the end. 

A great executive summary should include:

  • The challenge or problem that your project seeks to solve
  • The proposed solution to that problem
  • The positive impact your project will have after solving the problem
  • Who will benefit from the project outcome, and how
  • The needed project resources, timeline, and budget
  • How project success will be measured

The summary should be just a few paragraphs long. Remember, it’s not meant to be a detailed description of the project. You’ll get the chance to discuss the project in-depth later on in the proposal.

2. Explain the project background 

When considering how to write a project proposal, a background check is an essential element to capture. 

Here, make sure to write about the specific problem your project is looking to address and what is already known about it. 

Include who has addressed the problem before, their research findings, and why this data is insufficient. 

Here’s an example of a project background.

This is where you use your research data and statistics to bolster your project proposal. These numbers go a long way in convincing readers that your project and the problem you’re addressing are worthwhile undertakings. 

In the end, let this section be about a page long (or less).

3. Introduce a solution

Since you’ve presented a problem in the project background section, it’s only logical that you present a solution in the next section. 

Introduce a solution

This section provides an opportunity to reveal your project approach in more detail. 

In this section, include;

  • Your vision and mission statements
  • Project scheduling and key milestones
  • Project responsibilities and roles
  • Project deliverables
  • A risk register detailing how you’ll mitigate the risks
  • The reporting tools to be used till the end of the project

This might turn out to be the longest section of your proposal. That’s because you need to explain everything involved in achieving your proposed solution in detail. 

It’s also worth noting that you may not need all the items stated above in your solution statement. So depending on your project scope, you can choose what to include and what to leave out.

4. Define the project deliverables 

Every stakeholder wants to know what the results of the project will be. Use this section to show them what their resources will ultimately achieve. 

project deliverables template

Project deliverables should include the final product or projected outcome, SMART goals that align with your deliverables, and a project timeline.

As important as the problem and solution statements are, stakeholders visualize the project more easily when the deliverables are clearly defined.

5. List what resources are required 

By this point, every project manager hopes they’ve convinced the stakeholders that the project is worthwhile and needs to be implemented immediately. So the next natural step is to list what resources you need to undertake the project. 

For example, this software development project proposal presents a breakdown of the costs required for the project.

List what resources are required 

One of the key points on how to write a project proposal is to be clear about the resources you’ll need to deliver the desired products. So be sure to include:

  • A detailed project budget
  • A breakdown of the costs
  • A resource allocation plan

It’s recommended that you save this section for the end of the project proposal to avoid bombarding and overwhelming your sponsors with requests too early. 

Give your idea time to float and convince them of the project’s value before stating the costs. 

6. Include a conclusion

The concluding section should give an overview of all the points discussed within the proposal. Make sure to write a persuasive and confident conclusion because this is your final chance to convince your reader to invest in the project. 

Here’s a nice example.

proposal draft summary

You can restate the problem your project seeks to solve, the proposed solution, and the impact the solution will have in the end. Just like a traditional essay, keep it relevant to the proposal.

3 Examples of project proposal templates

Now that you know how to write a project proposal, let’s look into three templates you can use for your next proposal.

Business proposal template from Nifty

A business proposal is a written document aimed at helping a business gain clients and partners. This is done by describing the products and services offered, the potential outcomes of using the services, and the costs associated with them.

Business proposal template from Nifty

A business proposal template will help guide you into writing an effective proposal that is likely to win the approval of the intended sponsor.

Financial proposal template

A financial proposal is prepared to help organizations and businesses get funding from investors. It can also be used to suggest some changes in the budget and how much time is needed for the changes to be made. 

Here’s a great example.

Financial proposal template

When using a financial proposal template, be sure to detail all the resources needed, why you need each resource, and how they will be used to achieve the desired outcome. 

Since most of the financial proposals are to be sent in person, you can try experimenting with multiple formats like a Half-Fold template, trifold brochure template , or Gate-Fold, as these templates make reading the proposal a bit easy.

Nonprofit project proposal template

A nonprofit project proposal acts as a pitch letter that shows grantors the benefits of funding a nonprofit organization for a specified project. These grant proposals can be used to ask for funding from within the organization or from grantors outside the organization. 

Nonprofit project proposal template

These kinds of proposals can be very detailed. Therefore, a nonprofit project proposal template (like the one shown above) can come in handy in ensuring you don’t miss any crucial details.

In this article, we have shown you how to write a project proposal effectively. You have learned about the six types of project proposals and the five essential tips to apply when writing a project proposal.  

More importantly, you saw the six steps to writing a successful proposal. You can also use the three examples of project proposal templates for guidance. 

You’re now equipped to write a winning proposal for all your subsequent projects. Remember to do lots of research into your chosen topic and add data and numbers to your proposal. This will further convince your sponsors and stakeholders to invest in the project. All the best!

Use Nifty to ease up the process. Sign up , it’s free forever!

Recent Articles:

Client Relationship Management Best Practice


Wait before you go, do you really want to lose 5 productive hours a week, teams waste 5 hours a week on average juggling between tools. nifty is one app for chat, tasks, docs, and more. try it for free and see for yourself. we promise you’ll love it..

  • AI Content Shield
  • AI KW Research
  • AI Assistant
  • SEO Optimizer
  • AI KW Clustering
  • Customer reviews
  • The NLO Revolution
  • Press Center
  • Help Center
  • Content Resources
  • Facebook Group

How to Summarize a Project Proposal

Table of Contents

Why do you need to know how to summarize a project proposal ? It’s simple! A good project proposal can entice and persuade potential investors or clients to work with your organization.

Project proposals are one of the most crucial documents in project management, as the reviewer will likely read them first. It is your best opportunity to wow your readers with the value of your work.

With a flawless summary, the reader will have all the information necessary to make an informed judgment regarding your idea and project.

Learn the definition of a project proposal, guidelines, elements, and steps for writing one in this article!

person writing on white paper

What Is a Project Proposal and Summary?

A proposal is a one-page synopsis of the complete project included in any given plan or proposal. It’s an excellent tool for getting the word out to investors, customers, and staff.

Project proposals are documents that provide a high-level overview of a project and its main details in a single, digestible paper. It often includes the project’s goals, context, requirements, issues, analysis, and final thoughts.

Most people write project overviews after they’ve completed the thorough explanations. However, the overview of your project should be written first in your proposal.

The project summary is one of the first things a reader will see. Therefore, it is an excellent opportunity to make an impression and convince them that your research is worthwhile.

The Elements of a Good Project Proposal

A typical project summary may condense the proposal into a single or double-page document .

A good project summary, on the other hand, covers all the relevant aspects of the project in a concise and comprehensive manner. What exactly are the elements of a good project proposal?

1. Set the Scene

To kick off your summary, introduce the project and provide background information such as the company’s name, the project’s name, the project ID, etc.

You should have a section to list everyone working on the project and their respective contact details.

2. General Overview

Provide a high-level description of the project, including its rationale, scope, and expected outcomes. Briefly explain the product or service you are giving, the goal of the project, and your strategy for achieving that goal. Any project summary shared with others should also include some background information.

3. Dangers and Difficulties

There will always be risks and obstacles in a project you weren’t expecting.

Therefore, it is essential to address the obstacles, dangers and challenges the project may face during its execution in the project synopsis.

4. Project Schedule

A project’s timeline is the order in which events occur during the project. You can stay abreast of the status of your project and its outcomes by consulting the schedule you’ve created. A brief description of the project’s schedule can be included in the summary.

5. Use of Rich Media

Your project summary can have rich media like graphs, charts, photos, etc., to tempt the reader to keep reading, but this is not required.

Let’s discuss how to put together a project overview now that you know what goes into one.

Factors to Consider When Writing a Project Proposal

Have you ever wanted to know what to remember while creating a project summary? Read on!

1. Have a Talk With the Project Team

Don’t assume you have to do project proposals all by yourself. Gather the project team to discuss and determine what information and aspects should be included in the summary. The finest project proposals result from a group’s combined efforts to identify key points.

2. Finding Your Target Market

Your project proposal’s format will depend on whom you’re trying to impress. So, you must zero in on your intended demographic. Do you write with your clients in mind? Stakeholders? This will allow you to create a project overview that speaks directly to their concerns.

3. Goal-Setting

After assembling a team and zeroing down on your target demographic, the next stage is to define your project’s objectives and important milestones. You should include them in your project summary so that you and your team can formulate a strategy immediately.

4. Draft a Project Synopsis

If you know the end goal and who will be seeing the final product, you may work together to draft a compelling project overview.

Guidelines on How to Summarize a Project Proposal

It takes practice to distill the essential points from a lengthy project proposal into a concise executive summary.

The project manager’s job is to effectively deliver a concise and clear message to those reading it.

The more detached you can be from the proposal and the information you provide, the more apparent it will be. Here are vital guidelines for summarizing a project proposal.

1. Do Not Use Jargon

Your project summary is meant to be concise so that readers can quickly peruse and grasp the proposal’s main points. To that purpose, avoid using jargon or technical phrases that could confuse the intended audience. Therefore, it is strongly advised that you avoid jargon at all costs.

2. Remain Succinct and Clear

Remember that your summary is not meant to replace the full report on the project. Furthermore, summaries should be brief and to the point. Keep your description of the project and its characteristics general and short.

3. Proofread and Revise

You should never submit a document without first having it proofread. Avoid confusing your readers with typos, poor grammar, or spelling issues. This is why checking your project summary for errors is vital before sending it out. Get a second opinion by having a coworker check your work.

Most people do not know how to summarize a project proposal . This is because a project proposal is more than just an idea. It is a detailed visual representation of a project and its impacts. Do well to make it concise yet thorough.

How to Summarize a Project Proposal

Abir Ghenaiet

Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.

Explore All Text Summarizer Articles

A guide to writing effective performance review summaries.

Writing a performance review summary comes with many challenges. You need to create a concise review that accurately reflects an employee’s…

  • Text Summarizer

How to Write Effective One Sentence Summaries

Summarizing a lengthy piece of writing into one solid sentence can sound very tricky. How can you capture and distill…

Effective Steps to Clearly Write Passage Summaries

Learning how to summarize a long passage of text is not only challenging but also time-consuming. But with the proper…

Book Summarizing Websites to Save You Time

Are you looking to save time? Discover some of the best text summarizing tools in this article that will help…

Steps for Summarizing Text Complete With Samples

While writing is important, so is learning how to summarize a piece of text. It is often required in different…

A Quick Guide on Writing Essays and Articles Summaries

Authors write essays to express ideas and thoughts that are mostly argumentative or narrative. They work hard on writing its…

  • Dissertation
  • PowerPoint Presentation
  • Book Report/Review
  • Research Proposal
  • Math Problems
  • Proofreading
  • Movie Review
  • Cover Letter Writing
  • Personal Statement
  • Nursing Paper
  • Argumentative Essay
  • Research Paper

100 Best Proposal Topics For Your Essay

Benjamin Oaks

Table of Contents

A proposal essay is the type of paper in which the writer needs to choose the topic and convince the reader about this. It can be anything from education to the environment. One of the hardest things to do is find the writer’s issue to cover in the paper. Thus, our team created the list of best proposal paper ideas.

25 Great Proposal Paper Topics

With every year more and more, people start to understand that the environment has a strong effect on humanity’s well-being. While writing about environmental problems, it would be wise to cover such issues:

  • The little things that everyone can do to help decrease the global warming
  • The ways how humanity can redistribute resources more efficiently and eco-friendly
  • The plan how to stop using fossil fuel in the next several decades
  • How to avoid fires in Australia?
  • The ways to halt deforestation and restore the ecosystem
  • Why is global warming an important issue, and how will it affect humanity?
  • How can the government convince people to start using bicycles for short trips?

Modern people don’t imagine everyday life without smartphones, computers, and the internet. So, making a paper about technologies is a great idea.

  • The ways to help the older generation to get in touch with modern tech
  • The financial and sociological benefits of switching to wireless technologies
  • How to protect your data on the internet?
  • How modern technologies can increase the creativity
  • The part of modern technologies in the lives of modern children
  •  Why prohibiting kids from using the modern means of communication is a bad idea
  • How can GMOs eradicate world hunger?
  • Is it moral to censor the internet?

The proposal paper topics about the Societal issues and Social Life in the modern world such as:

  • How effective is safe education?
  • The ways to lift people out of poverty
  • Different ways to incorporate different cultures into one country
  • The effect of social media on the mental health
  • Internet addiction
  • How can idols encourage people to make their life better?
  • The assistance for the single-parent families.

Our team hopes that we helped you to find some good proposal topics in this section.

25 Good Research Proposals Ideas

Becoming the master of finding the right research paper is crucial during college. Starting a new project and choosing an interesting topic is the hard thing to do. We compiled a list of issues that can be interesting.

  • How did China become a superpower?
  • The history of NATO
  • The reasons for World War I
  • How Europe rebuilt itself after the Second World War?
  • The differences between Palestinians and Jewish people
  • The Cuban Crisis
  • The Crusades
  • How did the Eastern Roman Empire survived for over 1000 years?
  • The economy of the Roman Empire
  • How Christianity became the dominant religion in Europe?
  • The causes and consequences of the 100-year war between France and England
  • French Revolution causes and consequences
  • The collapse of the Soviet Union
  • How long can children watch television?
  • The effect of video games on the school performance
  • New ways of teaching
  • Pros and cons of a testing system
  • How to deal with problematic children
  • Micro-credentials and their impact on traditional education


  • The consequences of an untreated post-traumatic stress disorder
  • The High School bullies from the psychological point of view
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder in the military
  • Why it is important to understand cognitive psychology
  • Family and the community
  • The effect of social media on human psychology

25 Smart Proposal Argument Topics


  • How does hunting affect the environment?
  • Does the government need to prohibit plastic products from promoting eco-friendly alternatives?
  • Would additional charges for plastic bags in convenience stores encourage the usage of reusable bags?
  • How composting can help to save the environment
  • The problem with deforestation

Families and interpersonal relationships

  • The ways to prevent divorce
  • How Covid-19 affected the connections inside the families?
  • Is it possible to get out of “the friend zone”?
  • The signs of abusive relationships
  • Domestic violence and its effect on children
  • Household responsibilities
  • Teenage marriages
  • What impact do families have on kids?
  • Interracial adoption and its effect
  • How being the only child in the family affects the person?

The part of technologies in humans life

  • How will nanomachines change medicine?
  • Can vaccines cause autism?
  • How do the technologies affect Gen Z?
  • Will cybernetic limbs become better than the human arm?
  • How will virtual reality change everyday life?
  • Why do kids understand new technologies way better than their parents?
  • Can video games lead to violent acts in real life?
  • What are the differences between digital and ordinary books?
  • How can video games change education?
  • Should parents be able to choose the features their kids will inherit?

25 Interesting Proposal Essay Topics

In this section, we will discuss proposal essay topic ideas

  • How to deal with childhood obesity?
  • How to promote healthy habits in your kids?
  • What are the ways to provide all citizens with good medical treatment without additional charges?
  • How to decrease the number of smokers?
  • How to effectively deal with illegal drug use?
  • What should be done to reduce the number of deaths from drunk driving?
  • Should college athletes get a salary? What is the right balance between education, business, and athletics
  • Is it right to prohibit all kinds of hunting?
  • Can cybersport players be considered athletes?
  • Should we legalize and monetize the usage of testosterone?
  • How physical activities affect the human brain and mood?

It is essential to be careful with this type of topic in a proposal essay.

  • Traditional values in the modern time
  • Is it a good idea to raise the kids with the feeling of humility instead of a privilege?
  • How to make the younger generation respect the elder ones?
  • The part of political correctness in modern culture
  • How can the United States solve the problem with homeless people?
  • The decline of morality in modern media and what to do with it?
  • The effect of Black Lives Matter on the future of culture
  • Ways to promote tolerant behavior in contemporary society
  • The morality within the teenager aggression
  • How to make morale cool again?
  • How neighboring kings reacted to the female ruler in the countries of the past?
  • How communism affected society?
  • What made Napoleon so famous in France?
  • How did the Greeks manage to colonize the Mediterranean?
  • What were the reasons for the conquest of Alexander the Great?

5 Tips for Proposal Essay From

In the previous sections, we compiled the list of topics for the proposal essay. In this one, we want to give several tips on how to create a great proposal essay.

  • Conduct thorough research on the topic.
  • Check out different points of view and brainstorm the issue
  • Don’t rely on your first draft. Write messy and edit your writing after that
  • Follow the structure
  • Maintain a consistent tone throughout

Students spend days and weeks writing a good proposal essay. Then, they need to conduct the research, select the correct arguments, write the draft, and edit the final piece. The whole process is complex and consumes a lot of time. So, you can hire a specialist to write the paper for you. The members of our team are professional academic writers that will perform your order on an expert level.

Forget about writing long and tedious essays. Hire GradeMiners!

1 Star

90 Topic Ideas For Research Paper On Feminism

proposal draft summary

How to Write an Argumentative Essay: Your Ultimate Guide

proposal draft summary

How to Write an Abortion Argumentative Essay?

Carolina's Blog

RP Proposal Draft

For my research paper, I am going to research poetry and its ties with politics. I came to this idea after watching Amanda Gorman’s poetic performance at the 2020 presidential inauguration. Her poem was able to highlight the problems the United States is facing but not in a diplomatic speech that political problems are usually highlighted in. Her poem was able to translate controversial topics into a poetic message that connected more with the audience. I want to explore more of how poetry is able to translate political messages into an easy-grasping message.

The sources I am going to be looking for will consist of both online and physical materials. Documents I am going to be looking for will consist of articles that cover the relationship between politics and poetry. This may be a challenge in finding documents that relate exactly to the connection between how poetry translates political messages. Sources that will challenge my argument will be of ones that argue how all poetry is political rather than an eye opener into a hidden message.

Carolina Hauger

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

EWTN News, Inc. is the world’s largest Catholic news organization, comprised of television, radio, print and digital media outlets, dedicated to reporting the truth in light of the Gospel and the Catholic Church.

  • National Catholic Register
  • News Agencies
  • Catholic News Agency
  • CNA Deutsch
  • ACI Afrique
  • ACI Digital
  • Digital Media
  • ChurchPOP Español
  • ChurchPOP Italiano
  • ChurchPOP Português
  • EWTN News Indepth
  • EWTN News Nightly
  • EWTN Noticias
  • EWTN Pro-life Weekly
  • Register Radio

Get 6 Free Issues!

National Catholic Register News

Print issue

  • Commentaries
  • Most Popular
  • Coronavirus
  • College Guide
  • Culture of Life
  • Arts & Entertainment
  • Publisher's Note
  • Letters to the Editor
  • Support the Register
  • Print subscriptions
  • E-Newsletter Sign-up
  • EWTN Religious Catalogue

Synod on Synodality: What Changed Between Draft and Summary Report?

‘LGBTQ+’ terminology and a ‘super synod’ proposal didn’t make the cut, while a proposal for ex-priests to be given a ‘pastoral service’ was added.

Holy Mass for the conclusion of the Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on October 29, 2023.

Editor's Note: This story has been updated. 

The Synod on Synodality assembly approved a 42-page summary report on Saturday night — but only after some significant changes were made to an initial draft.

The final summary report did not include the term “LGBTQ+”, which was present in the draft document that was first given to synod members on Wednesday, Oct. 25 and obtained by the Register at that time. Likewise, a proposal appearing to call for a permanently in-session synod providing consultation to the Pope did not make it into the final summary report, which will serve as the basis for the synod’s October 2024 session.

Language suggesting the need to reconsider the extent to which “sexual difference should shape ecclesiology and approaches to ministry” — an apparent reference to the Church’s understanding that only men are eligible to be ordained to holy orders, and therefore exercise certain ministries of teaching, governance, and sanctification — was also removed.

1,251 amendments to the draft text were submitted by synod delegates, and a writing team worked to incorporate them into the final version before it was given to members on Saturday and voted on later that night. Every paragraph in the final summary report was accepted by the assembly with the required two-thirds support.

While some items were removed from the final text, other elements completely absent from the draft appeared to be added. One particularly notable instance of this was the addition of a proposal to place men who have left the priesthood into “a pastoral service that enhances their training and experience,” on a case-by-case basis.

In several cases, references underscoring the importance of Church teaching were added. For instance, the word “magisterium,” which refers to the authoritative teaching of the Catholic Church, appears 10 times in the final version, while only four references were made in the original draft. 

In a specific case, a proposal for a group of experts to engage in “shared discernment” on controversial “doctrinal, pastoral and ethical issues,” including issues related to gender, sexuality, and the end of life, was tweaked to underscore that this discernment should be conducted “in light of the Word of God, Church teaching, theological reflections, and, valuing the synod experience.”

“LGBTQ+” Terminology Rejected

The acronym “LGBTQ+” did not appear in the final report, despite being in both the synod’s instrumentum laboris and, in a different form, in the initial draft.

In the instrumentum laboris , the working document that guided the Synod on Synodality assembly discussions, phrases like “LGBTQ+ Catholics” and “LGBTQ+ persons” were included. 

The use of “LGBTQ+” in this way is contested by many bishops and theologians, who argue that it unhelpfully frames an individual’s sexual attractions and/or sense of gender as a foundational part of his or her identity. Others, however, have pushed for Church documents to include this terminology, which is popular in secular Western societies but faces strong resistance in places like Africa and Eastern Europe.

But following assembly discussions, the initial draft of the summary report instead mentioned that the assembly had spoken not of “LGBTQ+ people,” but “people who identity as LGBTQ+.” Some Catholics consider that phrasing to be less problematic, because it uses “LGBTQ+” as a subjective identification, not a state of being.

However, by the time the final summary report was released, any mention of “LGBTQ+” was removed altogether. Instead, in the place where the draft had spoken of “people who identify as LGBTQ+,” the document spoke of “people who feel marginalized or excluded from the Church because of their marriage situation, identity, and sexuality.”

The summary report did, however, use the terms “sexual orientation” and “gender identity” at one point.

One possible explanation for this shift in terminology between the three documents is that, in the face of concerns from the assembly about the use of terms like “LGBTQ+ people,” drafters shifted to “people who identify as LGBTQ+” as an attempt to address concerns while also keeping the acronym in the document. It’s absence from the final summary, then, would be explained by significant push back via the form of amendments.

The absence of “LGBTQ” terminology was perceived as a major blow by some activists and media figures, with some news entities framing their entire coverage of the synod report accordingly. Synod member Jesuit Father James Martin, an American priest who regularly uses the “LGBTQ+” paradigm in his activism and ministry, also expressed his disappointment, suggesting that the document’s failure to describe Catholics who experience same-sex attraction or gender dysphoria as “LGBTQ” as akin to not mentioning them.

These responses did not acknowledge that the synodal assembly expressed “a deep sense of love, mercy and compassion” for “people who are hurt or neglected by the Church, who desire a place to come ‘home’ where they can feel safe, be heard and respected, without fear of feeling judged.” The report also said “the assembly reaffirms that Christians cannot disrespect the dignity of any person.”

The push to include “LGBTQ+” was just the latest in a longstanding effort to get terminology about sexuality and identity derived from a decidedly post-Christian Western paradigm incorporated into universal Church documents. Given the fact that synod reports can be said to speak for a large and geographical representative assembly, they are frequently targeted.

A similar scenario, for instance, played out at the last ordinary assembly of the synod.

At that assembly, the 2018 Synod on Young People, the term “LGBTQ” appeared in the instrumentum laboris , or working document, even though it hadn’t been mentioned in the report presented by young people who had attended the pre-synod meeting.

The term’s insertion, which was apparently made by synod organizers, was hailed as a watershed moment by the media and activists, but it was with something bigger in mind: “LGBTQ” making it into the synod assembly’s final report, thereby giving the impression that use of the term had received universal approval, entrenching it more firmly in the Church’s vocabulary.

But the Synod on Young People’s final document included no mention of the term.

Activists thought that this year’s Synod on Synodality synod would be different, their optimism likely bolstered by the full participation of non-bishop voting members who use LGBTQ terminology, like Father Martin.

No 'Super Synod'

The Synod on Synodality’s summary report underscored that participants experienced “evangelical joy” by taking part in the assembly — but perhaps not enough to make it a perpetual feature in the Church.

Absent from the final text was a proposal in the draft “to establish a permanent synod of Bishops elected by Episcopal Conferences to support the Petrine ministry.”

The Synod of Bishops, instituted by Pope St. Paul VI in 1965, already is a permanent, canonically recognized organ of the Church. It holds ordinary assemblies, typically every three years, and most of the members who participate in those assemblies are elected by their respective bishops’ conference.

The draft proposal, then, likely referred to something even more substantial and regular, such as a synodal body that is permanently “in session,” with times when members are gathered together to engage in discussion and voting, and intervals when they are back in their respective dioceses. 

But the proposal to establish a permanently-in-session Synod of Bishops to advise the Pope was made in the backdrop of big changes to the synod’s composition at this October’s assembly — most notably the inclusion of significant numbers of non-bishop voters. And, in fact, the summary report presented this dynamic mostly as a positive, seemingly laying the groundwork for it to become a regular feature of what had been known as the Synod of Bishops going forward.

With that in mind, the proposal to “establish a permanent synod of Bishops” very well could be read as a gateway to creating a sort of “super synod” — a body of bishops, priests, religious, and laymen and women providing ongoing consultation to the Pope.

That proposal did not make it into the final version. Instead, in its place was language that had not been in the draft version about making the Council of Cardinals, a group of 9 senior prelates who advise Pope Francis, a “synodal council.” The phrase is ambiguous, but given the association between synodality and greater involvement of non-bishops, it’s not unreasonable to think it’s pointing to the participation of non-cardinals in the “Pope’s cabinet” in some way — perhaps even religious sisters and laywomen.

Relatedly, the same section of the summary report also included a proposal found nowhere in the draft to carefully examine “whether it is appropriate to ordain prelates of the Roman Curia as bishops” — possibly the latest instance of decoupling episcopal ordination from Church governance, a priority during the Francis pontificate.

Finding Consensus

According to synod organizers, 1,251 amendments to the draft text were proposed by the assembly’s 364 voting delegates — 1,125 from the small groups, and an additional 126 from individuals. The amendment requests applied to individual paragraphs, and could call for alterations, additions, or deletions.

Like most of the proceedings at the Synod on Synodality, information about the amendment process, such as how many amendments were submitted on each paragraph and what they requested, was kept confidential.

The synod writing team received those amendments on Thursday, and the group had just over 24 hours to synthesize all the requests for changes into a version that members received on Saturday, hours before the final vote.

Given the quantity of amendments and the lack of time to incorporate them, many doubted that the writers could tweak the text enough to satisfy the assembly. As a result, there were concerns that several paragraphs would not receive the two-thirds majority necessary for inclusion into the document, or that voting itself would be significantly delayed.

The vote was later than expected, but the wait was likely worth it for organizers, as each of the reports’ paragraphs received the requisite level of support, and the assembly ended their nearly four weeks of deliberation on a note of unity.

  • synod on synodality
  • synod of bishops
  • married priests and female deacons

Jonathan Liedl

Jonathan Liedl Jonathan Liedl is senior editor for the Register. His background includes state Catholic conference work, three years of seminary formation, and tutoring at a university Christian study center. Liedl holds a B.A. in Political Science and Arabic Studies (Univ. of Notre Dame), an M.A. in Catholic Studies (Univ. of St. Thomas), and is currently completing an M.A. in Theology at the Saint Paul Seminary. He lives in Minnesota's Twin Cities. Follow him on Twitter at @JLLiedl.

  • Related Stories
  • Latest News

Pope Francis thanks the delegates at the conclusion of the 2023 Synod on Synodality.

Synod on Synodality 2023: Summary Report Calls for Greater ‘Co-Responsibility’ in Church, Changes to Decision-Making

The document was presented to the synod’s 344 voting members in attendance after its drafters attempted to incorporate more than 1,150 proposed amendments into the text. Each paragraph of the text was approved by a two-thirds majority vote.

Pope Francis at the Synod on Synodality’s closing Mass in St. Peter’s Basilica on Oct. 29, 2023.

Pope Francis Talks Synod on Synodality and Homosexuality in New Interview

The latest papal interview also included Pope Francis’ confirmation that he will travel to Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates, Dec. 1–3, during the start of the COP28 climate change conference.

Participants gather Oct. 4 for the Synod on Synodality at the Paul VI Audience Hall

Synod on Synodality and Clericalizing the Laity

Several developments at the Oct. 4-29 session point to this objective.

Archbishop Andrew Nkea Fuanya.

Cameroon Archbishop on Synod on Synodality: Views From Africa Were Taken ‘Very Seriously’

Archbishop Andrew Nkea Fuanya told the Register that this month’s synodal assembly ‘went very well, much better than I expected.’

Students for Life activists are ready to talk all things pro-life at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio.

Hundreds of Pro-Life Students Fight to Prevent Passage of Ohio Abortion Referendum

A Yes vote would establish a new constitutional right to abortion, and a No vote would reject that language being added to the state Constitution.

La Quebrada

Our Lady of Guadalupe Statue Untouched by Hurricane Otis’ Destructive Winds in Mexico

A Virgin of Guadalupe shrine is installed at La Quebrada, a 148-foot-high cliff on the shores of the Pacific in Acapulco.

‘Jesus waits for us in this sacrament of love,’ Pope St. John Paul II reminds us.

Upcoming on EWTN: New Documentary Chronicles Brave Lovers of the Holy Eucharist

TV Picks 11.05.23

Painting of St. Thérèse in the parish church of Alt-Ottakring, Vienna

St. Thérèse ‘Living by Love’: Part 3


A Nuptial Mass is offered Sept. 28, 2019, at Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands.

We Have Another Vocations Crisis: The Sacrament of Matrimony

‘The vocation of marriage requires great sacrifice and generosity on the part of both husband and wife. And the fullest sign of this mutual self-giving is expressed when the couple willingly accept children and bring them up in the knowledge and love of God.’ —Pope St. John Paul II

St. Thérèse is venerated in St. Catherine Church in Honfleur, Normandy, France.

St. Thérèse ‘Living by Love’: Part 2

Annabelle poses with her grandpa, Bill Murphy, while visiting Grandma at St. Francis Catholic cemetery in Wakefield, R.I.

All Souls’ Day: Visiting Grandpa Continues Now That He Is ‘Back With Grandma’

Don’t wait to take your child to a cemetery. Run there, play and pray …

The Traditional Irish Wake Highlights Importance of Praying for Departed Souls

Jerusalem patriarch cardinal pizzaballa: the lord ‘wants me to bring his grace to this place’, hitchcock, jack the ripper and a catholic cemetery, ‘one million children praying the rosary’ surpasses 1 million participants for first time, brooklyn bishop ‘appalled’ over music video shot in catholic church, will investigate, ‘mission of mercy’: new confraternity helps holy souls and comforts grieving families, are these the best and worst states for religious freedom, subscription options.

proposal draft summary

Subscriber Service Center Already a subscriber? Renew or manage your subscription here .

Subscribe Start your Register subscription today.

Sign up for 6 Free Issues Try us out with a free trial subscription.

Give a Gift Subscription Bless friends, family or clergy with a gift of the Register.

Order Bulk Subscriptions Get a discount on 6 or more copies sent to your parish, organization or school.

Sign-up for E-Newsletter Get Register Updates sent daily or weeklyto your inbox.

UN General Assembly adopts Gaza resolution calling for immediate and sustained ‘humanitarian truce’

Members of the United Nations General Assembly vote on a resolution at the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

Facebook Twitter Print Email

The United Nations General Assembly on Friday adopted a resolution calling for an “immediate, durable and sustained humanitarian truce” between Israeli forces and Hamas militants in Gaza. It also demands “continuous, sufficient and unhindered” provision of lifesaving supplies and services for civilians trapped inside the enclave, as news reports suggest Israel has expanded ground operations and intensified its bombing campaign.

That’s it for our live coverage of this emergency session for Friday, which saw the adoption of a non-binding Jordanian resolution on Friday afternoon in New York by a large majority of Member States, with 120 votes in favour, 14 against and 45 abstentions .

It marks the first formal response of the United Nations to the escalation of violence in Israel and Palestine since the Hamas terror attacks of 7 October, after the Security Council failed on four occasions to reach consensus on any action.

Friday’s key things you need to know:


  • Assembly adopted a major resolution , calling for an “immediate, durable and sustained humanitarian truce leading to a cessation of hostilities”; it was proposed by Jordan and backed by over 45 Member States
  • An amendment, proposed by Canada and backed by over 35 Member States, including the US, seeking an explicit condemnation of Hamas, did not pass, failing to get two-thirds support
  • Countries put forward arguments for and against the amendment, and explained their positions on the adopted resolution
  • Earlier in the day, several countries took the floor, reiterating the impact of the crisis on civilians and underscoring the imperative to ensure aid finally flows into the enclave as supplies of food, water and fuel reach critically low levels
  • The US declared that after the current crisis is over, “there is no going back to the status quo, as it stood on 6 October”, noting the importance of the two-State solution
  • The Emergency Special Session will reconvene on Tuesday, with countries continuing their debate  
  • For a full story tying together all the highlights of the second day of the emergency session, visit our Meetings Coverage page here

Ghana: World must find ‘fierce agency’ for peace

Ghana’s Ambassador and Deputy Permanent Representative Carolyn Oppong-Ntir, said her delegation voted in favour of the resolution because, among other reasons, the humanitarian crisis could not be ignored.

“We have a responsibility as an international community to help end the heart-breaking tragedies” in Israel and Palestine, she said. “Out of this tragedy, we must find the fierce agency to support the two parties to resume and conclude a peace agreement” and advance the two-State solution.

India calls for de-escalation

Ambassador Yojna Patel of India speaks in response to the resolution being adopted at the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

India’s Deputy Permanent Representative Ambassador Yojna Patel said the 7 October terror attacks are shocking, calling for the immediate release of the hostages. Casualties in Gaza are a continuing concern and the crisis needs to be addressed, she said.

India abstained in the resolution vote. 

Welcoming ongoing efforts and reiterating support for the two-State solution, she urged the parties to de-escalate the violence and work towards resuming substantial peace negotiations.

Israel: Day of ‘infamy’

Gilad Erdan, Ambassador of Israel to the UN, said in response to the resolution passing that “today is a day that will go down in infamy”.

“We have all witnessed that the UN holds not even one ounce of legitimacy,” he said. “The UN is committed to ensuring further atrocity. According to the family of nations, Israel has no right to defend itself.”

There are no talks or discussions to be held with Hamas, he said, adding that Israel will not sit idly by to let them commit atrocities again. The resolution does not mention Hamas once, as if the war started on its own.

“What is going on here?” he asked, questioning whether the goal was to tie Israel’s hands. “The only way to destroy Hamas is to root them out. Why are you not holding Hamas accountable?”

“We know there is no humanitarian crisis in accordance with international humanitarian law,” he said, noting that every statistic comes from Hamas about information about Gaza.

Anyone interested in preventing violence should call on Hamas to lay down their arms, turn themselves in and return all hostages, he said.

“If this were to happen, the war would end immediately,” he said. “This is a dark day for the UN and mankind. Israel will defend itself and will do what must be done to eradicate Hamas’ capabilities and bring the hostages home.”

France: Security Council must act

France’s Ambassador Nicolas de Rivière speaking after the resolution passed, said his delegation voted in favour, as “nothing justifies the killing of civilians”.

“We have to work collectively to set up a humanitarian truce because the situation in Gaza is catastrophic,” he said, noting that France has already sent an aid vessel. “The Assembly must call for the release of hostages.”

However, the adoption of this resolution cannot replace the Security Council’s efforts nor the decisions that the organ must now adopt, he said, expressing hope that the Council can reach a decision.

“We have a duty to prevent a worsening of the situation,” he said. “The only viable solution is a two-State solution.”

General Assembly adopts resolution on Protection of Civilians and Upholding Legal and Humanitarian Obligations in Gaza.

Resolution adopted

The Jordanian resolution has been adopted by the General Assembly, with 120 votes in favour, 14 against and 45 abstentions. [ One UN member country, citing technical difficulties, changed its vote after the vote was recorded, so the final tally was 121 in favour to 14 against, with 44 abstentions .] 

Another reminder of the key provisions of the resolution now adopted, which is a non-binding expression of the majority view of UN Member States.


It marks the first formal response of the United Nations to the hostilities since the Hamas terror attacks of 7 October, after the Security Council failed on four occasions to reach consensus on any action.

Check out our explainer here , on how emergency special sessions of the Assembly work, and WHY they matter.

The resolution does not make specific mention of the militant group which controls Gaza, Hamas, one of the key issues which led to a Canadian amendment being proposed.

The resolution calls for an “immediate, durable and sustained humanitarian truce”, and demands all parties comply with international humanitarian law and “continuous, sufficient and unhindered” provision of essential supplies and services into the Gaza Strip.

It also calls for the “immediate and unconditional release” of all civilians held captive as well as demanding their safety, well-being and humane treatment in compliance with international law.

Canadian amendment fails to get enough support

The votes on the amendment were 85 for, 55 against, with 23 abstentions, so it failed to get the required two-thirds majority.

Israel must be named too: Pakistan

In a powerful speech rebutting Canada's explanation, Pakistan’s ambassador Munir Akram said that if Canada was being fair in its amendment it would agree to name Israel as well as Hamas.

Not naming either side was the best choice he said, as the Jordanian resolution does.

“Israel needs to be named too, if you are to be fair and equitable and just”, he said.

We all know who started this. It is 50 years of Israeli occupation and the killing of Palestinians with impunity, he said.

Israel can’t face the truth or face justice. The Israeli occupation is the original sin, not what happened on 7 October.

Canada: Terror attacks must be recognized

Canada’s Ambassador Bob Rae said the Assembly is meeting to show Israelis and Palestinians that any life lost is a tragedy. Yet, the critical reason for being here has been forgotten. On 7 October, Hamas wreaked terror on Israel. Since then, more that 7,000 Palestinians have been killed.

Ambassador Bob Rae of Canada speaks ahead of the vote at the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

“We can see the need for a rapid response,” he said.

Unfortunately, Canada cannot support the current text, he said, adding that the Assembly cannot act without recognizing the 7 October terrorist attacks and the hostage taking.

If the proposed amendment is not adopted, the Assembly will not have recognized one of the world’s worst terrorist attacks and “we will all have to live with that failure as the tragedy continues to unfold,” he said.

This amendment “names what has to be named”, he said. Emphasizing that the crisis must not spread through the region, he reiterated that Canada supports the two-State solution and continues to provide humanitarian aid for Gaza.

‘Simple yet vital goal’: Jordan

Jordan’s ambassador Mahmoud Daifallah Hmoud spoke ahead of the voting, saying that the “urgent need for an immediate ceasefire cannot be overstated.”

He said that the immeasurable suffering of the Palestinian people was destined to leave a lasting mark on generations to come.

He said that delegates were “witnessing a ground invasion by Israel as we speak” and failure four times by the Security Council to reach any consensus for action.

He said the was a “simple yet vital goal” of their resolution “that aligns with the very purpose for which the UN was established, peace and compliance with international law.”

With a palpable buzz among delegates inside the UN General Assembly Hall, the afternoon session is underway. 

Seven more countries have become co-sponsors of the Jordanian resolution in the past few hours and 36 more countries have become co-sponsors of the Canadian amendment.

What does the resolution say?

Just a reminder as the voting looms at 3 PM of what the resolution and the Canadian amendment - which will be considered first - actually calls for...

The Jordanian resolution has the backing of more than 40 Member States, including Egypt, Oman and UAE.

It calls for an “immediate, durable and sustained humanitarian truce”, and demands all parties comply with international humanitarian law and “continuous, sufficient and unhindered” provision of essential supplies and services into the Gaza Strip.

The resolution makes no specific mention of the Hamas terror attacks of 7 October.

Canada’s amendment condemns Hamas

An amendment has been proposed by Canada that “unequivocally rejects and condemns the terrorist attacks by Hamas” in Israel starting 7 October and the taking of hostages.

Several countries including the US, have spoken out forcefully in favour of the amendment this morning. 

Draft resolutions do not represent the official position of the General Assembly until adopted.

Morning session adjourns

The morning session has ended and the General Assembly will reconvene at 3 PM to consider the draft resolution and any related amendments.

After voting, the debate will resume with dozens more countries due to take the podium.

UK: Take all steps possible to protect civilian life

The United Kingdom’s Minister for the Middle East, Lord Tariq Ahmad , began by offering condolences to UN staff and medics who have lost their lives under bombardment in Gaza, together with the victims of the 7 October attacks in Israel and the families of innocent Palestinians killed.

“Every life that is lost is a tragedy. Not just for a family in Israel, Gaza or the West Bank but for all of humanity.”

He called on all parties to respect international humanitarian law, calling for the unconditional release of hostages and unhindered humanitarian access.

Lord Ahmad said it was urgent to scale up aid through the Rafah crossing, and praised the UN Secretary-General and all staff who are working tirelessly to ensure aid reaches those in need.

He said humanitarian pauses were essential to allow aid through.

United Kingdom’s Minister for the Middle East, Lord Tariq Ahmad, addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

Standing against terror

The UK stands with Israel in the face of Hamas terror and Israel’s right to self defence, he underlined, but stressed this must be within international law. 

Stating a ”personal view”, as a Muslim, the British peer said “terrorism is evil” and every act of terrorism is against humanity “and we must condemn it unequivocally”. 

On this basis, the resolution before the Assembly “should be clearer on this point.”

However, the UK has been equally clear that all steps must be taken to minimize harm and ensure civilian movements are voluntary and safe.

“In this moment of darkness” he said, let’s come together and not lose sight of the promise of a two-State solution to the conflict.

“We in the UK will continue to work closely with all partners in the region and beyond in these efforts because peace must prevail.”

Brazil: Condemnation for all attacks on civilians

Sérgio França Danese, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Brazil to the UN, expressed “unequivocal condemnation” of the heinous terrorist attacks by Hamas, including the taking of hostages.

He also “clearly condemned” the attacks that are indiscriminately killing and wounding civilians and destroying homes in the Gaza Strip, depriving them of basic tools for survival.

Mr. França Danese said Brazil, the President of the Security Council for October, welcomed the emergency session after the Security Council failed to adopt any of four draft resolutions on the crisis, including one proposed by his delegation, which drew 12 votes in favour.

The robust support given by Council members to the resolution “indicates that it was a balanced text,” he said, describing the resolution as “solidly rooted” in international humanitarian and human rights law, and “fundamentally committed to the humanitarian imperative.”

Türkiye: Peace not possible if Palestine aspirations are denied 

Permanent Representative of Türkiye to the United Nations, Sedat Önal said that with a paralyzed Security Council, it is up to the General Assembly to rise to the occasion. Based on principle, Türkiye co-authored the resolution introduced today, which contains the minimum of what we need to put an end to the carnage and ease tensions on the ground.

Targeting civilians and civilian infrastructure will not bring security . Peace will not be possible as long as Palestinians aspirations for freedom, dignity and statehood continue to be denied.  .

Saudi Arabia: International failures

Abdulaziz M. Alwasil, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Saudi Arabia to the UN, said that the killing and destruction in the Gaza Strip is not only creating a humanitarian catastrophe but is also having dire consequences and repercussions on the security of the region and the world.

Ambassador Abdulaziz M. Alwasil of Saudi Arabia addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

“We have clearly condemned the targeting of civilians by any party, called for a ceasefire, stop to the bloodshed, immediate lifting of the siege, release of hostages, and providing humanitarian assistance and support to those affected,” he said.

“We also condemned the attempts at forcible displacement and policies of collective punishment against the population in Gaza, including starvation of civilians as a weapon of war,” he added.

Reaffirming the priority should be to work for peace, Ambassador Alwasil called for compliance with international conventions and laws.

He stressed the current crisis was due to the failure on the part of the international community to end Israeli occupation and implement a two-State solution.

“Silence in the face of illegitimate Israeli practices, whether over the past 70 years, or even  recently is what led the region to the current crisis,” he said, warning of a possible spillover of the conflict that would threaten global peace and security. 

European Union: Humanitarian access essential

The European Union's UN Representative, Olof Skoog , said the EU deeply regretted the use of veto in the Security Council because the crisis requires a strong, timely, united message by the Security Council.

The urgency is to provide safe, rapid, unhindered humanitarian access to populations in need, by all possible means, whether a “corridor” or a “humanitarian pause” - but this must not be exploited by terrorists.

He said the EU is ready to contribute to the resumption of the political process on the basis of a two-State solution and supports the holding of an international peace conference as soon as possible.

He understood the need to reach a consensus in the General Assembly in the absence of a Security Council’s resolution adding that the EU had worked constructively and formulated amendments, to overcome divisions.

US: ‘Omissions of evil’ to avoid reference to Hamas or hostages

Linda Thomas-Greenfield, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of US to the UN, emphasized that the death, destruction and desperation “playing out before our eyes is enough for anyone to lose faith in humanity.”

Ambassador Linda Thomas-Greenfield of the United States addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

Citing “barbaric acts of terror by Hamas”, Ms. Thomas-Greenfield stressed “there is no justification for terror – none whatsoever. You all know that and we must condemn Hamas’ acts of terror.”     Ms. Thomas-Greenfield said that to the terrorists of Hamas, civilians “are expendable.”

She said Israel was exercising its right and responsibility to defend its people from Hamas, but “it must do so in line with rules of war” and with respect for international humanitarian law.  

Recalling her country’s work to help protect civilian lives and ensure humanitarian assistance into Gaza, she called on all Member States to also alleviate the humanitarian suffering there.

‘Lives hang in the balance’

“Time is of the essence and lives hang in the balance,” she said.

Turning to the resolution, the US Ambassador emphasized that two key words were missing in the draft.

“First is Hamas, it is outrageous that the resolution fails to name the perpetrators of the 7 October terrorist attack,” she said, adding that the other “key word missing is hostage; this resolution makes no mention of the innocent people, including citizens of many of you in this room, who have citizens that are held hostage by Hamas and other terrorist groups.”

“These are omissions of evil, they give cover to and empower Hamas’ brutality, and no Member State should allow that to happen,” she stressed.

Ms. Thomas-Greenfield noted that the US has co-sponsored an amendment by Canada that corrects these omissions, condemning Hamas’ terrorist attacks and calling for immediate and unconditional release of hostages.

“This is the bare minimum we would hope to see on this resolution,” she said, urging all Member States to support the amendment.

“The General Assembly must send a clear message to the world that we stand against all acts of terror and that we stand with all those who are being held hostage,” she added.

Status quo must shift

The Ambassador recalled a statement by President Joe Biden that “there is no going back to the status quo, as it stood on 6 October.”

“We must not go back to a status quo, where Hamas terrorizes Israel and uses Palestinian civilians as human shields, and we must not go back to a status quo where extremist settlers can attack and terrorize Palestinians in the West Bank.”

This means that when this crisis is over, there has to be a vision of what comes next, in our view that vision must be centred around a two-State solution. Getting there will require concerted effort by all of us, she said.

Egypt: ‘Enough is enough’

Silence over the basic rights of Palestinians under fire in Gaza “is no longer an option” said Egypt’s ambassador Osama Mahmoud Abdelkhalek .

Ambassador Osama Mahmoud Abdelkhalek of Egypt addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

He said there had to one standard applied to all, including Palestinians, as opposed to double standards.

“No to targeting civilians, no to terrorism, no to violating international humanitarian law, no to bombarding hospitals and medical centres, no to killing children, no to the siege and no to cutting off all basic necessities of life.”

He said no to forcible displacement and liquidating human rights: “No to genocide – all people are equal.”

He said it was key to speak out to not be – quoting an Arab proverb – a “mute devil that does not speak out for the truth.”

“Enough is enough” he said. “We can no longer bear what is happening to the Palestinians.”

Defending the work of the UN in Gaza and its calls for a humanitarian ceasefire, Ambassador Abdelkhalek said that that had nothing to do with supporting terrorist aggression, but was an important first step “to stop the bloodshed.”

He denounced the policy of besieging and starving civilians of the Gaza Strip, saying that denying them water had “no place in the 21st century. They are reminiscent of practices of the Middle Ages.”

He called on the Assembly to demand aid is delivered to Gaza, “without any conditions”, adding that otherwise it would mean “a death sentence for the people of Gaza.”

Displacing Gazans for the third time in history from their land must be “rejected categorically”, he added.

Qatar condemns targetting of civilians

Alya Ahmed Saif Al-Thani, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Qatar to UN, said the crisis threatens the security of the region and the world, and voiced regret over the failure of the Security Council to act.

Ambassador Alya Ahmed Saif Al-Thani of Qatar addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

She called on all parties to deescalate and move towards a full ceasefire; immediate release of all prisoners, particularly civilians; delivery of humanitarian aid into the Gaza Strip; and opening of safe humanitarian corridors.

Ms. Al-Thani reaffirmed her country’s condemnation of targeting civilians, particularly women and children, as well as “our unequivocal rejection of the siege imposed by Israel, the occupying power”, depriving 2.3 million people - half of them children - of their basic needs.

She urged all Member States to support the Jordanian-led draft resolution and to send a “message of hope".

In conclusion, she said “Qatar continues to contribute to the ongoing diplomatic efforts to find a way out, that will stop the bloodshed of our Palestinian brothers and ensure a sustainable political solution in accordance to the well known terms of reference and steer the region away from spiralling into chaos and violence.”

Jamaica: Devastating consequences of escalation

Brian Wallace, Jamaica’s Permanent Representative who spoke for Caribbean Community CARICOM, said that If we do not immediately put an end to conflict, it could escalate into a wider regional war.

Ambassador Brian Wallace of Jamaica addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

He expressed concerns about the implications for international stability, with devastating consequences, particularly for small vulnerable island states such as those in CARICOM, which are "already struggling to overcome multi-faceted challenges.” 

“Let us recognize once and for all the utter futility of war, violence and terror,” he said, reaffirming CARICOM's continued support for UN Security Council resolution 242, calling for accelerated efforts for a peaceful and lasting resolution to the conflict. 

Venezuela: End ‘inflammatory rhetoric’

Taking the floor first on Friday, Joaquín Alberto Pérez Ayestarán, Ambassador and Deputy Permanent Representative of Venezuela , also spoke on behalf of the Group of Friends in Defense of the Charter of the United Nations .

He called for an immediate ceasefire and end to all hostilities directed towards civilians and civilian infrastructure, including hospitals, refugee centres and food warehouses.

“We also call for restraint and urge an end to all inflammatory rhetoric and dehumanizing language, which in no way serves ongoing political and diplomatic efforts to deescalate...and on the contrary only further stokes tension and violence endangering thousands of innocent lives,” he said.

On behalf of the Group, he called on the Security Council to urge Israel to heed the latest calls by the UN Secretary-General including sticking to the principles of the UN Charter , the Geneva Conventions, and relevant international law.

There's no objection to holding a vote at 3 PM. Venezuela is now taking its turn to speak at the podium.

The Assembly also decided by general consent that for the adoption of any draft resolution, and any amendments to it, a two-thirds majority will be required.

The President of the General Assembly Dennis Francis has taken his seat and gavelled the special session to order. The Jordanian ambassador is making a point of order. 

He's calling for the suspension of the debate at 3 PM today, to initiate “immediate action” on their resolution.

Delegates are gathering in the gilded General Assembly Hall for a long day ahead.

A dozen of the 110 speakers due to take the floor spoke on Thursday and we’ll continue coverage here on Friday for day two from 10 AM New York time.

The emergency session is expected to vote on a Jordanian-backed draft resolution on the crisis, which among others calls for an “immediate, durable and sustained humanitarian truce”, all parties comply with international law, and continuous and unhindered aid into the Gaza Strip.

Venezuela is expected to take the floor first first on Friday, followed by Jamaica. Qatar, Egypt and the United States are also expected to be among the early speakers.

The draft resolution

The Jordanian-led draft resolution on the crisis is expected to be put to a vote at the end of the emergency session which may extend beyond Friday. It has the backing of over 40 Member States, including Egypt, Oman and UAE.

Key issues in the draft include calls for an “immediate, durable and sustained humanitarian truce”, as well as “demands” that all parties comply with international humanitarian law and for “continuous, sufficient and unhindered” provision of essential supplies and services into the Gaza Strip.

Voting at the UN General Assembly

At the General Assembly, the 193 Member States each have one vote , and in contrast with the Security Council, there are no vetoes.

Decisions of the Assembly on important questions are made by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. These questions include: recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security, or other subjects defined under rule 83 of the General Assembly Rules of Procedures . 

Decisions on questions other than those provided for in rule 83 , including the determination of additional categories of questions to be decided by a two-thirds majority, are made by a majority of the members present and voting.

The phrase “members present and voting” means members casting an affirmative or negative vote. Members which abstain from voting are considered as not voting.

Permanent Observers of the UN, the Holy See and the State of Palestine do not have a say in decisions of the General Assembly. 


  • The session convened under the “Uniting for Peace” mandate, empowering the Assembly to act when the Security Council is deadlocked over a critical matter of international peace and security
  • Assembly President Dennis Francis called for an immediate and unconditional humanitarian ceasefire and the opening of aid corridors to save lives
  • The State of Palestine spoke first, making a powerful appeal to stop the killing for the sake of “all those who can be saved”
  • Israel spoke next in another powerful address, describing the brutality of Hamas attacks on Israeli civilians and others, stressing that its siege of Gaza and war against the militant group is to ensure that such “depravity and atrocity never occurs again”
  • Jordan, on behalf of the Arab Group, said it will table a resolution to “make a stand for peace”, after Security Council’s repeated failure to reach any consensus

The President of the General Assembly Dennis Francis brought Thursday's emergency session to a close saying it would reconvene at 10 am on Friday.

For a full story tying together all the highlights of the first day of the session, visit our Meetings Coverage page here .

Many key countries with a stake in the region have yet to take the iconic podium in the Assembly Hall, and tomorrow's speakers' list will likely see the session last through the entire day. 

For an explainer on how the Security Council and General Assembly work in times of acute international crisis and what happens when no agreement on action can be reached, check out our piece here .

Mauritania bemoans lack of consensus

Ambassador Sidi Mohamed Laghdaf of Mauritania addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

Sidi Mohamed Laghdaf, Ambassador of Mauritania to UN , spoke on behalf of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation saying the absence of any moral, legal, or political consensus has only emboldened the occupying power to carry on with impunity its illegal policy of colonial settlement and annexation.

He pointed to Israel's years-long blockade, forced displacement of Palestinian civilians, systematic ethnic cleansing, organized acts of terrorism, and desecration of holy places, including Jerusalem's Al-Aqsa Mosque.

He added that Israel was persisting with its denial of the violation of the inalienable right of people to self-determination and independence. This unacceptable situation must be brought to an end, he said.

Iran slams 'genocide'

Hossein Amir-Abdollahian, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran , said that it has been three weeks that the international community has been a witness to the “war crime and genocide of the occupying Israeli regime in Gaza and the West Bank of Palestine.”

Foreign Minister Hossein Amir-Abdollahian of Iran addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

He said that the US and several European countries sided with Israel and they refer to the Palestinian liberation movement as "terrorists”.

“Unfortunately this is the state of our world today. This is the situation of the Security Council, which was supposed to try to establish world peace and security,” he said.

Mr. Amir-Abdollahian called on the US to work for peace and security and not war against people, women and children, stating “instead of sending rockets, tanks and bombs, to be used against Gaza, the United States should stop supporting genocide in Gaza and Palestine.”

Hamas ready to release civilian hostages

“I say frankly to the American statesmen who are now managing the genocide in Palestine, that we do not welcome the expansion of war in the region, but I warn if the genocide in Gaza continues, they will not be spared from this fire,” he stressed.

“It is our home and West Asia is our region, we do not compromise with any party and any side, and we have no reservation when it comes to our homes’ security.”

He also noted that according to Iranian negotiations, Hamas is ready to release civilian prisoners, on the other hand the international community should support the release of 6,000 Palestinians held in Israeli prisons.

We must stand for peace: Jordan

On behalf of the Arab Group, Jordan’s Deputy Prime Minister Ayman Safadi said “there is no room for grey areas”.

Foreign Minister Ayman Safadi of Jordan addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

“We must stand for peace, our human values and the UN Charter ,” he said. “History will judge us. Say no to war. Say no to the killing. Call out war crimes.”

As the killing continues, he said the Israeli Government have cabinet members that call for “wiping out Palestinians from the face of this Earth”.

“Israel is making Gaza a hell on Earth,” he said. “The trauma will haunt generations to come.”

Israel must uphold values, he said. “The right to self-defence is not a right to impunity; Israel cannot remain above the law,” he said. “Let the guns go silent and let the will to live and let live prevail. Let’s restore faith in the peace process as the only path to ending this conflict once and for all.”

Mr. Safadi said Jordan, on behalf of the Arab Group, will table a draft resolution after the UN Security Council failed to do so again on Wednesday.

“Vote for it; make a stand,” he said.

“Let’s make a collective cry, a cry out against more bloodletting,” he said. “Let’s unite for peace.”

“Make a stand for peace, make a stand for life, make it clear, make it firm,” he said, calling for a moment of silence for all the civilians and innocents who have perished during this war. 

At war with Hamas: Israel

Gilad Erdan, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Israel to UN, said that the 7 October massacre and what ensued “has nothing” to do with the Palestinians, the Arab-Israeli conflict or the Palestinian question.

Ambassador Gilad Erdan of Israel addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

“This is not a war with the Palestinians, he said. “Israel is at war with the genocidal jihadist Hamas terror organization. It is the law abiding democracy of Israel against modern day Nazis.”

He went on to note that Hamas does not care about Palestinian people, peace or dialogue. Its only goal is to “annihilate Israel and murder every single Jew on the face of the Earth.”

Mr. Erdan spoke of the brutal killings of innocent Israeli civilians and intentional targeting of Israeli medical teams that were trying to help the injured during the terror attack. He questioned the “hypocrisy” that there is not a single condemnation of the barbarity against Israelis.

“The hypocrisy is beyond belief,” he stressed.

Emergency workers in Israel respond to missile attacks.

From the podium of the General Assembly Hall, Ambassador UN Erdan presented a video on a tablet, turning the screen towards the delegates, that he said depicted a brutal decapitation with a garden tool against a helpless agricultural worker from Thailand.

'No words' for evil of Hamas

“There are no words in any language to describe the evil we just witnessed,” at the hands of a Hamas militant, he said, adding that it is not describable because it has no place in humankind.

“ISIS was the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria and Hamas is the Islamic State of Gaza. Just as was done with ISIS, Hamas must be no more,” he declared, stating that the goal of Israel is to “completely eradicate Hamas’ capabilities and we will use every means at our disposal to accomplish this.”

“Not for revenge, not for retaliation. But to ensure such depravity and atrocity never occurs again,” said the Israeli ambassador.

Meeting amidst death in Gaza: Palestine

“We are meeting here while Palestinians in Gaza are under the bombs,” Riyad Mansour, Permanent Observer of the State of Palestine , said, speaking first. 

Riyad Mansour, Permanent Observer of the State of Palestine to the United Nations, addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

“You are speaking while families are being killed, while hospitals are coming to a halt, while neighbourhoods are being destroyed, while people are fleeing from one place to another with no safe place to go.”

“There is no time to mourn,” he said tearfully, pointing to the rising death toll. “If you do not stop it for all those who have been killed, stop it for all those who can be saved.”

Citing personal accounts of life on the ground, he said humanitarian aid is badly needed. Hospitals are operating without anaesthetics, with doctors and patients alike wondering if help is on the way.

“This time, it’s just too much,” he said.

Mr. Mansour, recalling Israel’s recent comments in the UN Security Council about how its people are suffering, said Palestinians are suffering too. Israel’s representative had called to “release the hostages, then takes two million Palestinians hostage”, he added.

There are 1,000 Palestinians killed every day, he said, adding that nothing can justify war crimes and crimes against humanity.

“Why not feel a sense of urgency to ending the killing,” he said. “You are setting us back 80 years by trying to justify what Israel is doing now.”

The Al Shati refugee camp in Gaza has been hit by air strikes.

Decades of occupation

Palestinians have survived decades of occupation, 16 years of a blockade and five wars in Gaza, he said.

The answer to the killing of Israelis and Palestinians is not more killing, he said, asking the UN membership to uphold UN principles and keep future generations from the scourge of war.

“The only path forward is justice for the Palestinian people,” he said.

“Vote to stop the killing, vote to stop this madness,” he said. “Choose justice, not vengeance. Choose peace, not more wars. Vote to put an end to almost three weeks of the worst double standards we have seen in decades. Do not miss this chance. Lives are hanging in the balance. Please, save lives, save lives, save lives.”

Protect and save lives: Assembly President

Mr. Francis said he was “deeply disturbed and distraught” at the events unfolding in Israel and Palestine.

“Yet again, we gather amidst the gravest escalation of violence and hostility in the Middle East in decades.”

The violence “must end now”, he declared, calling for an immediate and unconditional humanitarian ceasefire and the opening of aid corridors.

He voiced his condemnation of the attack on Israel by Hamas on 7 October, stating “the brutality of the Hamas assault is shocking and unacceptable and has no place in our world.”

He also condemned the indiscriminate targeting of innocent civilians in Gaza and the destruction of critical infrastructure by Israel, he said, adding that “the ceaseless bombardment of the Gaza Strip by Israel and its consequences are deeply alarming.”

Assembly President Francis underscored that the preeminent priority of the collective UN membership “must be to protect and to save civilian lives.”

“All parties to this conflict must abide by international humanitarian law, and immediately create the necessary conditions to allow for an opening of humanitarian corridor to the Gaza Strip,” he said, emphasizing that urgently needed lifesaving assistance must reach those in need.

He also praised the work of UN personnel in Gaza, offering condolences to the families of the 35 UNRWA staff members who were killed since the start of the crisis.

General Assembly President Dennis Francis addresses the resumed 10th Emergency Special Session meeting on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

Session starts

The President of the General Assembly Dennis Francis gavelled the session open shortly after 10 but he will make the first address in the ornate General Assembly Hall.

He reminded delegates that the emergency session is reconvening following a request by Member States and letters signed by Jordan, Mauritania, Nicaragua and Russia, together with Syria.

Members who have not paid their dues aren't allowed to vote in General Assembly meetings like this, but Mr. Francis agreed by general consent to allow those in arrears a waiver so they can take part. 

09:00 AM (New York)

The tenth Emergency Special Session of the Assembly is expected to start at 10 AM, New York time, and as of now, 110 speakers are inscribed on the list.

The State of Palestine is expected to address Member States first, with Israel expected to go second.

Emergency Special Session

Under the “Uniting for Peace” landmark resolution , adopted by the General Assembly in 1950, the body can convene an “emergency special session” within 24 hours, should the Security Council “fail to exercise its primary responsibility” for the maintenance of international peace and security.

This tenth Emergency Special Session was convened for the first time in April 1997, following a request from Qatar. It followed a series of Security Council and General Assembly meetings regarding the Israeli decision to build a large housing project in an area of East Jerusalem.

The Session last came together on 13 June 2018 to consider a draft resolution entitled “Protection of the Palestinian civilian population”.

At the end of that session, the Assembly decided to adjourn “temporarily and to authorize the President of the General Assembly at its most recent session to resume its meeting upon request from Member States.”

Ongoing crisis

According to several UN agencies on the ground, critical lifesaving supplies, fuels to keep hospitals running and drinking water is running out.

Meanwhile on Wednesday, the Security Council failed to adopt two resolutions on addressing the humanitarian crisis. China and Russia vetoed a United States-led draft resolution and a second Russian-backed resolution failed to secure sufficient votes in favour.

This followed failures for unity at the Council, last week. A Russian-led draft resolution calling for an “immediate humanitarian ceasefire” was voted down last Monday and the following Wednesday, the US vetoed a Brazilian-led text that urged “humanitarian pauses” to deliver aid to millions in the Gaza Strip.


  1. Proposal Executive Summary

    proposal draft summary

  2. ️ How to make a formal business proposal. 10 Steps: How to Write a

    proposal draft summary

  3. 😀 Summary outline format. Sample Executive Summary Outline. 2019-02-19

    proposal draft summary

  4. Proposal Executive Summary

    proposal draft summary

  5. Editable 10 Proposal Executive Summary Examples Pdf Word Examples Trade

    proposal draft summary

  6. 40 Executive Summary Sample for Proposal

    proposal draft summary


  1. Executive Summary

  2. Cut To Dream Proposal Draft

  3. How to write business proposal 10x faster

  4. Grade 10 Ch-The proposal English Summary #relatable #funny #schoolmemes #english

  5. The Proposal Class 10

  6. The Proposal Question Answer


  1. How to Write a Proposal and Get What You Want (Free Templates)

    A proposal is a way to pitch an idea and state your requirements, so it's important for supervisors because they can get information in writing (not casually in the elevator), and be able to act knowing the full implications of their decision.

  2. How to Write a Project Proposal (Examples & Template Included)

    Here's a brief description of each of them. Solicited project proposal: This is sent as a response to a request for proposal (RFP). Here, you'll need to adhere to the RFP guidelines of the project owner. Unsolicited project proposal: You can send project proposals without having received a request for a proposal.

  3. How to Write a Research Proposal

    Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on June 13, 2023. A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it's important, and how you will conduct your research. The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements: Title page Introduction

  4. 6.5 Writing Process: Creating a Proposal

    Summary of Assignment. Write a proposal that discusses a problem you want to learn more about and that recommends a solution. The problem you choose must be a current problem, even though it may have been a problem for many years. The problem must also affect many people, and it must have an actual solution or solutions that you can learn about ...


    At the beginning of your proposal, or on a cover sheet, write a two- or three-sentence summary of the proposal. This summary helps the reader follow your argument in the proposal itself. For example: "Annunciation Shelter requests $5,000 for a two-year, $50,000 job training program for homeless women in southwestern Minnesota.

  6. How to Write a Project Proposal (Example and Templates)

    Write your conclusion. Conclude your proposal with a summary. If you have any other figures and graphics that you weren't able to include in your proposal, you can discuss them here. Repeat your main proposition and let your clients know why supporting this project will be beneficial for them.

  7. How to Write a Proposal for a Project [2023] • Asana

    Summary A project proposal is a written document outlining everything stakeholders should know about a project, including the timeline, budget, objectives, and goals. Your project proposal should summarize your project details and sell your idea so stakeholders buy in to the initiative.

  8. 6 Steps to Writing a Project Proposal (Examples & Templates)

    6 Steps to Writing a Project Proposal (Examples & Templates) Create Content Types Presentations Keep your audience engaged. Documents Formalize your branding. Videos Add movement to your brand. Infographics Share information visually. Printables Create content for printing. Charts and Graphs Bring life to your data.

  9. Project Summary and Project Description

    The project summary is one of the most important parts of the proposal. It is likely the first thing a reviewer will read, and is your best chance to grab their interest, and convince them of the importance, and quality, of your research before they even read the proposal.

  10. How To Write a Project Proposal (With Tips and Example)

    Section 1: Executive summary Write an introductory section, called the executive summary, to summarize your project. Just like the introduction of an essay, this section should aim to catch your recipient's attention and encourage them to read on. Your executive summary should include details about the following: The problem your project solves

  11. A Beginner's Guide to Proposal Drafts

    Writing a proposal is a process that will likely have multiple draft milestones. The first milestone you'll work towards is the outline draft, which will evolve into a content draft, which will become a technical draft, and then the final document.

  12. How to Write a Business Proposal (+ Examples & FREE Templates)

    An effective business proposal is a document used by a B2B or business-facing company (this may not always be the case) where a seller aims to persuade a prospective buyer into buying their goods or services. A business proposal outlines what your business does and what you can do for your client.

  13. 32 Sample Proposal Templates in Microsoft Word

    Introduction - This should grab the attention of the reader. Take this part to establish your agreement about the issue and begin to set the tone for the next section. What is the problem? Define the problem you are working on and what would happen if it is not resolved.

  14. How to Write a Proposal in 10 Easy Steps [Templates Included]

    November 02, 2022 Proposals What's in this guide: What is a proposal? How to write a proposal in 10 easy steps Industry-specific proposal writing guidelines 3 proposal templates Next steps: write your own proposal What is a proposal?

  15. How to Write a Business Proposal [Examples + Template]

    Here's an example of what a business proposal template looks like when done right: 2. Explain your "why" with an executive summary. The executive summary details exactly why you're sending the proposal and why your solution is the best for the prospective client. Specificity is key here.

  16. How to Write a Project Summary (Free Template Included)

    To start, let's define the term. A project summary is a document or part of a larger document that's comprehensive but concise in providing an overview of the proposed project, including key details. It also outlines the project's objectives, background information to place it in context, requirements, problems, analysis and ends with a ...

  17. How to Write a Proposal Summary

    Place the summary at the beginning of the proposal and submit it to the appropriate agency. A proposal summary, sometimes called an executive summary, provides a concise overview of the proposal itself. Summaries are an important part of a proposal because they're usually the first part of the summary a supervisor or other authority reads.

  18. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper

    7. Preparations Made. Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are to get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class). 8. Conclusion. Do not restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the "history" of a certain proposal.

  19. How to Write a Project Summary? (Examples & Templates)

    A good rule of thumb is to use a title that is specific and informative, yet still concise. For example, the project name followed by the words "project update", "progress report", or "project summary", etc. You can also use the project's code name as the title of the summary if it is more appropriate for internal purposes.

  20. How To Write A Project Proposal in 2023 (+ Examples & Templates)

    Even though you need to customize each proposal for the intended audience and project in question, these six steps can act as guidelines to ensure you create a compelling project proposal. 1. Write the executive summary. Like an essay introduction or a report abstract, the executive summary briefly describes your project. Here's an example ...

  21. How to Summarize a Project Proposal

    1. Have a Talk With the Project Team. Don't assume you have to do project proposals all by yourself. Gather the project team to discuss and determine what information and aspects should be included in the summary. The finest project proposals result from a group's combined efforts to identify key points.

  22. 30 Proposal Essay Topics That Are Easy and Fun to Write

    This type of essay can be super easy (and also pretty fun) to write. All you need is the right topic. The right topic involves planning, research, and passion. Below, I'll show you how to choose the right topic and give you some example proposal essay topics that you can either use as is or use as inspiration to come up with your own topic.

  23. 100 Best Proposal Topics For Your Essay

    A proposal essay is the type of paper in which the writer needs to choose the topic and convince the reader about this. It can be anything from education to the environment. One of the hardest things to do is find the writer's issue to cover in the paper. Thus, our team created the list of best proposal paper ideas. 25 Great Proposal Paper Topics With every year more and more, people start to ...

  24. Fact Sheet: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Accessibility of Web

    The Department of Justice published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on July 20, 2023 explaining how we propose updating the regulations for Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to add more specific requirements about web and mobile application accessibility. This fact sheet gives a plain language summary of the technical standards that state and local governments would ...

  25. RP Proposal Draft

    RP Proposal Draft. For my research paper, I am going to research poetry and its ties with politics. I came to this idea after watching Amanda Gorman's poetic performance at the 2020 presidential inauguration. Her poem was able to highlight the problems the United States is facing but not in a diplomatic speech that political problems are ...

  26. HIPAA Privacy Rule To Support Reproductive Health Care Privacy

    2. Proposal. 3. Request for Comment. V. Executive Order 12866 and Related Executive Orders on Regulatory Review. A. Regulatory Impact Analysis. 1. Summary of Costs and Benefits. 2. Baseline Conditions. 3. Costs of the Proposed Rule. 4. Request for Comment. B. Regulatory Alternatives to the Proposed Rule. C. Regulatory Flexibility Act—Small ...

  27. Synod on Synodality: What Changed Between Draft and Summary Report?

    Relatedly, the same section of the summary report also included a proposal found nowhere in the draft to carefully examine "whether it is appropriate to ordain prelates of the Roman Curia as ...

  28. UN General Assembly adopts Gaza resolution calling for immediate and

    The United Nations General Assembly on Friday adopted a resolution calling for an "immediate, durable and sustained humanitarian truce" between Israeli forces and Hamas militants in Gaza. It also demands "continuous, sufficient and unhindered" provision of lifesaving supplies and services for civilians trapped inside the enclave, as news reports suggest Israel has expanded ground ...