Revision notes for IB Physics

Hi, I’m David. This site hosts comprehensive IB physics revision notes I’ve made for the post-2016 examinations syllabus. I got a 7 and here’s how you can too!

Important note: Please take note that although succinct notes are essential towards your revision, they should not be the only materials you cover – working through practice problems from your textbook and past papers are just as important.

App: For revision on the go, download our Android app . If you like our app, don’t forget to give it 5 stars and send in a review!

Offline access: For offline access, download offline browser and type in ibphysics.org for the url.

Happy revising! 🧠

Changes in syllabus content

Data booklet (original), data booklet (annotated), internal assessment, topic 1: measurement and uncertainties, topic 2: mechanics, topic 3: thermal physics, topic 4: waves, topic 5: electricity and magnetism, topic 6: circular motion and gravitation, topic 7: atomic, nuclear and particle physics, topic 8: energy production, higher level, topic 9: wave phenomena (hl), topic 10: fields (hl), topic 11: electromagnetic induction (hl), topic 12: quantum and nuclear physics (hl), option b: engineering physics, option b: engineering physics (hl), option d: astrophysics, option d: astrophysics (hl).

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227 thoughts on “ IB Physics ”

Hey! Thanks a lot for the notes! I just wanted to know where you took notes from, is it from the textbook Cambridge Tsokos?

Hi, these are actually synthesized from quite a lot of sources, Tsoko included and other great resources such as physics.info.

Hi David ! I’m taking IB physics this year and my teacher is not good at explaining anything. He is notorious in a couple of schools for his bad teaching. I was wondering if there was ever a time when you didn’t understand something in class and what you did when that happened ? Also I’m very grateful you made this site, I feel like I will be using it a lot! I want to study computer science 🙂 I’m also wondering if you got a tutor / extra physics class ever ? I’m just wondering in case I should do that. Thank you!

Thank you so much! This website has been so helpful as me and my peers make our own study notes. just one suggestion though – there is a extremely helpful equation for closed pipes in unit 4.4. Rather than memorize 3 equations, you can use f=(nS)/(4l), where n = number of harmonic (1, 2 or 3, not 1,3,5), S= The speed of sound (330 m/s), and l=length of pipe. This was extremely helpful, and saved me a few marks on my in class final.

Thanks for all the help!

Hey, thanks for the suggestion! I believe your formula is a variation of the current one since v=fλ . Glad you found that this equation works best for you though. 🙂

In Topic 3: Thermal Physics, in the FYI section for specific heat capacity, should thermal capacity not be given by Q = mc rather than Q=cθ?

Hi! For clarification, c is the thermal capacity here. Therefore, thermal capacity = energy / temperature change.

Thanks you very much!!!

I feel like I’ve found a gold mine! Thanks for sharing all these David, wish you all the best :))

THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR THIS!!

Where can I find questions by topic? Thanks.

Hi David, firstly I wanted to thank you, this notes are really helping me, they are great!! I wanted to ask if you had for Math HL too, or where do you recommend us to get them from. Thank you!!!!

i wasn’t that good in the 11th chapter, but your notes are really very good, that i am now able to answer any question! This is a very useful site! Thank you so much for providing such detailed and best notes! Srinivas, from India

Phenomenal notes…You are a live saver!

Thanks so much for creating this resource, it really is super helpful

im bashing my head in over IB Physics, this website is nice to get the notes I need

Thank you for this!

Thanks for the awesome website, my tutor gave me this website to revise and learn and for my IA, and its a go-to for me now!

YOU’RE AWESOME! PASSING MY IB SOON THIS HELPED SO MUCH

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IB Physics HL – Past Papers – last 10 years- updated 2023

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IB Physics HL – Past Papers

Examinations cancelled by the IBO.

Using past papers is an excellent way to prepare for any exam, including the IB Physics HL exam. Here are a few ways that you can use past papers to help you prepare:

Familiarize yourself with the exam format: The IB Physics HL exam has a specific format that you should become familiar with before you take the test. Past papers can give you a good idea of the types of questions that you can expect on the exam and the format in which they will be presented.

Practice your problem-solving skills: Physics is a subject that requires a lot of problem-solving. Past papers can provide you with a variety of questions that will help you practice your problem-solving skills and get used to the types of problems that you might encounter on the exam.

Identify your weaknesses: By working through past papers, you can identify the areas in which you may be weaker or less confident. This will help you focus your study efforts and spend more time working on the topics that you need to improve.

Develop time management skills: The IB Physics HL exam has a time limit, so it is important to develop good time management skills. By working through past papers under timed conditions, you can practice managing your time effectively and make sure that you are able to complete the exam in the allotted time.

Overall, using past papers is a great way to prepare for the IB Physics HL exam. By working through past papers, you can become more familiar with the exam format, improve your problem-solving skills, identify your weaknesses, and develop your time management skills.

Physics is the most fundamental of the experimental sciences, as it seeks to explain the universe itself from the very smallest particles to the vast distances between galaxies.

Despite the exciting and extraordinary development of ideas throughout the history of physics, observations remain essential to the very core of the subject. Models are developed to try to understand observations, and these themselves can become theories that attempt to explain the observations.

Through studying a science subject students should become aware of how scientists work and communicate with each other. While the scientific method may take on a wide variety of forms, the emphasis is on a practical approach. In addition, through the overarching theme of the “Nature of Science” this knowledge and skills will be put into the context of the way science and scientists work in the 21st century and the ethical debates and limitations of creative scientific endeavor. 

The sciences are taught practically. Students have opportunities to design investigations, collect data, develop manipulative skills, analyse results, collaborate with peers and evaluate and communicate their findings. The investigations may be laboratory based or they may make use of simulations and databases. Students develop the skills to work independently on their own design, but also collegiately, including collaboration with schools in different regions, to mirror the way in which scientific research is conducted in the wider community.

Physics syllabus outline:

 higher level (240 hours).

  • Internal assessment (individual investigation): 20%
  • External assessment: 80%

 Standard level (150 hours)

Key features of the curriculum and assessment models.

  • Available at standard (SL) and higher levels (HL)
  • The minimum prescribed number of hours is 150 for SL and 240 for HL
  • Students are assessed both externally and internally
  • Physics students at SL and HL undertake a common core syllabus and a common internal assessment (IA) scheme.
  • While there are core skills and activities common to both SL and HL, students at HL are required to study some topics in greater depth, to study additional topics and to study extension material of a more demanding nature in the options. The distinction between SL and HL is one of breadth and depth.
  • A practical approach to the course delivery is emphasised through the interdisciplinary group 4 project and a mixture of both short-term and long-term experiments and investigations.
  • Internal assessment accounts for 20% of the final assessment and this is assessed through a single individual investigation. This investigation may involve a hands-on approach, use of data-bases, modelling, simulation or a hybrid. Student work is internally assessed by the teacher and externally moderated by the IB.

The external assessment of physics consists of three written papers. In paper 1 there are 30 (at SL) or 40 (at HL) multiple-choice questions. Paper 2 contains short-answer and extended-response questions on the core (and Additional Higher Level (AHL) material at HL). Paper 3 has two sections; Section A contains one data-based question and several short-answer questions on experimental work on the core (and AHL material at HL). Section B contains short-answer and extended-response questions from each of the four options.

Much of this information is taken directly from the physics subject guide, available to all IB teachers on the programme resource centre.

Learn more about physics in a DP workshop for teachers . 

Physics subject brief

Subject briefs are short two-page documents providing an outline of the course. Read the standard level (SL) and/or higher level (HL) subject brief below. 

Latest curriculum updates

This subject is reviewed by the IB regularly to ensure the latest educational research is applied. Please keep up to date with the latest subject updates for Physics .

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IB Physics HL - 2025 - Past Papers

In the Past Papers section, you will find full worked solutions to the questions asked on previous IB Physics HL (Higher Level) 2025 Exams. Within each video, an experienced IB teacher will guide you through the solution, step-by-step.

Current Curriculum

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Examinations cancelled by the IBO.

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Questionbank.

All the questions you could need! Sorted by topic and arranged by difficulty, with mark schemes and video solutions for every question.

Practice Exams

Choose your revision tool! Contains topic quizzes for focused study, Revision Village mock exams covering the whole syllabus, and the revision ladder to precisely target your learning.

Key Concepts

Helpful refreshers summarizing exactly what you need to know about the most important concepts covered in the course.

Past Papers

Full worked solutions to all past paper questions, taught by experienced IB instructors.

IBlieve

Overview: Physics HL

Nikki Laude

The topics in Physics HL are divided into 3 sections: the core, HL units, and the option. The first eight topics are studied by all Physics students both in SL and HL. The last four topics are studied only by HL students. The HL units are continuations from previous core topics. 

  • Measurements and Uncertainties
  • Thermal Physics
  • Waves 
  • Electricity and Magnetism 
  • Circular Motion and Gravitation
  • Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
  • Energy Production
  • Wave Phenomena
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Quantum and Nuclear Physics 

Both SL and HL students will also have to study one of the options listed below. Usually, the option studied is chosen by your teacher. HL students will have to study more topics within the option chosen. 

  • Engineering Physics 
  • Astrophysics 

Physics students are graded on 3 final papers, the IA, and the Group 4 project. Both HL and SL take these three exams. However, HL exams are longer and more challenging. 

The Physics HL Paper 1 consists of 40 multiple-choice questions about both core and HL extension topics. About 15 of these questions are in common with the SL Paper 1. No calculator is permitted for this exam, as Paper 1 mainly assesses students on their understanding of topics, formulas, and definitions.

The Physics HL Paper 2 consists of short-answer and extended-response questions. Questions on this exam are mainly calculation-based word problems. Calculators are permitted for this exam. 

This paper consists of short-answer and extended-response questions. Section A consists of one data-based and several short-answer questions on an experiment given. It is similar to doing lab work, so you should be very familiar with Topic 1 (uncertainties, graphing, and displaying data) to answer this section well. Section B consists of short-answer and extended-response questions from one option. Calculators are permitted for this exam. 

The IA is a scientific investigation of any topic of your choosing. It should include a practical investigation (e.g. laboratory experiment) and an analysis of the data produced from the practical.

Group 4 Project

The Group 4 project is a collaborative project in which you are grouped with students from other science subjects to work on a scientific investigation and presentation. In my school, a whole day was dedicated towards this project. Students were given a prompt, and we had to present our solution to the problem to teachers at the end of the day. 

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Choose Your Test

Sat / act prep online guides and tips, the complete ib physics syllabus: sl and hl.

International Baccalaureate (IB)

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I took IB Physics HL back in my high school days. It is still probably the most challenging class I have ever taken (even including my college courses), but I got a 6 on the exam, so trust me—it's doable.

In this article, I'll discuss all the topics covered in IB Physics Standard Level and IB Physics Higher Level, the number of hours dedicated to each topic, and what IB expects you to know for each topic.

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2022 IB Exam Changes Due to COVID-19

Because of the ongoing COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic, the IB has decided to extend the adaptations which were put in place for 2021 to 2022. May 2022 IB assessments will have two routes, exam and non-exam, depending on which your school chooses. Stay up to date with the latest information on what this means for IB diplomas, course credit for IB classes, and more with our our IB COVID-19 FAQ article .

IB Physics SL and HL Core

Both IB Physics SL and HL consist of the same core requirements that consist of the same number of hours. Both classes will cover the same 8 topics (requiring 95 teaching hours) in the order listed below with the same subtopics listed below:

Topic #1: Measurements and Uncertainties—5 Hours for Both SL and HL

Topic #2: mechanics—22 hours for both sl and hl.

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Topic #3: Thermal Physics—11 Hours for Both SL and HL

Topic #4: waves—15 hours for both sl and hl.

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Topic #5: Electricity and Magnetism—15 Hours for Both SL and HL

Topic #6: circular motion and gravitation—5 hours for both sl and hl.

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Topic #7: Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics—14 Hours for Both SL and HL

Topic #8: energy production—8 hours for both sl and hl.

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Additional Higher Level Topics

These 4 topics are only for IB Physics Higher Level students—60 hours total for HL only

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Topic #9: Wave Phenomena—17 Hours for HL Only

Topic #10: fields—11 hours for hl only.

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Topic #11: Electromagnetic Induction—16 Hours for HL Only

Topic #12: quantum and nuclear physics—16 hours for hl only.

As a part of the IB Physics course, you cover additional subjects of your choosing from the list below (typically you don't choose, but rather your teacher does).

Whichever option(s) you or your teacher chooses you will cover 3 or 4 topics (15 hours total) for SL and an additional 2 or 3 topics (25 hours total) for HL.

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Option A: Relativity—15 Hours for SL and HL

Additional hl relativity topics—10 more hours for hl, option b: engineering physics—15 hours for sl and hl, additional hl engineering physics topics—10 more hours for hl.

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Option C: Imaging—15 Hours for SL and HL

Additional hl imaging topics—10 more hours for hl, option d: astrophysics—15 hours for sl and hl, additional hl astrophysics topics—10 more hours for hl, practical scheme of work.

You also need to complete experiments and experimental reports as a part of any IB Science course. For SL, there is 40 hours of material. For HL, there is 60 hours of material. Here are the activities:

  • Lab work in class counts towards these hours
  • A lab project along with a report that counts as 20% of your IB exam scores (written exam counts for the other 80%)
  • Students are separated into groups and must conduct an experiment and write a report.

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What's Next?

Want to brush up on some physics topics? Get your physics fix (phyx?) with our articles on the specific heat of water , acceleration and how to calculate it , and the law of conservation of mass .

Hoping to squeeze in some extra IB classes? Learn about the IB courses offered online .

Preparing to take the SAT? Check out our complete guide to the SAT . Taking the SAT in the next month? Check out our guide to cramming .

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physics hl papers

Ultimate Guide to the IB Physics SL Exam

What’s covered:, ib hl vs sl: what’s the difference, how do sl papers/exams work, how are the ib physics sl papers/exams scored, how does the ib physics sl exam affect my college chances.

This article will discuss the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program, or IBDP for short. For more information about IBDP and what the IB diploma is, please refer to CollegeVine’s guide to IBDP !

IBDP is a two-year long course, where students choose six subjects from six subject groups. Of these six subjects, at least three are specially curated classes called higher level (HL), and the rest are standard level (SL) . In this blog, we’ll be focusing on group 4, the experimental sciences, specifically Physics. 

SL and HL courses are different based on difficulty and amount of the coursework to be taught to the student. Such differences must be noted prior to signing up for classes, and trying to align your HL selections with what might match your pursuits for further education (college/university) could be useful. This would better prepare you for the future and depending on your school, might get you some extra course credits! Additionally, while you can do more than three HL subjects, it’s never recommended since three is a lot of load on the student already. It’s important to remember that even though this guide will be focusing on the SL aspects of Physics, a lot of the concepts in SL carry over to HL.

In Physics, regardless of HL or SL, you take three papers/exams over the course of your examinations. These papers are labeled as paper 1, paper 2 and paper 3. Each of the papers are meant to test the student on different qualities of the coursework, and challenge the student to approach different kinds of problems with different mindsets/perspectives. 

Paper 1 is an MCQ exam, with  45 minutes for 30 questions in the SL variant. You are not allowed to use a calculator during this exam, however you are handed a data booklet. All experimental science exams provide a data booklet, which contains necessary formulae and data relevant to the exam questions. This paper is designed to be difficult despite being an MCQ, with questions that require lots of math/scratch-working. This is also why paper 1 tends to be scored more leniently in respect to grade boundaries, something we’ll get into with more detail soon. 

Paper 2 is a free response exam unlike paper 1. There are short and extended response questions. Also, the calculator is allowed for this exam, and you’ll find that the data booklet is even more crucial for this paper than the previous! The paper is 75 minutes long with up to 50 marks of questions. This paper does make up a good chunk of your final IB Physics grade, which is why most students fear and struggle with this paper. Not only is the paper considered difficult, but the time limit prevents most students from actually finishing the exam! So don’t be worried if you find that you can’t finish all the questions in the given time, just focus on what you can and earn as many points available to you as possible. The difficulty of the exam is reflected 

in the grade boundaries, with the paper 2 grade boundaries tending to be low. 

Please note that IB students for examination sessions in 2022 will NOT have to write paper 3, but future examinations might. 

Paper 3 is an hour long free response exam, worth 35 marks. Like paper 2, you are allowed both the booklet and a calculator. This paper contains data-based problems with numerous free response questions based on experimental work. The paper tests your understanding of the scientific method, experimental methods specific to the class, safety procedures in a lab, and more. It is, however, considered to be the easiest of the three papers, which most students will find to be a relief.

Grading for the exam is done based on a rubric associated with each paper. For the MCQ paper 1, the rubric just contains the correct option for each question. For paper 2 and paper 3 however, this rubric is going to not only contain the right answer, but also the right method in which this student should arrive at this answer, or in short, best working/proof. IB schools will give students access to previous exam sets for most subjects, including resources such as previous exam rubrics. This means, if you study the rubric of a past exam, alongside doing past papers for practice, you will not only get better at writing the exams but you can also learn to arrive at answers the way IB expects. This can help maximize the number of points you can grab out of each question, leading to a better grade!

In order to calculate your grade for the subject out of 7, IB uses a grade boundary (as mentioned earlier). Keep in mind, each year has a different set of boundaries for every IB subject, so make sure to check in with your school for the most recently updated one. The following is an example: 

physics hl papers

As you can see, each paper has a score out of 7, and the total number of marks associated with it. “Practical Work” refers to the internal research-based assessment done for the class, something which is a part of the overarching core of the IB’s group 4 subjects, which pushes students to research more in their class with more lab work. 

To calculate your final grade out of 7, use the following formula:

(Paper 1 Score + Paper 3 Score + Paper 2 Score + Practical Work Score) / ( 30 + 35 + 50 +24) * 100

This formula will provide a percentage, which can then be compared to the “Final” column in the grade boundaries table. Depending on where the calculated percentage sits on the column, you’d know your score from 1 to 7. Keep in mind to pass a subject, you must get a four. This process is repeated with all six other subjects the student takes, as a part of the overarching grading system in IBDP .

Exam season is very stressful for students around the world, and especially so for IBDP students. However through stress management and certain tips, you can make the most out of the exams and make them less harsh of an experience! 

Spend More Time in the Lab

A lot of the group four subjects, or sciences, will ask loads of lab-based questions in the exams, especially paper 3. A deep understanding of scientific techniques and experimentation is beneficial and crucial to success in this exam, so spending more time in the lab is a great way to improve your knowledge! 

Practice the Exam Without a Calculator

While paper 2 and 3 calls for the permission of calculators, try practicing the format/style of these papers without the use of a calculator. Both papers offer a short time limit relative to the number of questions to solve, so using a calculator for small operations can eat away at the time left on your exam! Practicing solving these papers without a calculator will allow you to shave off useful time for your papers, perhaps allowing you to work harder on questions you find more difficult. 

Most importantly, try and remember your exams aren’t as important to your university admissions as you’d think. Universities care more about the willingness to take difficult courses and show determination to learn, as opposed to scoring high. For a proper, and clear understanding of how your chances of admission into a university might be, try using CollegeVine’s free admissions calculator . This amazing tool uses standardized test scores, your GPA, extracurricular and more to determine your shot of getting into your dream schools!

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physics hl papers

IB Physics HL Paper 2 Question Bank

The IB Physics HL Paper 2 Question Bank is a great resource for students preparing for the IB Physics HL exam. The questions are well-written and cover a broad range of topics, making it a valuable tool for studying. The question bank is also updated regularly, so students can be sure they’re getting the most current information.

Time: 2 hours and 15 minutes Instructions to candidates

  • Answer all questions.
  • Answers must be written within the answer boxes provided.
  • A calculator is required for this paper.
  • A clean copy of the physics data booklet is required for this paper.
  • The maximum mark for this examination paper is [90 marks] .

Answer all questions. Answers must be written within the answer spaces provided.

1.) The air in a kitchen has a pressure of 1.20 x 10 5 Pa and a temperature of 23 C. There is a refrigerator inside the kitchen with an internal volume of 0.38 m 3 .

a.) When the refrigerator door is open, the temperature and pressure of the air inside the kitchen and inside the refrigerator are the same. Calculate the number of air molecules in the refrigerator. Answer PV = nRT N = PV / RT N = (1.20 x 10 5 x 0.38) / ((273 + 23 ) x 8.314 = 18.529 = 18.5 mol Number of molecules = 18.5 x 6.023 x 10 23 = 1.1 x 10 25

b.) When the refrigerator door is closed, the temperature inside cools down to 4 C with the same amount of air molecules.

i.) Determine the pressure of the air inside the refrigerator round to 3 significant figures Answer P 1 T 1 = P 2 T 2 1.2 x 10 5 x (273+23) = P 2 x (273+4) P 2 = (1.20 x 10 5 x (273+23)) / (273+4) P 2 = 128231.0469 → (1.28 x 105 Pa)

ii.) The area of the door of the refrigerator is 0.75 m 2 . Determine the minimum force needed to open the refrigerator door. Answer Force = Difference in pressure x Area Force = (128231 – 120000) x 0.75 = 6173.25 = 6.17 kN

2.) The diagram below shows a sketch of a step down transformer with a voltage of 200 Volts. The number of turns in the primary coil is 1600 and 80 in the secondary coil.

a.) State Faraday’s Law of Induction Answer The induced emf is equal to the number of loops multiplied by the change in flux over a period of time

b.) i.) Explain the working of the step down transformer using Faraday’s Law of Induction Answer The varying current or voltage in the primary coil induces a varying magnetic field. This in turn produces a change in the flux (change in the magnetic field) of the secondary coil. Due to this, a varying magnetic field is induced in the secondary coil as well. Given that there are more turns in the primary coil than the secondary coil, the voltage is stepped down.   ii.) Calculate the output voltage with a known input voltage of 200 V Answer output voltage = (number of turns in the secondary coil x input voltage) / (number of turns in the primary coil) = (80×200)/1600=10 V

c.) Outline how energy losses occur in the core of a transformer Answer When the core of the transformer is laminated, it tends to reduce the eddy currents. This in turn reduces the thermal energy that is transferred to the surroundings.

3.) An electron is placed 0.50 m from a fixed point charge of -5.8 mC.

a.) Determine the electric field strength due to the point charge at the position of the electron Answer E = kq / r 2 E = (8.99 x 10 9 x 5.8 x 10 -3 ) / 0.5 2 E = 208568000 = 2.09 x 10 8 N/C

b.) Calculate the force acting on the electron Answer F = qE F = 1.6 x 10 -19 x 2.09 x 10 8 = 3.344×10 −11 N

4.) An electron follows a circular motion in a uniform magnetic field. The velocity of the electron at a Point P is 7.2 x 10 5 m/s towards the right direction. The magnitude of the magnetic field is 8.1T.

a.) State the direction of the magnetic field Answer Out of the page according to the Right hand rule. The index finger is pointed towards the direction in which the electron is moving. The thumb points down and the middle finger points outwards indicating that it’s out of the page.

b.) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic force acting on the electron in terms of N. Answer F = qvB F = 1.6 x 10 -19 x 7.2 x 10 5 x 8.1 F = 9.3312×10 −13 → 9.3 ×10 −13 N

c.) State why the electron moves i.) at a constant speed Answer The magnetic force does not act on the electron or does not do any work on the electron. Because of this, it does not change the kinetic energy of the electron. The kinetic energy remains constant only if the speed is constant.

ii.) along a circular path Answer The velocity of the electron is at a right angle to the magnetic field. Since the magnetic force is acting towards the center of the circle, there is a centripetal force acting on the charge

5.) The ball is displaced at a distance of x from the bottom center of the bowl and is released from a stationary position.

The magnitude of the force acting on the bowl is given by the following equation: mgx/r where r is the radius of the bowl which is 5.2 m..

a.) i.) Suggest why the ball will perform simple harmonic motions about the equilibrium position Answer The restoring force is proportional to the displacement. 

ii.) Show that the period of the oscillation is about 14 seconds Answer ω = √(g/R) = √ω(9.81/5.2) = 1.37 s -1 (rounding to 4 sig. figures) Using this, we can find the time period of the oscillation with the help of this formula: T = 2π/ω = (2×9.81)/1.374=14.28s ∼ 14 seconds   

physics hl papers

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a.) State what happens to the density of a nucleus when there is a change in the number of nucleons Answer The density remains constant. It does not vary with the number of nucleons in the nucleus

b.) Determine the radius of a Magnesium-24’s nucleus Answer Radius = R0 x A 1/3 Radius = 1.2 x 10 -15 x 24 1/3 Radius = 3.46 x 10 -15 m

c.) Define decay constant Answer The decay constant of a radioactive nuclide is its probability of decay per unit time.

7.) In a school experiment, a small electric motor is used with a capacitor of 14 mF and a battery. The capacitor is charged with the help of the battery when the switch is connected to a point X. However, when the switch is connected to Y, the capacitor fully discharges through the small electric motor and helps raise a small mass.

a.) The battery has an electromotive force (emf) of 6.8 volts. Determine how much charge flows through the motor when the mass is raised. Answer Charge = Capacitance x Volts Charge = 14 x 10 -3 x 6.8 = 0.0952 C

b.) The electric motor has the ability to transfer ⅔ of the electric energy stored in the capacitor into the gravitational potential energy. What is the maximum height that a 52 g mass can be raised? Answer Energy that is stored in the capacitor is denoted by ½ CV 2 E = ½ x 14 x 10 -3 x 6.8 2 = 0.324 J Using that energy, the height can be found using the standard mgh formula Therefore, Energy = mgh Height = Energy / mg Height = ⅔ x (0.324 / (0.052 x 9.81)) = 0.423 = 0.42 m The height was multiplied by ⅔ because it said that the motor is only able to transfer ⅔ of the electric energy stored in the capacitor

8.) Mars has two moons orbiting around it in a circular orbit. The moon Deimos and Phobos. This question will be about the moon Deimos.

a.) State the origin of the force that acts on the moon Deimos. Answer Gravitational force of Mars acts on the moon Deimos to keep it orbiting around

b.) This force does not do any work on the moon Deimos. Outline why. Answer Since the force and the velocity are perpendicular to each other, no work is done on the moon. When they are at 90 degrees to each other, there is no change in the gravitational potential energy.

9.) A boy is riding a bicycle up a slope that is inclined by 5 degrees from the horizontal. The boy’s bicycle is powered by an electric motor and has a battery that transfers energy to the electric motor. The total weight of the boy and the bicycle is 70 kgs.

a.) Calculate the weight component of the boy and the bicycle acting down the slope. Answer Weight component is mass x gravitational constant x sin theta Weight = 70g x sin(5) = 59.849 = 59.8 N

b.) When the boy goes up the slope again, he takes an additional bag with him. Outline and explain if this would change the maximum distance he can travel on his bicycle along the slope. Answer Since he is carrying more weight, more resistive forces will act on him. Due to this increase in the opposing force, the maximum distance he covers will reduce. It also reduces for two other reasons: if he carries more mass up a slope, more work needs to be done to cover a larger distance. Another reason is that most of the kinetic energy is now potential energy since the speed of the boy has also reduced.

c.) The boy’s bicycle has a meter on it. It displays the emf and the current for the battery when the bicycle is in motion. This is what was displayed at one such moment: Current: 6.2 A Potential Difference: 15 V emf of the cell: 18 V

Determine the internal resistance of the battery Answer Resistance = potential difference / current Resistance = (18 – 15) / 6.2 = 0.483 ohms

d.) The bicycles battery is an arrangement of 10 identical cells where 5 are connected in series and in one series circuit, two are connected in parallel. Calculate the emf one cell. Answer Emf of the cell / number of cells in a circuit Emf of one cell = 18 / 5 = 3.6V

10.) Through a beta plus decay, Phosphorus – 30 can be formed from Silicon – 30.

a.) Write down the nuclear reaction that shows the beta plus decay Answer 30 15 P → 30 14 Si + 0+ 1 e + v e

b.) Sketch the Feynman diagram that represents the above reaction Answer udu quarks become udd – W+ is emitted Electron neutrino direction is outside Positron direction is inside

c.) Define quark confinement Answer A quark is an elementary particle with an electric charge. But a single quark is never found alone. Instead, when particles are smashed together and quarks are detected, they are described like ends of rubber bands that stretch, but eventually pull quarks back together again. This is known as quark confinement.

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Physics > Instrumentation and Detectors

Title: characterization of the atlas liquid argon front-end asic alfe2 for the hl-lhc upgrade.

Abstract: ALFE2 is an ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAr) Front-End ASIC designed for the HL-LHC upgrade. ALFE2 comprises four channels of pre-amplifiers and CR-(RC)2 shapers with adjustable input impedance. ALFE2 features two separate gain outputs to provide 16-bit dynamic-range coverage and an optimum resolution. ALFE2 is characterized using a Front-End Test Board (FETB) based on a Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC and two octal-channel 16-bit high-speed ADCs. The test results indicate that ALFE2 fulfills or greatly exceeds all specifications on gain, noise, linearity, uniformity, and radiation tolerance.

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  24. [2402.08901] Characterization of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Front-End ASIC

    ALFE2 is an ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAr) Front-End ASIC designed for the HL-LHC upgrade. ALFE2 comprises four channels of pre-amplifiers and CR-(RC)2 shapers with adjustable input impedance. ALFE2 features two separate gain outputs to provide 16-bit dynamic-range coverage and an optimum resolution. ALFE2 is characterized using a Front-End Test Board (FETB) based on a Zynq UltraScale+ ...