term for paper

How to Write a Term Paper From Start to Finish

term for paper

The term paper, often regarded as the culmination of a semester's hard work, is a rite of passage for students in pursuit of higher education. Here's an interesting fact to kick things off: Did you know that the term paper's origins can be traced back to ancient Greece, where scholars like Plato and Aristotle utilized written works to explore and document their philosophical musings? Just as these great minds once wrote their thoughts on parchment, you, too, can embark on this intellectual voyage with confidence and skill.

How to Write a Term Paper: Short Description

In this article, we'll delve into the core purpose of this kind of assignment – to showcase your understanding of a subject, your research abilities, and your capacity to communicate complex ideas effectively. But it doesn't stop there. We'll also guide you in the art of creating a well-structured term paper format, a roadmap that will not only keep you on track but also ensure your ideas flow seamlessly and logically. Packed with valuable tips on writing, organization, and time management, this resource promises to equip you with the tools needed to excel in your academic writing.

Understanding What Is a Term Paper

A term paper, a crucial component of your college education, is often assigned towards the conclusion of a semester. It's a vehicle through which educators gauge your comprehension of the course content. Imagine it as a bridge between what you've learned in class and your ability to apply that knowledge to real-world topics.

For instance, in a history course, you might be asked to delve into the causes and consequences of a significant historical event, such as World War II. In a psychology class, your term paper might explore the effects of stress on mental health, or in an environmental science course, you could analyze the impact of climate change on a specific region.

Writing a term paper isn't just about summarizing facts. It requires a blend of organization, deep research, and the art of presenting your findings in a way that's both clear and analytical. This means structuring your arguments logically, citing relevant sources, and critically evaluating the information you've gathered.

For further guidance, we've prepared an insightful guide for you authored by our expert essay writer . It's brimming with practical tips and valuable insights to help you stand out in this academic endeavor and earn the recognition you deserve.

How to Start a Term Paper

Before you start, keep the guidelines for the term paper format firmly in mind. If you have any doubts, don't hesitate to reach out to your instructor for clarification before you begin your research and writing process. And remember, procrastination is your worst enemy in this endeavor. If you're aiming to produce an exceptional piece and secure a top grade, it's essential to plan ahead and allocate dedicated time each day to work on it. Now, let our term paper writing services provide you with some valuable tips to help you on your journey:

start a term paper

  • Hone Your Topic : Start by cultivating a learning mindset that empowers you to effectively organize your thoughts. Discover how to research a topic in the section below.
  • Hook Your Readers: Initiate a brainstorming session and unleash a barrage of creative ideas to captivate your audience right from the outset. Pose intriguing questions, share compelling anecdotes, offer persuasive statistics, and more.
  • Craft a Concise Thesis Statement Example : If you find yourself struggling to encapsulate the main idea of your paper in just a sentence or two, it's time to revisit your initial topic and consider narrowing it down.
  • Understand Style Requirements: Your work must adhere to specific formatting guidelines. Delve into details about the APA format and other pertinent regulations in the section provided.
  • Delve Deeper with Research : Equipped with a clearer understanding of your objectives, dive into your subject matter with a discerning eye. Ensure that you draw from reputable and reliable sources.
  • Begin Writing: Don't obsess over perfection from the get-go. Just start writing, and don't worry about initial imperfections. You can always revise or remove those early sentences later. The key is to initiate the term papers as soon as you've amassed sufficient information.

Ace your term paper with EssayPro 's expert help. Our academic professionals are here to guide you through every step, ensuring your term paper is well-researched, structured, and written to the highest standards.

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Term Paper Topics

Selecting the right topic for your term paper is a critical step, one that can significantly impact your overall experience and the quality of your work. While instructors sometimes provide specific topics, there are instances when you have the freedom to choose your own. To guide you on how to write a term paper, consider the following factors when deciding on your dissertation topics :

choose a term paper topic

  • Relevance to Assignment Length: Begin by considering the required length of your paper. Whether it's a substantial 10-page paper or a more concise 5-page one, understanding the word count will help you determine the appropriate scope for your subject. This will inform whether your topic should be broad or more narrowly focused.
  • Availability of Resources : Investigate the resources at your disposal. Check your school or community library for books and materials that can support your research. Additionally, explore online sources to ensure you have access to a variety of reference materials.
  • Complexity and Clarity : Ensure you can effectively explain your chosen topic, regardless of how complex it may seem. If you encounter areas that are challenging to grasp fully, don't hesitate to seek guidance from experts or your professor. Clarity and understanding are key to producing a well-structured term paper.
  • Avoiding Overused Concepts : Refrain from choosing overly trendy or overused topics. Mainstream subjects often fail to captivate the interest of your readers or instructors, as they can lead to repetitive content. Instead, opt for a unique angle or approach that adds depth to your paper.
  • Manageability and Passion : While passion can drive your choice of topic, it's important to ensure that it is manageable within the given time frame and with the available resources. If necessary, consider scaling down a topic that remains intriguing and motivating to you, ensuring it aligns with your course objectives and personal interests.

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Term Paper Outline

Before embarking on the journey of writing a term paper, it's crucial to establish a well-structured outline. Be mindful of any specific formatting requirements your teacher may have in mind, as these will guide your outline's structure. Here's a basic format to help you get started:

  • Cover Page: Begin with a cover page featuring your name, course number, teacher's name, and the deadline date, centered at the top.
  • Abstract: Craft a concise summary of your work that informs readers about your paper's topic, its significance, and the key points you'll explore.
  • Introduction: Commence your term paper introduction with a clear and compelling statement of your chosen topic. Explain why it's relevant and outline your approach to addressing it.
  • Body: This section serves as the meat of academic papers, where you present the primary findings from your research. Provide detailed information about the topic to enhance the reader's understanding. Ensure you incorporate various viewpoints on the issue and conduct a thorough analysis of your research.
  • Results: Share the insights and conclusions that your research has led you to. Discuss any shifts in your perspective or understanding that have occurred during the course of your project.
  • Discussion: Conclude your term paper with a comprehensive summary of the topic and your findings. You can wrap up with a thought-provoking question or encourage readers to explore the subject further through their own research.

How to Write a Term Paper with 5 Steps

Before you begin your term paper, it's crucial to understand what a term paper proposal entails. This proposal serves as your way to introduce and justify your chosen topic to your instructor, and it must gain approval before you start writing the actual paper.

In your proposal, include recent studies or research related to your topic, along with proper references. Clearly explain the topic's relevance to your course, outline your objectives, and organize your ideas effectively. This helps your instructor grasp your term paper's direction. If needed, you can also seek assistance from our expert writers and buy term paper .

how to write a term paper

Draft the Abstract

The abstract is a critical element while writing a term paper, and it plays a crucial role in piquing the reader's interest. To create a captivating abstract, consider these key points from our dissertation writing service :

  • Conciseness: Keep it short and to the point, around 150-250 words. No need for lengthy explanations.
  • Highlight Key Elements: Summarize the problem you're addressing, your research methods, and primary findings or conclusions. For instance, if your paper discusses the impact of social media on mental health, mention your research methods and significant findings.
  • Engagement: Make your abstract engaging. Use language that draws readers in. For example, if your paper explores the effects of artificial intelligence on the job market, you might begin with a question like, 'Is AI revolutionizing our work landscape, or should we prepare for the robots to take over?'
  • Clarity: Avoid excessive jargon or technical terms to ensure accessibility to a wider audience.

Craft the Introduction

The introduction sets the stage for your entire term paper and should engage readers from the outset. To craft an intriguing introduction, consider these tips:

  • Hook Your Audience: Start with a captivating hook, such as a thought-provoking question or a compelling statistic. For example, if your paper explores the impact of smartphone addiction, you could begin with, 'Can you remember the last time you went a whole day without checking your phone?'
  • State Your Purpose: Clearly state the purpose of your paper and its relevance. If your term paper is about renewable energy's role in combating climate change, explain why this topic is essential in today's world.
  • Provide a Roadmap: Briefly outline how your paper is structured. For instance, if your paper discusses the benefits of mindfulness meditation, mention that you will explore its effects on stress reduction, emotional well-being, and cognitive performance.
  • Thesis Statement: Conclude your introduction with a concise thesis statement that encapsulates the central argument or message of your paper. In the case of a term paper on the impact of online education, your thesis might be: 'Online education is revolutionizing learning by providing accessibility, flexibility, and innovative teaching methods.'

Develop the Body Sections: Brainstorming Concepts and Content

Generate ideas and compose text: body sections.

The body of your term paper is where you present your research, arguments, and analysis. To generate ideas and write engaging text in the body sections, consider these strategies from our research paper writer :

  • Structure Your Ideas: Organize your paper into sections or paragraphs, each addressing a specific aspect of your topic. For example, if your term paper explores the impact of social media on interpersonal relationships, you might have sections on communication patterns, privacy concerns, and emotional well-being.
  • Support with Evidence: Back up your arguments with credible evidence, such as data, research findings, or expert opinions. For instance, when discussing the effects of social media on mental health, you can include statistics on social media usage and its correlation with anxiety or depression.
  • Offer Diverse Perspectives: Acknowledge and explore various viewpoints on the topic. When writing about the pros and cons of genetic engineering, present both the potential benefits, like disease prevention, and the ethical concerns associated with altering human genetics.
  • Use Engaging Examples: Incorporate real-life examples to illustrate your points. If your paper discusses the consequences of climate change, share specific instances of extreme weather events or environmental degradation to make the topic relatable.
  • Ask Thought-Provoking Questions: Integrate questions throughout your text to engage readers and stimulate critical thinking. In a term paper on the future of artificial intelligence, you might ask, 'How will AI impact job markets and the concept of work in the coming years?'

Formulate the Conclusion

The conclusion section should provide a satisfying wrap-up of your arguments and insights. To craft a compelling term paper example conclusion, follow these steps:

  • Revisit Your Thesis: Begin by restating your thesis statement. This reinforces the central message of your paper. For example, if your thesis is about the importance of biodiversity conservation, reiterate that biodiversity is crucial for ecological balance and human well-being.
  • Summarize Key Points: Briefly recap the main points you've discussed in the body of your paper. For instance, if you've been exploring the impact of globalization on local economies, summarize the effects on industries, job markets, and cultural diversity.
  • Emphasize Your Main Argument: Reaffirm the significance of your thesis and the overall message of your paper. Discuss why your findings are important or relevant in a broader context. If your term paper discusses the advantages of renewable energy, underscore its potential to combat climate change and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels.
  • Offer a Thoughtful Reflection: Share your own reflections or insights about the topic. How has your understanding evolved during your research? Have you uncovered any unexpected findings or implications? If your paper discusses the future of space exploration, consider what it means for humanity's quest to explore the cosmos.
  • End with Impact: Conclude your term paper with a powerful closing statement. You can leave the reader with a thought-provoking question, a call to action, or a reflection on the broader implications of your topic. For instance, if your paper is about the ethics of artificial intelligence, you could finish by asking, 'As AI continues to advance, what ethical considerations will guide our choices and decisions?'

Edit and Enhance the Initial Draft

After completing your initial draft, the revision and polishing phase is essential for improving your paper. Here's how to refine your work efficiently:

  • Take a Break: Step back and return to your paper with a fresh perspective.
  • Structure Check: Ensure your paper flows logically and transitions smoothly from the introduction to the conclusion.
  • Clarity and Conciseness: Trim excess words for clarity and precision.
  • Grammar and Style: Proofread for errors and ensure consistent style.
  • Citations and References: Double-check your citations and reference list.
  • Peer Review: Seek feedback from peers or professors for valuable insights.
  • Enhance Intro and Conclusion: Make your introduction and conclusion engaging and impactful.
  • Coherence Check: Ensure your arguments support your thesis consistently.
  • Read Aloud: Reading your paper aloud helps identify issues.
  • Final Proofread: Perform a thorough proofread to catch any remaining errors.

Term Paper Format

When formatting your term paper, consider its length and the required citation style, which depends on your research topic. Proper referencing is crucial to avoid plagiarism in academic writing. Common citation styles include APA and MLA.

If unsure how to cite term paper for social sciences, use the APA format, including the author's name, book title, publication year, publisher, and location when citing a book.

For liberal arts and humanities, MLA is common, requiring the publication name, date, and location for referencing.

Adhering to the appropriate term paper format and citation style ensures an organized and academically sound paper. Follow your instructor's guidelines for a polished and successful paper.

Term Paper Example

To access our term paper example, simply click the button below.

The timeline of events from 1776 to 1861, that, in the end, prompted the American Civil War, describes and relates to a number of subjects modern historians acknowledge as the origins and causes of the Civil War. In fact, pre-Civil War events had both long-term and short-term influences on the War—such as the election of Abraham Lincoln as the American president in 1860 that led to the Fall of Fort Sumter in April of the same year. In that period, contentions that surrounded states’ rights progressively exploded in Congress—since they were the initial events that formed after independence. Congress focused on resolving significant issues that affected the states, which led to further issues. In that order, the US’s history from 1776 to 1861 provides a rich history, as politicians brought forth dissimilarities, dissections, and tensions between the Southern US & the people of slave states, and the Northern states that were loyal to the Union. The events that unfolded from the period of 1776 to 1861 involved a series of issues because they promoted the great sectional crisis that led to political divisions and the build-up to the Civil War that made the North and the South seem like distinctive and timeless regions that predated the crisis itself.

Final Thoughts

In closing, approach the task of writing term papers with determination and a positive outlook. Begin well in advance, maintain organization, and have faith in your capabilities. Don't hesitate to seek assistance if required, and express your individual perspective with confidence. You're more than capable of succeeding in this endeavor!

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What is the Difference between a Term Paper and a Research Paper?

What is the fastest way to write a term paper, related articles.

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noun as in newspaper

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verb as in line with material

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Home » Term Paper – Format, Examples and Writing Guide

Term Paper – Format, Examples and Writing Guide

Table of Contents

V

Definition:

Term paper is a type of academic writing assignment that is typically assigned to students at the end of a semester or term. It is usually a research-based paper that is meant to demonstrate the student’s understanding of a particular topic, as well as their ability to analyze and synthesize information from various sources.

Term papers are usually longer than other types of academic writing assignments and can range anywhere from 5 to 20 pages or more, depending on the level of study and the specific requirements of the assignment. They often require extensive research and the use of a variety of sources, including books, articles, and other academic publications.

Term Paper Format

The format of a term paper may vary depending on the specific requirements of your professor or institution. However, a typical term paper usually consists of the following sections:

  • Title page: This should include the title of your paper, your name, the course name and number, your instructor’s name, and the date.
  • Abstract : This is a brief summary of your paper, usually no more than 250 words. It should provide an overview of your topic, the research question or hypothesis, your methodology, and your main findings or conclusions.
  • Introduction : This section should introduce your topic and provide background information on the subject. You should also state your research question or hypothesis and explain the importance of your research.
  • Literature review : This section should review the existing literature on your topic. You should summarize the key findings and arguments made by other scholars and identify any gaps in the literature that your research aims to address.
  • Methodology: This section should describe the methods you used to collect and analyze your data. You should explain your research design, sampling strategy, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques.
  • Results : This section should present your findings. You can use tables, graphs, and charts to illustrate your data.
  • Discussion : This section should interpret your findings and explain what they mean in relation to your research question or hypothesis. You should also discuss any limitations of your study and suggest areas for future research.
  • Conclusion : This section should summarize your main findings and conclusions. You should also restate the importance of your research and its implications for the field.
  • References : This section should list all the sources you cited in your paper using a specific citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).
  • Appendices : This section should include any additional materials that are relevant to your study but not essential to your main argument (e.g., survey questions, interview transcripts).

Structure of Term Paper

Here’s an example structure for a term paper:

I. Introduction

A. Background information on the topic

B. Thesis statement

II. Literature Review

A. Overview of current literature on the topic

B. Discussion of key themes and findings from literature

C. Identification of gaps in current literature

III. Methodology

A. Description of research design

B. Discussion of data collection methods

C. Explanation of data analysis techniques

IV. Results

A. Presentation of findings

B. Analysis and interpretation of results

C. Comparison of results with previous studies

V. Discussion

A. Summary of key findings

B. Explanation of how results address the research questions

C. Implications of results for the field

VI. Conclusion

A. Recap of key points

B. Significance of findings

C. Future directions for research

VII. References

A. List of sources cited in the paper

How to Write Term Paper

Here are some steps to help you write a term paper:

  • Choose a topic: Choose a topic that interests you and is relevant to your course. If your professor has assigned a topic, make sure you understand it and clarify any doubts before you start.
  • Research : Conduct research on your topic by gathering information from various sources such as books, academic journals, and online resources. Take notes and organize your information systematically.
  • Create an outline : Create an outline of your term paper by arranging your ideas and information in a logical sequence. Your outline should include an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
  • Write a thesis statement: Write a clear and concise thesis statement that states the main idea of your paper. Your thesis statement should be included in your introduction.
  • Write the introduction: The introduction should grab the reader’s attention, provide background information on your topic, and introduce your thesis statement.
  • Write the body : The body of your paper should provide supporting evidence for your thesis statement. Use your research to provide details and examples to support your argument. Make sure to organize your ideas logically and use transition words to connect paragraphs.
  • Write the conclusion : The conclusion should summarize your main points and restate your thesis statement. Avoid introducing new information in the conclusion.
  • Edit and proofread: Edit and proofread your term paper carefully to ensure that it is free of errors and flows smoothly. Check for grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
  • Format and cite your sources: Follow the formatting guidelines provided by your professor and cite your sources properly using the appropriate citation style.
  • Submit your paper : Submit your paper on time and according to the instructions provided by your professor.

Term Paper Example

Here’s an example of a term paper:

Title : The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Cybersecurity

As the world becomes more digitally interconnected, cybersecurity threats are increasing in frequency and sophistication. Traditional security measures are no longer enough to protect against these threats. This paper explores the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in cybersecurity, including how AI can be used to detect and respond to threats in real-time, the challenges of implementing AI in cybersecurity, and the potential ethical implications of AI-powered security systems. The paper concludes with recommendations for organizations looking to integrate AI into their cybersecurity strategies.

Introduction :

The increasing number of cybersecurity threats in recent years has led to a growing interest in the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve cybersecurity. AI has the ability to analyze vast amounts of data and identify patterns and anomalies that may indicate a security breach. Additionally, AI can automate responses to threats, allowing for faster and more effective mitigation of security incidents. However, there are also challenges associated with implementing AI in cybersecurity, such as the need for large amounts of high-quality data, the potential for AI systems to make mistakes, and the ethical considerations surrounding the use of AI in security.

Literature Review:

This section of the paper reviews existing research on the use of AI in cybersecurity. It begins by discussing the types of AI techniques used in cybersecurity, including machine learning, natural language processing, and neural networks. The literature review then explores the advantages of using AI in cybersecurity, such as its ability to detect previously unknown threats and its potential to reduce the workload of security analysts. However, the review also highlights some of the challenges associated with implementing AI in cybersecurity, such as the need for high-quality training data and the potential for AI systems to be fooled by sophisticated attacks.

Methodology :

To better understand the challenges and opportunities associated with using AI in cybersecurity, this paper conducted a survey of cybersecurity professionals working in a variety of industries. The survey included questions about the types of AI techniques used in their organizations, the challenges they faced when implementing AI in cybersecurity, and their perceptions of the ethical implications of using AI in security.

The results of the survey showed that while many organizations are interested in using AI in cybersecurity, they face several challenges when implementing these systems. These challenges include the need for high-quality training data, the potential for AI systems to be fooled by sophisticated attacks, and the difficulty of integrating AI with existing security systems. Additionally, many respondents expressed concerns about the ethical implications of using AI in security, such as the potential for AI to be biased or to make decisions that are harmful to individuals or society as a whole.

Discussion :

Based on the results of the survey and the existing literature, this paper discusses the potential benefits and risks of using AI in cybersecurity. It also provides recommendations for organizations looking to integrate AI into their security strategies, such as the need to prioritize data quality and to ensure that AI systems are transparent and accountable.

Conclusion :

While there are challenges associated with implementing AI in cybersecurity, the potential benefits of using these systems are significant. AI can help organizations detect and respond to threats more quickly and effectively, reducing the risk of security breaches. However, it is important for organizations to be aware of the potential ethical implications of using AI in security and to take steps to ensure that these systems are transparent and accountable.

References:

  • Alkhaldi, S., Al-Daraiseh, A., & Lutfiyya, H. (2019). A Survey on Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Cyber Security. Journal of Information Security, 10(03), 191-207.
  • Gartner. (2019). Gartner Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2020. Retrieved from https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/gartner-top-10-strategic-technology-trends-for-2020/
  • Kshetri, N. (2018). Blockchain’s roles in meeting key supply chain management objectives. International Journal of Information Management, 39, 80-89.
  • Lipton, Z. C. (2018). The mythos of model interpretability. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.03490.
  • Schneier, B. (2019). Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security and Survival in a Hyper-Connected World. WW Norton & Company.
  • Wahab, M. A., Rahman, M. S., & Islam, M. R. (2020). A Survey on AI Techniques in Cybersecurity. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 11(2), 22-27.

When to Write Term Paper

A term paper is usually a lengthy research paper that is assigned to students at the end of a term or semester. There are several situations when writing a term paper may be required, including:

  • As a course requirement: In most cases, a term paper is required as part of the coursework for a particular course. It may be assigned by the instructor as a way of assessing the student’s understanding of the course material.
  • To explore a specific topic : A term paper can be an excellent opportunity for students to explore a specific topic of interest in-depth. It allows them to conduct extensive research on the topic and develop their understanding of it.
  • To develop critical thinking skills : Writing a term paper requires students to engage in critical thinking and analysis. It helps them to develop their ability to evaluate and interpret information, as well as to present their ideas in a clear and coherent manner.
  • To prepare for future academic or professional pursuits: Writing a term paper can be an excellent way for students to prepare for future academic or professional pursuits. It can help them to develop the research and writing skills necessary for success in higher education or in a professional career.

Purpose of Term Paper

The main purposes of a term paper are:

  • Demonstrate mastery of a subject: A term paper provides an opportunity for students to showcase their knowledge and understanding of a particular subject. It requires students to research and analyze the topic, and then present their findings in a clear and organized manner.
  • Develop critical thinking skills: Writing a term paper requires students to think critically about their subject matter, analyzing various sources and viewpoints, and evaluating evidence to support their arguments.
  • Improve writing skills : Writing a term paper helps students improve their writing skills, including organization, clarity, and coherence. It also requires them to follow specific formatting and citation guidelines, which can be valuable skills for future academic and professional endeavors.
  • Contribute to academic discourse : A well-written term paper can contribute to academic discourse by presenting new insights, ideas, and arguments that add to the existing body of knowledge on a particular topic.
  • Prepare for future research : Writing a term paper can help prepare students for future research, by teaching them how to conduct a literature review, evaluate sources, and formulate research questions and hypotheses. It can also help them develop research skills that they can apply in future academic or professional endeavors.

Advantages of Term Paper

There are several advantages of writing a term paper, including:

  • In-depth exploration: Writing a term paper allows you to delve deeper into a specific topic, allowing you to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject matter.
  • Improved writing skills: Writing a term paper involves extensive research, critical thinking, and the organization of ideas into a cohesive written document. As a result, writing a term paper can improve your writing skills significantly.
  • Demonstration of knowledge: A well-written term paper demonstrates your knowledge and understanding of the subject matter, which can be beneficial for academic or professional purposes.
  • Development of research skills : Writing a term paper requires conducting thorough research, analyzing data, and synthesizing information from various sources. This process can help you develop essential research skills that can be applied in many other areas.
  • Enhancement of critical thinking : Writing a term paper encourages you to think critically, evaluate information, and develop well-supported arguments. These skills can be useful in many areas of life, including personal and professional decision-making.
  • Preparation for further academic work : Writing a term paper is excellent preparation for more extensive academic projects, such as a thesis or dissertation.

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Everything You Need to Know to Write an A+ Term Paper

Last Updated: February 20, 2024 Fact Checked

Sample Term Papers

Researching & outlining.

  • Drafting Your Paper
  • Revising Your Paper

Expert Q&A

This article was co-authored by Matthew Snipp, PhD . C. Matthew Snipp is the Burnet C. and Mildred Finley Wohlford Professor of Humanities and Sciences in the Department of Sociology at Stanford University. He is also the Director for the Institute for Research in the Social Science’s Secure Data Center. He has been a Research Fellow at the U.S. Bureau of the Census and a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He has published 3 books and over 70 articles and book chapters on demography, economic development, poverty and unemployment. He is also currently serving on the National Institute of Child Health and Development’s Population Science Subcommittee. He holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Wisconsin—Madison. There are 13 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 2,220,281 times.

A term paper is a written assignment given to students at the end of a course to gauge their understanding of the material. Term papers typically count for a good percentage of your overall grade, so of course, you’ll want to write the best paper possible. Luckily, we’ve got you covered. In this article, we’ll teach you everything you need to know to write an A+ term paper, from researching and outlining to drafting and revising.

Quick Steps to Write a Term Paper

  • Hook your readers with an interesting and informative intro paragraph. State your thesis and your main points.
  • Support your thesis by providing quotes and evidence that back your claim in your body paragraphs.
  • Summarize your main points and leave your readers with a thought-provoking question in your conclusion.

term for paper

  • Think of your term paper as the bridge between what you’ve learned in class and how you apply that knowledge to real-world topics.
  • For example, a history term paper may require you to explore the consequences of a significant historical event, like the Civil War. An environmental science class, on the other hand, may have you examine the effects of climate change on a certain region.
  • Your guidelines should tell you the paper’s word count and formatting style, like whether to use in-text citations or footnotes and whether to use single- or double-spacing. If these things aren’t specified, be sure to reach out to your instructor.

Step 2 Choose an interesting topic.

  • Make sure your topic isn’t too broad. For example, if you want to write about Shakespeare’s work, first narrow it down to a specific play, like Macbeth , then choose something even more specific like Lady Macbeth’s role in the plot.
  • If the topic is already chosen for you, explore unique angles that can set your content and information apart from the more obvious approaches many others will probably take. [3] X Research source
  • Try not to have a specific outcome in mind, as this will close you off to new ideas and avenues of thinking. Rather than trying to mold your research to fit your desired outcome, allow the outcome to reflect a genuine analysis of the discoveries you made. Ask yourself questions throughout the process and be open to having your beliefs challenged.
  • Reading other people's comments, opinions, and entries on a topic can often help you to refine your own, especially where they comment that "further research" is required or where they posit challenging questions but leave them unanswered.

Step 3 Do your research.

  • For example, if you’re writing a term paper about Macbeth , your primary source would be the play itself. Then, look for other research papers and analyses written by academics and scholars to understand how they interpret the text.

Step 4 Craft your thesis statement.

  • For example, if you’re writing a paper about Lady Macbeth, your thesis could be something like “Shakespeare’s characterization of Lady Macbeth reveals how desire for power can control someone’s life.”
  • Remember, your research and thesis development doesn’t stop here. As you continue working through both the research and writing, you may want to make changes that align with the ideas forming in your mind and the discoveries you continue to unearth.
  • On the other hand, don’t keep looking for new ideas and angles for fear of feeling confined. At some point, you’re going to have to say enough is enough and make your point. You may have other opportunities to explore these questions in future studies, but for now, remember your term paper has a finite word length and an approaching due date!

Step 5 Develop an outline for the paper.

  • Abstract: An abstract is a concise summary of your paper that informs readers of your topic, its significance, and the key points you’ll explore. It must stand on its own and make sense without referencing outside sources or your actual paper.
  • Introduction: The introduction establishes the main idea of your paper and directly states the thesis. Begin your introduction with an attention-grabbing sentence to intrigue your readers, and provide any necessary background information to establish your paper’s purpose and direction.
  • Body paragraphs: Each body paragraph focuses on a different argument supporting your thesis. List specific evidence from your sources to back up your arguments. Provide detailed information about your topic to enhance your readers’ understanding. In your outline, write down the main ideas for each body paragraph and any outstanding questions or points you’re not yet sure about.
  • Results: Depending on the type of term paper you’re writing, your results may be incorporated into your body paragraphs or conclusion. These are the insights that your research led you to. Here you can discuss how your perspective and understanding of your topic shifted throughout your writing process.
  • Conclusion: Your conclusion summarizes your argument and findings. You may restate your thesis and major points as you wrap up your paper.

Drafting Your Term Paper

Step 1 Make your point in the introduction.

  • Writing an introduction can be challenging, but don’t get too caught up on it. As you write the rest of your paper, your arguments might change and develop, so you’ll likely need to rewrite your intro at the end, anyway. Writing your intro is simply a means of getting started and you can always revise it later. [10] X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source
  • Be sure to define any words your readers might not understand. For example, words like “globalization” have many different meanings depending on context, and it’s important to state which ones you’ll be using as part of your introductory paragraph.

Step 2 Persuade your readers with your body paragraphs.

  • Try to relate the subject of the essay (say, Plato’s Symposium ) to a tangentially related issue you happen to know something about (say, the growing trend of free-wheeling hookups in frat parties). Slowly bring the paragraph around to your actual subject and make a few generalizations about why this aspect of the book/subject is so fascinating and worthy of study (such as how different the expectations for physical intimacy were then compared to now).

Step 3 Summarize your argument with your conclusion.

  • You can also reflect on your own experience of researching and writing your term paper. Discuss how your understanding of your topic evolved and any unexpected findings you came across.
  • 4 Write your abstract. Because the abstract is a summary of your entire paper, it’s usually best to write it after you complete your first draft. Typically, an abstract is only 150-250 words, so focus on highlighting the key elements of your term paper like your thesis, main supporting evidence, and findings. Avoid lengthy explanations and jargon or technical terms a casual reader might not understand. [13] X Research source

Step 5 Create your bibliography page and cite your sources.

  • While peppering quotes throughout your text is a good way to help make your point, don’t overdo it. If you use too many quotes, you’re basically allowing other authors to make the point and write the paper for you. When you do use a quote, be sure to explain why it is relevant in your own words.
  • Try to sort out your bibliography at the beginning of your writing process to avoid having a last-minute scramble. When you have all the information beforehand (like the source’s title, author, publication date, etc.), it’s easier to plug them into the correct format.

Step 6 Come up with a good title.

Revising & Finalizing Your Term Paper

Step 1 Make your writing as concise as possible.

  • Trade in weak “to-be” verbs for stronger “action” verbs. For example: “I was writing my term paper” becomes “I wrote my term paper.”

Step 2 Check for grammar and spelling errors.

  • It’s extremely important to proofread your term paper. If your writing is full of mistakes, your instructor will assume you didn’t put much effort into your paper. If you have too many errors, your message will be lost in the confusion of trying to understand what you’ve written.
  • If you add or change information to make things clearer for your readers, it’s a good idea to look over your paper one more time to catch any new typos that may have come up in the process.

Matthew Snipp, PhD

  • The best essays are like grass court tennis—the argument should flow in a "rally" style, building persuasively to the conclusion. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • If you get stuck, consider giving your professor a visit. Whether you're still struggling for a thesis or you want to go over your conclusion, most instructors are delighted to help and they'll remember your initiative when grading time rolls around. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • At least 2 hours for 3-5 pages.
  • At least 4 hours for 8-10 pages.
  • At least 6 hours for 12-15 pages.
  • Double those hours if you haven't done any homework and you haven't attended class.
  • For papers that are primarily research-based, add about two hours to those times (although you'll need to know how to research quickly and effectively, beyond the purview of this brief guide).

term for paper

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  • ↑ https://www.binghamton.edu/counseling/self-help/term-paper.html
  • ↑ Matthew Snipp, PhD. Research Fellow, U.S. Bureau of the Census. Expert Interview. 26 March 2020.
  • ↑ https://emory.libanswers.com/faq/44525
  • ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/planresearchpaper/
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/the_writing_process/thesis_statement_tips.html
  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/outline
  • ↑ https://gallaudet.edu/student-success/tutorial-center/english-center/writing/guide-to-writing-introductions-and-conclusions/
  • ↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26731827
  • ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/writing-an-abstract-for-your-research-paper/
  • ↑ https://www.ivcc.edu/stylesite/Essay_Title.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.uni-flensburg.de/fileadmin/content/institute/anglistik/dokumente/downloads/how-to-write-a-term-paper-daewes.pdf
  • ↑ https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185937
  • ↑ https://www.cornerstone.edu/blog-post/six-steps-to-really-edit-your-paper/

About This Article

Matthew Snipp, PhD

If you need to write a term paper, choose your topic, then start researching that topic. Use your research to craft a thesis statement which states the main idea of your paper, then organize all of your facts into an outline that supports your thesis. Once you start writing, state your thesis in the first paragraph, then use the body of the paper to present the points that support your argument. End the paper with a strong conclusion that restates your thesis. For tips on improving your term paper through active voice, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How To Write a Term Paper: A Guide That Works

30 June, 2020

16 minutes read

Author:  Mathieu Johnson

Once you’ve started your university career, you are going to be asked to present a term paper. What’s the difference between a term paper and a research paper? How can you write a good term? What’s the best way to structure it? Where can you find some tips to make the writing process faster? In this article, we’ll discuss a few tips to help you prepare a term paper quickly and professionally.

term paper

What Is a Term Paper… And What Is The First Step?

A term paper is a critical and analytical report on the topic or subject that you covered within the course of studies. It usually consists of two separate but equally important aspects: your own thoughts about the topic and a demonstration of your understanding of the existing literature. The main goal of this assignment is to summarize the material you learned and showcase your understanding of the topic. This aspect makes the term paper a universal instrument for assessing a student’s proficiency. It also explains why term papers cost so many points of your course grade.

We usually associate a term paper with a research paper , but although the concepts are quite similar, a research paper requires a more academic approach and a deeper investigation into the literature of your field of study.

To write an outstanding college term paper, you must understand that your professor has requested it in order to test your analytical thinking skills. You must collect relevant data, analyze it, and then make a summary or solve a particular problem. Such skills are highly relevant to the business world, so this type of the task is as practical as it is educational.

So, let’s start the preparation!

Before you begin writing

Dip into the topics and make a research

Unfortunately, there is no magical recipe that allows you to get everything done fast. You will need to choose the best way forward in whatever situation you find yourself, but here are some tips to help you prepare for the assignment.

To begin with, take the research stage seriously . Sometimes, when students are really interested in a topic, they only want to present their personal ideas about the problem. Unfortunately, if you’re not completely familiar with all the data from the various sources, you will need to reinvent the bicycle.

Term paper writing was never an easy ride. Well, not for our expert writers. Place an order with our term paper writing service and secure yourself an “A!”

In the initial stages of your research, investigate everything you can find on the topic . This may sound like a tall order, but you’ll find that it doesn’t actually entail that much reading. At this point you are only compiling the research, so you will be skimming through numerous prospects rather than reading them completely. Bear in mind that your aim is to get acquainted with the various aspects of your problem. The term paper summarizes the knowledge you gained within a course and requires to familiarize yourself with the research that other people have already made on your topic.

Thinking that your opinions are completely original and unique is quite egocentric, and it can get you into trouble. So, “your” thoughts about the problem are usually just somebody else’s statements that you have rephrased (or even a well-established academic concept!). Remember that your professor will be familiar with all the literature surrounding the issue: if you merely rewrite someone else’s thoughts and present them as your own (even if you don’t realize doing it), be prepared for criticism!

Applying a Structure To Your Term Paper

Term paper structure

Once you have read all the leading authors and their approaches to your problem, it’s time to create a structure for your work. This is not yet an outline; you just need to decide what to write about. Sketch out the topic for the theoretical portion of your work and think about practical aspects and how you can approach the research in the best possible way.

At this point, you really need to call or email your supervisor . Your professor will have seen hundreds of term papers like yours (i.e., they have not yet been written, but a definite idea exists!) and will be prepared to give you feedback and advice. He or she will tell you what literature you have omitted, offer suggestions about what you should read, and give you feedback about your paper. It may well be that your approach has already occurred to somebody else, in which case there is no need to repeat it.

Choosing a Topic: Easy as Riding a Bike?

When you choose your topic, make sure you choose something that you are interested in . That’s our advice if you want a painless term paper. If you prefer to investigate a field that you’ve never really explored before, you can challenge yourself to do that, too. That might be sophisticated, but why not?

If you decide to investigate a topic or a problem that you are pretty familiar with, your writing will be more fluid. You will focus your attention on a specific aspect of the chosen field and expand your knowledge within that scope. On the contrary, choosing an unfamiliar subject matter can wash out your expertise.

Be prepared to change the topic if you find out that your research isn’t going anywhere. It might occur that you presuppose that your topic has a potential but somewhere at the stage of initial research, you find that it just won’t work. It’s always a good idea to consider two or three topics when you kick off the term paper writing – even if they are just different ways of examining the same problem. By doing this, you will be able to choose the best version, which may not be the one you started with at all!

Related Post: 100 Persuasive essay topics

Formulating a Thesis statement

Term paper thesis statement

Writing a proper thesis statement can also be challenging. To begin with, write down a couple of prominent ideas or concepts, then try to make rough drafts of them to see how they’ll work in the structural framework. You will probably find that one idea fits your style, interests, and knowledge base: you can choose that one as your thesis statement.

Remember that the thesis statement is the skeleton, the central concept of your paper. It is the elemental attribute of almost any academic paper – from master’s thesis to a simple five paragraph essay. If you do a thorough job on it, you will find that writing (and defending!) your argument is much easier.

Be aware that all of these stages are parts of a procedure – one leads to another. When writing a term paper, you should collect the material and wrap it up at the same time.

Planning – The Key To Success

Some people claim that they can write a term paper without any planning. In our opinion, this is impossible. If you don’t have a postgraduate degree and you aren’t a certified genius, you need to prepare an outline for your project. It may come as a surprise, but even people who claim otherwise actually prepare outlines – in their heads. But if you don’t have that much experience, use a pencil and your notebook to ensure that you don’t forget anything.

Don’t procrastinate on your College or University papers anymore. Get professional help with our essay writer !

That’s when we get to preparing your first draft . There’s only one thing to add here: do as many drafts as you need in order to achieve your goal. Understand that your aim is to create an excellent term paper and keep working at it until you are satisfied.

Term Paper Outline: Write Everything In The Proper Section!

Term paper outline

In the Introduction , state the topic that you are going to investigate and the context of your work. This is the critical ‘selling’ moment of your work. In a nutshell, your introduction combined with a conclusion should give a sneak peek into what the whole paper is about. If your introduction is well-prepared, it will be quite complacent about the body of your project. The introduction must include an abstract that presents your thesis statement . You should explain your motivation (why should the reader be concerned about this problem?) , your methods (what scientific tools did you use?) , and the results (what you achieved) .

The Literature Review totally corresponds to its name – it is here to review the literature you compiled. Your professor will double check it to make sure that you understand the context of your argument. One more thing to add is: collect all the information you can! Ideally, you should read or at least glance through every book and author that you can find on the topic. Think of your task as a fascinating journey: if you approach it like that, reading hundreds of pages won’t seem like that much of a challenge.

In the Discussion , you must present the interpretations of the problem. Be honest, explain what you pieces of data you don’t agree with and what ideas and concepts you support. This section connects the dots between theory and practice when writing a term paper. Wherever possible, provide several interpretations of the subject matter, then choose the one(s) that are most relevant to the case you are presenting.

In the Body , focus on those arguments that prove your thesis statement. This section must be absolutely logical. If you have chosen a more complicated topic, use heading and sub-headings to improve the appearance of this section. While writing the body, keep your target audience (your professors) in mind. In other words, don’t just record the obvious causes/effects/solutions but also showcase your own findings – what you have discovered and how that proves your thesis statement. Demonstrate that you are familiar with the details and you will stun your readers with the prolific mastery of the topic.

Now, the Conclusion   is her to summarize both the content and the purpose of the paper. The most challenging part is not to make it too dry. Reiterate your thesis statement and briefly show how your results justified your proposition. At the very end, you can suggest a call to action or pose a rhetorical question or statement that leaves your reader wanting more.

What to do next?

When you have finished, reread your work a couple of times. You will almost certainly find a few faults, whether they are contextual, factual, syntactical, grammatical, or even simple spelling mistakes. A very useful tip is to wait for two or three days after writing your final draft to proofread it afterward. Your brain will have time to process the information, and you’ll be able to look at it with a fresh view.

How to write a good term paper

When proofreading, take care to polish the structural problems. The skeleton (the logic and the thesis statement) should make sense. If they don’t, try to approach the problem from another perspective. The changes may take some time, but bear in mind that your objective is to produce professional work. Be patient!

After that, print the term paper. The human eye processes information differently on the paper than on a computer screen; that’s why you need to print it and take one final look for any possible mistakes. Even if you don’t see any serious defects, pay attention to formatting, punctuation, and synonyms. It’s an academic text, so make it shine!

Term Paper Sample

Be sure to check the sample of a term paper, completed by our writers. Use it as an example to perfect your own writing. Link:  Term Paper Sample: Consumer Buying Behavior .

The Do’s and Don’ts of Term Paper Writing

There you have the most important tips to help you succeed in writing a term paper. Now it’s up to you to stop reading and start writing!

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Term paper – master your fear of writing.

Just be honest and tell me, how many words? And how much time have you got to do it? If you’re about to embark on writing a term paper, I have excellent news for you – this is a crash course! I’m about to introduce you to the fine art of writing term papers for any topic. We will look at an airtight outline example, some life hacks, and the usual formatting tips. Let’s dive right in!

term paper - studysmarter magazine

What Is a Term Paper? Definition and Guidelines

If you’ve only just started university and have already been slammed by this frightful word, welcome to this new level of study! University is not only about cramming from tons of books: It should also, ideally, foster critical thinking, teach you how to argue your points effectively, and help you develop research skills. And you will need all three of these to write a stellar term paper!

But hang on a sec, what is a term paper? A term paper is a longer type of research-based homework on a particular topic. Term papers range from 15 to 25 pages because any less is considered lazy and any more is too much for any professor to read (trust me, I teach at a university).

In general, you should be free to select a topic for your term paper, but regardless of whether you’re free to do it or are assigned one, term papers mostly have the same goal. Namely, they test your ability to formulate and support your arguments and locate yourself in a particular theoretical framework. Sound scary yet? Don’t worry! I’m here to illuminate some of the vaguer aspects of term paper writing.

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Structuring Your Term Paper Outline (+ Sample Term Paper Outline PDF)

Before you begin writing, it’s advisable to have an idea about where exactly your writing is going. The best way to achieve this is to write an outline, or (as we sleep-deprived academics like to call it) an abstract. An abstract is a short description of your paper/article/project that outlines your main research questions and the theoretical framework you will be working with.

I generally suggest that people start with a very simple pyramid structure when writing an abstract:

  • The foundation. This is where you introduce a broad, general statement on the topic of your choice. You can clarify and specify this in a few more sentences to ease your readers into the research project.

Example: Contemporary drama boasts the power to transform the audience through careful selection and crafty delivery of impactful images. By creating faux-reality, drama sometimes appeals to the affective side of the audience in order to provide commentary on a number of social and psychological issues. Duncan Macmillan’s Every Brilliant Thing capitalises on its affect-inducing potential, tackling the issue of suicidal depression.

  • The middle. In this part of the outline, you state the aims of your study. Some of my favourite phrases to signal your intentions include: this paper aims to shed light on, the goal of this research paper is, the idea behind this term paper is, etc. Feel free to add some powerful verbs of action such as examine, assess, illuminate, discern, analyse, cross-reference, etc. to emphasise your ideas.

Example: This paper aims to explore how the play creates a more realistic setting by deviating from the audience’s expectations, thus blurring the line between drama and real life. It may be argued that simulated reality, exemplified through a number of exaggerations, impacts the affective component in the audience’s attitude formation and that its neglect of the cognitive reinforces the transformative power of Every Brilliant Thing .

  • The top. The final part of your outline should highlight coherent hypotheses or research questions that your study will answer. While academic papers usually dream of some originality, this should not concern you yet – you don’t need to invent hot water in your term papers, but as you gain experience, novel conclusions will become easier to form.

Example: This paper will then take a final look at how the structure of the play simulates depression in order to sensitise the audience and to which extent it attains its goal of conveying the message of the universality and repercussions of the disease.

Writing an outline is a good way to organise your thoughts, figure out what kind of books you need, and anticipate your results.

In the abovementioned examples, the books you’d need would have to do with theatre, psychological influences, and simulation of reality.

This process applies to any subject. The outline can be more detailed, but it needn’t go over 300 words. A word of advice: if you cannot summarise the key points of your topic in 300 words, you should do some more brainstorming until you reach the specific goal.

PS Check out this excellent term paper outline sample !

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Term Paper Format – The Safety Net

Each term paper should follow a relatively familiar structure and way of arguing your points. Let’s start with the basics:

  • Cover page. This is where your title goes (centred, bolded, pt24 ideally). The cover page should also list your personal details, such as name, address, email, student ID number, phone number (maybe), and the institution and the department for which you are writing your term paper. Each university tends to have its own layout for the cover page, but the rule of thumb is that institutional information goes above the title, whereas personal information is below.
  • Table of contents – your readers need to know what to expect!
  • Introduction. This is a more elaborate version of your project outline. You should specify what the paper is dealing with, what theoretical framework you’re using, and what your hypothesis is. My pro tip is to write the introduction last because term papers tend to grow as you write and you may end up with vastly different results from those you had expected.
  • Theoretical framing. Explain which theories or ideas you’re using.
  • Methodology. This is mostly present in scientific papers where you must explain what methods will guide your study (i.e. experiments).
  • Analysis. Close readings, experiments, data surveys – whatever your project is doing, it should be doing it here.
  • Discussion . Feel free to start interpreting your results in this section. A great paper does not simply list data – it compares and contrasts. You must be able to draw conclusions about what your analysis has shown you. Results as expected? Hypothesis confirmed. Results not ideal? There’s something to write about. Consider why something turned out differently and what that means for future studies.
  • Optional: pitfalls and future improvements. Again, this is more present in sciences than humanities, but you could address possible pitfalls or blind spots in your study and suggest how they can be improved upon in the future. You can also talk about what lines of research your project can inspire.
  • Conclusion . Time to wrap it all up. Briefly summarise the key points of research and main results. If you haven’t already devoted a separate section of the paper to this, you can also write about indications for future research in your conclusion.

Term Paper Structure Example

To give you a more precise example of a structured term paper, here’s a more detailed structure of the above-described example on theatre:

term paper - studysmarter magazine

Still Unsure about How to Write a Term Paper?

Excellent, I love good questions! The truth is, writing a term paper is a labour of love (it is hard labour, especially if you’re carrying all the books!), so I will give you some tips on how to make it an enjoyable experience.

  • Pick a topic you’re interested in. There’s nothing you can say to convince me that your subject is so absolutely wretchedly uninteresting that you simply cannot find such a topic. You just haven’t done your work yet. Start digging and follow the internet clicking abyss until you stumble upon something that takes your fancy. My master thesis idea was based on a single line I read in a magazine about Neil Gaiman’s American Gods – I managed to turn it into 80 pages, two scientific articles, and two talks just fine, even though it may not have been researched previously. So, whatever you’re writing about, there’s got to be a fun angle to it.
  • Start reading. You cannot write a term paper from nothing. Once you have a general topic and an outline, you should start collecting your materials. Check out your library and inform yourself about the inter-library loan. Get acquainted with various scientific databases like JSTOR and ResearchGate – your university probably has wide access to many knowledge repositories you can use through an official VPN or library computers. Search by keywords and titles and save everything that sounds interesting. Learn to recognise important elements and ideas in those texts and be ready to use them to support your arguments.
  • Know when to stop, too. Sometimes you’ll find yourself deep in the excitement of learning something new, but there will come a point when you realise you’re ready to put what you’ve found into your own words. Set up an experiment, survey, or study and follow up on the results. In humanities, this may mean a closer analysis of selected texts. This is where you start writing – again, leave the introduction for later and jump right into the core of the work.
  • Mind the style. When writing a term paper, you need to keep certain standards up. Term papers are written in the ‘academic’ style and involve lots of passive voice, verbs of enlightenment (illustrate, examine, assess), and words marking cause-effect relationships. Don’t be afraid to use transition words to make your text and conclusions flow easily.
  • Cite properly! Oh, how I hated learning all the citation styles when I was just starting out, but once you do learn the ropes, it gets easier. It’s a bit of drudgery, but my advice is to write down your sources meticulously as you go along. As soon as you cite someone, make sure you add the full citation at the end of the text (I like having them in a separate document), and don’t forget in-text citations. Depending on what field you’re studying in, you will have different citation styles (like MLA, Chicago, APA) at your disposal – make sure you check the requirements for each course and consult the corresponding websites with guidelines.

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Don’t Forget about Term Paper Editing!

And there goes the last-minute churning of text and hitting send before passing out for the next two days. Writing a term paper at university should not be left for the last minute. If you’re a chronic procrastinator, it’s time to learn to organise your time and devote enough of it to your assignments.

When you’re done with writing, you should leave your paper alone for a few days – sleep on it, as they say. You can treat this distance like any good study break – it’ll help you clear your mind, prevent resentment towards the subject, and allow you to see it through new eyes. Before submitting, re-read your text carefully and edit the writing. Weed out spelling and grammatical errors and prune unnecessary examples or repetitive statements. A good way to do this is to change the font or even font size in your writing software – this engages your perception and makes spotting mistakes easier.

Editing is also the time to consider how your arguments are holding together and whether you need to add or replace some text and/or rearrange your points. It’s an extremely important part of the writing process, but you shouldn’t overdo it either. Perfectionism can get you into the editing spiral that usually leads to messing up parts that were initially good. A few re-reads are fine, but anything more and you might as well start to rewrite the whole thing.

The last question to consider is whether you are happy with your result. Remember, this is a term paper and you’re still learning, so nobody expects it to be perfect, but you should be satisfied with what you’ve accomplished.

The Key Takeaways of Writing a Term Paper

Writing a term paper is a longer commitment than a simple essay. To ensure your success, start well ahead of time or you might find yourself rushed and stressed .

  • Try to find a topic of personal interest to you.
  • Scribble an outline to work out your angle or general direction of the paper.
  • Read enough materials. Your library and online databases are your friends.
  • Form hypotheses and set up experiments or analyses.
  • Get down to business (and stop procrastinating !).
  • Don’t forget to edit the paper well and format it correctly.

Source: Danica Stojanovic, ‘Theatrical (Hyper)Reality: The Effects of Breaking Formal Boundaries in Every Brilliant Thing ’, Over The Horizon, London, 2020, pp. 81‑100.

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What is a term paper?

How do you write a term paper, how do you write a term paper proposal, how do you write a term paper outline, how long should a term paper be, how do you prepare a term paper, how do you write a conclusion for a term paper, how do you write a term paper introduction.

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  • A Research Guide
  • Writing Guide
  • Assignment Writing

How to Write a Term Paper

  • Purpose of a term paper
  • How to start a term paper
  • Structure and outline

Step-by-step writing guide

Standard term paper format.

  • Term paper examples
  • Writing tips

What is the purpose of a term paper?

How to start a term paper correctly.

  • Choose your topic by focusing on what inspires you unless you are already given a topic.
  • Take time to research and analyze your subject.
  • Start with a term paper outline (see our templates in the next sections).
  • Come up with a strong thesis statement before writing anything for body paragraphs.
  • Provide topic sentences and practical examples.
  • Provide a strong lesson in the conclusion if it suits the subject you write about.
  • Edit and proofread available information for trustworthiness.

Term paper structure and outline

  • Introduction. This is where you talk about the subject and a problem you are researching. It helps to introduce your thesis statement and explain the objectives that have been set.
  • Body Paragraphs. As a rule, in writing college term papers, one must write down several subheadings and headings to divide ideas and arguments into several (at least four) paragraphs. As done below, each body paragraph should contain one idea and a strong topic sentence.
  • Heading 1: History of the argument and background.
  • Heading 2: Extent of the problem that you write about.
  • Heading 3: Effects of the problem and possible causes.
  • Heading 4: Possible solutions and outcomes.
  • Conclusion. The final part should represent a strong summary and a response to your thesis statement.

Step 1: Data collection

Step 2: explaining research relevance, step 3: introducing your subject, step 4: literature review preparation, step 5: offering results and conclusions, step 6: structural term paper evaluation, step 7: check your citations and references.

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Helpful term paper examples

  • Term paper examples that earned an A grade from the University of Delaware
  • Sample term paper offered by the Justus-Liebig Universitat Giessen
  • Purdue Owl Lab Citation Formats Database
  • Simon Fraser University Sample Term Paper

Term paper writing tips

  • Choose a topic that inspires you if you have an opportunity. If you have been given an already existing prompt to write, research your subject online and ask about the use of course materials. It will help you to narrow things down and already have source materials for referencing purposes.
  • If you can choose a subject to write a final paper for your course, think about something you can support with statistical data and some practical evidence.
  • Most importantly, keep your term paper relevant to the main objectives of your study course.
  • Keep your tone reflective and natural as you write.
  • Double-check your grading rubric regarding limitations and obligatory requirements that must be met.
  • Always proofread your term paper aloud!
  • If you have an opportunity, consider editing your term paper with the help of a friend or a fellow college student.

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How to Write a Term Paper 101: A Tutorial to Takeover

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As the end of the semester draws closer, many students are losing their sleep over the thought of writing a term paper. But you’re worrying pointlessly because  PaperPerk  has brought expert help to your doorstep! 

Our comprehensive guide on how to write a term paper is sure to help you with every step. So read this article thoroughly because we cover everything from definition to steps on composition and templates with examples.

Table of Contents

What Is a Term Paper?

A term paper is a written project required at the end of a semester. It is designed to evaluate a student’s knowledge and understanding of a particular subject. Typically, it takes the form of a discussion or analysis of an assigned topic. 

But it can also resemble a scientific report,  reflective essay , or even a research paper. As an essential component of a student’s academic journey, a term paper is characterized by its in-depth exploration of a specific subject matter.

Key Characteristics

One of the key features of a term paper is that it requires a significant amount of research , as it aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the topic. This research-intensive nature of the term paper sets it apart from other academic assignments. 

Additionally, term papers demand technical writing skills, as they need to be well-organized, structured, and adhere to specific formatting requirements. A high-quality term paper should be well-written, thoroughly researched, and analytical. 

It should demonstrate critical thinking and provide valuable insights into the subject matter. With an Impactful term paper, a student showcases their ability to synthesize and analyze information, ultimately contributing to their overall academic success.

How to Write a Term Paper: A Comprehensive Guide

The biggest step in learning how to write a term paper is to understand the importance of creating a term paper outline. This  research paper outline  is the beacon that will guide through your writing process. The following part of this post contains steps on composing an outline and its component. 

How to Write a Term Paper: Outlining a Term Paper

Below are the essential components of an outline. Once you gather your information, you’ll incorporate it within these compartments to avoid creating a chaotic cluster of random data. 

Introduction

Let’s look at these a bit more closely and understand how to use these elements in the best way. 

Also known as the  title page , the cover page of a term paper is the first impression of the paper. It provides all the necessary information about the paper along with a neat and professional look. It should include the following information:

  • Title of the paper
  • Course name and code
  • Instructor’s name
  • Date of submission

Steps to compose a cover page:

  • Centrally align the title of your paper in the middle of the page.
  • Add your name, course name, and number below the title.
  • Include your instructor’s name and the date of submission at the bottom.

You might be required to add more than these common elements if your professor asks you to. Many students additionally write the name of the university, department or other relevant details. 

The abstract is a brief summary of your term paper, usually between 150-250 words. It should highlight the main points, including the research question, methods, results, and conclusions. 

Using an  abstract  optimally allows readers to quickly grasp the main points and significance of your term paper. The abstract is usually placed at the beginning of the paper, right after the cover page. 

Steps to compose an abstract:

  • Write a concise summary of your paper’s purpose and research question.
  • Briefly describe the methods used in your research.
  • Summarize the main findings or results.
  • Conclude with a brief statement of your paper’s implications or significance.

Ensure that all the information you incorporate within your abstract accurately reflects the content and findings within your paper. Double-check that there is consistency between the abstract and the main body of the paper in terms of the research objectives, methodology, and conclusions. 

The  introduction  sets the stage for your term paper. It provides background information, states the research question, depicts the purpose of the study and explains the paper’s significance. 

Steps to compose an introduction:

  • Begin with a hook to capture the reader’s attention.
  • Provide background information on your topic.
  • Clearly state your research question.
  • Explain the significance of your research and its contribution to the field.

The body of your term paper is where you present your arguments , evidence, and analysis. It should be organized into sections or subheadings, each focusing on a specific aspect of your research.

Steps to compose the body:

  • Organize your content into logical sections or subheadings.
  • Present your arguments and support them with evidence from your research.
  • Analyze the evidence and explain its relevance to your research question.
  • Use appropriate citations to acknowledge the sources of your information.

The results section presents the outcomes and the findings of your research study. It should be clear, concise, and focused on the data collected during your study.

Steps to compose the results section:

  • Summarize the data collected during your research.
  • Use tables, charts, or graphs to visually represent your findings.
  • Describe any patterns, trends, or relationships observed in the data.
  • Ensure that your results are relevant to your research question.
  • Avoid repetition of any information. 

The  discussion section  interprets the results of your term paper and explains their implications. It should also address any limitations of your research and suggest areas for future study.

Steps to compose the discussion section:

  • Interpret your results and explain their significance.
  • Discuss any limitations or weaknesses in your research.
  • Compare your findings to previous studies and explain any differences.
  • Suggest areas for future research based on your findings.

The  conclusion  brings your term paper to a close by summarizing the main points. This final section of your paper also restates the significance of your research.

Steps to compose a conclusion:

  • Restate your research question and summarize the main points of your paper.
  • Emphasize the significance of your research and its contribution to the field.
  • Offer recommendations or suggestions for future research.
  • End with a strong closing statement that leaves a lasting impression on the reader.

By following this comprehensive guide, you can write a well-structured and impactful term paper that demonstrates your understanding of the subject and contributes valuable insights to the field.

How to Write a Term Paper Proposal: A Tutorial

A term paper proposal serves as a blueprint for your research. It helps in organizing your thoughts and ideas. Lets focus on the essential features of a term paper proposal and understand steps on how to compose each part.

Essential Features of a Term Paper Proposal

Relevance and importance.

The title of your term paper proposal should attract your readers and provide them with a clear idea of your work. It should be clear, concise, and accurately reflect the subject of your research.

Steps to compose a title:

  • Identify the main topic or theme of your research.
  • Choose relevant keywords that represent the key concepts of your research.
  • Combine these keywords to create a clear and informative title.
  • Ensure that your  title  is not too long or overly complex.
  • Consider your audience’s ability to understand your title.

The objectives section outlines the specific goals of your research. These goals should be clear, measurable, and achievable within the scope of your term paper.

Steps to compose objectives:

  • Begin by stating the general purpose of your research.
  • Break down this purpose into specific, measurable objectives.
  • Ensure that your objectives are achievable within the timeframe and resources available for your term paper.
  • Keep your objectives focused and relevant to your research question.

The relevance and importance section demonstrates the significance of your research within the context of your field of study. It should explain why your research is necessary and how it contributes to the existing body of knowledge.

Steps to compose the relevance and importance section:

  • Explain the context of your research by providing background information on the topic.
  • Identify gaps or limitations in the existing literature that your research aims to address.
  • Explain how your research contributes to the field by offering new insights or perspectives.
  • Emphasize the potential impact of your research on the broader academic community or society as a whole.

Putting It All Together: Writing a Term Paper Proposal

Now that you clearly understand the essential features of a term paper  proposal , it’s time to put it all together. Follow these steps to create a well-structured and compelling proposal:

  • Begin by writing a clear and concise title that accurately reflects the subject of your research.
  • Compose a brief introduction that overviews your research topic and its significance. This introduction should also include a clear statement of your research question.
  • Outline the specific objectives of your research, ensuring that they are clear, measurable, and achievable within the scope of your term paper.
  • Explain the relevance and importance of your research by demonstrating its significance within your field of study. Highlight the gaps or limitations in the existing literature that your research aims to address.
  • Provide a brief overview of your research methodology, including the methods you plan to use for data collection and analysis.
  • Include a tentative timeline for your research, outlining the milestones and deadlines for each project stage.
  • Conclude your proposal with a summary of the main points and a restatement of the significance of your research.

By following these comprehensive steps, you can create a well-structured and persuasive term paper proposal that demonstrates the importance of your research and sets the stage for a successful term paper.

How to Write a Term Paper: Formatting

A term paper format refers to the set of rules and standards that dictate the structure and presentation of a term paper. Formatting is essential to learn how to write a term paper as it ensures consistency, enhances readability, and maintains a professional appearance. 

A proper structure allows readers to concentrate on the content rather than the presentation. Several formatting styles are used in term papers, with the American Psychological Association (APA) style and the Modern Language Association (MLA) style being the most common.

Using APA Style in a Term Paper:

  • Choose a standard font, such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 12-point Times New Roman.
  • Apply double-spacing throughout the paper, including the abstract, main text, quotes, tables, figures, and references.
  • Create a title page containing the paper’s title, author’s name, affiliated institution, and a running head.
  • Organize the content using headings that adhere to  APA guidelines for different heading levels.
  • Incorporate the author-date citation method for in-text citations and format the reference list according to APA guidelines.

Using MLA Style in a Term Paper:

  • Opt for a standard font, such as 12-point Times New Roman.
  • Double-space the entire paper, including the main text, quotes, and the Works Cited page.
  • Include a header with the last name of the author and page number on the top right corner of all pages.
  • Use parenthetical citations within the text and format according to  MLA guidelines .
  • Follow MLA guidelines for formatting headings and subheadings, if applicable.

Adhering to the appropriate style guide when formatting term papers is crucial for maintaining academic integrity and ensuring that your work is easily comprehended and properly cited.

Choosing the Perfect Term Paper Topics

Writing a term paper can be a daunting task, but choosing the right term paper topics can make all the difference. In this part, we will provide you with some useful tips and tricks to make the process as smooth as possible.

The Starting Point

In most cases, students are assigned term papers by their professors. These topics are related to course outline to assess pupil’s understanding of the course material. As well as their ability to think critically and conduct research on a specific subject. 

Other times, teachers provide students a chance to choose a topic of their liking. But before you go on and pick a topic for your term paper, put the following concerns at the forefront. 

  • The course objective 
  • Your own interest. 

The Course Objective

Your term paper is essentially assigned to assess your command on the subject. Prioritize your course outline or objective before picking your  research paper topics . This will ensure that your paper is relevant and reflects what you have learnt so far about the subject. 

Your Interests

Your personal interests play a significant role in the success of your term paper. When you choose a topic that genuinely interests you, you are more likely to engage in  writing a research paper . This enthusiasm will not only make the writing process more enjoyable but also result in a higher quality term paper. 

Before picking a specific topic, make sure to conduct thorough research and align your personal liking to your course objective. The following tips on how to pick the perfect term paper topic will assist you in acing your grade.

Tips for Choosing the Perfect Term Paper Topic

While picking a topic for yourself, be mindful of certain things:

Adjusting Topic Length

Consider if the topic would adjust your required length for a term paper. Suppose you’re to write a  10-page research paper , what kind of topic would adjust within those 10 pages? Registering the narrowness or broadness of the topic can help.

Authentic Resources

The second thing you need to consider is the resources of your information. Check if the source you’re working with is authentic. Reliable  sources for a research paper  include academic journals, books, think tanks, and reputable websites.

Complexity of the Subject

To ensure the clarity of your topic, consider its complexity. It is important that the chosen subject can be effectively presented to your audience. Additionally, ensure that you have a solid understanding of the subject matter yourself.

By considering the length, resources, and complexity of your chosen topic, you can ensure that your term paper is engaging, informative, and well-researched. So, take the time to select the perfect topic and get ready to ace your term paper!

How to Write a Term Paper: A Template With Example

This template also contains examples that are highlighted in a different color. 

Title Page 

Abstract .

  • Remember to never exceed the abstract more than 250 words.

1.1 Background

1.2 problem statement, 1.3 objectives, 2. literature review, 3. methodology, 5. discussion, 6. conclusion, 7. references.

  • The references section uses the appropriate citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).

8. Appendices

  • If necessary, this section includes additional material such as raw data, survey questionnaires, interview transcripts, or any other supplementary information that supports the research.

This guide on how to write a term paper must have been helpful to you. But we understand that wrapping your head around something so detailed can be difficult when you’re stressed out. And most students are stressed out by the end of the semester due to multiple deadlines.  That’s why we have brought you our  term paper writing service  so you can relax and focus more on your upcoming exams. Our experts are dedicated to helping students excel academically with quality content and on-time submission. Check us out today and bid goodbye to academic worries!

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Home » Write the Perfect Term Paper – A Step-by-Step Guide

Write the Perfect Term Paper – A Step-by-Step Guide

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Writing a term paper can be a daunting task – especially if you’re a student who’s never written one before. But don’t worry, we’ve got you covered! In this blog post, we’ll provide you with a comprehensive, step-by-step guide for writing the perfect term paper. We’ll cover everything from choosing the right topic to crafting the perfect conclusion. So, let’s get started!

What is a term paper?

A term paper is an academic paper that is usually written at the end of the school year. It requires students to conduct thorough research on a given topic and compile their findings into a well-structured paper. It often requires students to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the subject matter.

The length of a term paper can vary. However, it is typically longer than a regular essay and can take anywhere from 10 to 20 pages. It is important to note that a term paper is not the same as a research paper . While there are some similarities, a term paper is more focused on the student’s own opinion, whereas a research paper is more focused on existing research and data.

What to consider when choosing a topic

Choosing the right topic is one of the most important steps in writing a term paper. You want to make sure that you select a topic that is interesting, relevant, and has enough research material available.

When choosing a topic, make sure to consider your interests and the course material. It’s important to pick a topic that you have an understanding of and can easily research. It’s also helpful to pick a topic that is not overly broad or narrow.

If you’re having trouble deciding on a topic, it can be helpful to brainstorm ideas. You can also talk to your professor or classmates to get their input.

Preparing to write the term paper

Before you begin writing your term paper, it’s important to do some preparation. This includes gathering all of the research materials you need and organizing them in an easy-to-access way.

Make sure you have access to all of the resources you need to research your topic, such as books, journals, and websites. You should also create a bibliography of all of the sources you use so you can easily reference them in your paper.

You should also take some time to familiarize yourself with the topic. This will help you to better understand and analyze the material you’re researching.

Structuring your term paper

Once you’ve done your preparation, it’s time to start structuring your term paper. A good term paper should have a clear structure that makes it easy to follow.

The structure of a term paper typically consists of an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. The introduction should provide an overview of the topic and explain why it is important. The body paragraphs should provide an in-depth analysis of the topic and use evidence to support your argument. The conclusion should summarize your findings and reiterate why the topic is important.

Creating an outline for your term paper

Creating an outline for your term paper is an important step in the writing process. An outline will help you organize your thoughts and ensure that you stay on track.

Your outline should include an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. You should also include a list of the sources you plan to use.

We recommend using the following format for your outline:

  • Introduction
  • Background information
  • Thesis statement
  • Paragraph 1
  • Paragraph 2
  • Paragraph 3
  • Reiteration of the thesis
  • Bibliography/Sources

Writing the introduction

Now that you have an outline, it’s time to start writing your introduction. The introduction should provide an overview of the topic and explain why it is important.

The introduction should also include a thesis statement, which is a sentence or two that summarizes the main point of the paper. This will help guide the rest of your paper and make it easier to stay focused.

It’s important to keep your introduction short and to the point. You don’t want to give too much away or get too bogged down in detail. The goal of the introduction is to provide a general overview of the topic and to draw the reader in.

Developing an argument

Once you’ve written your introduction, it’s time to start developing an argument. This is where you will use evidence to support your claims and explain why your argument is valid.

When developing your argument, make sure to use facts and evidence from reliable sources. It’s also important to include counterarguments to show that you are aware of other perspectives.

It’s also helpful to use a variety of sources, such as books, articles, and websites. This will help make your argument more convincing.

Writing the body of the paper

The body of the paper is where you will expand on your argument and provide evidence to support it. Each body paragraph should have a clearly defined topic sentence that explains the point of the paragraph.

Make sure to use evidence from reliable sources to back up your claims. You should also make sure to explain how the evidence supports your argument. This will help make your argument more convincing.

You should also use transitions between paragraphs to make the paper flow more naturally. This will help the reader follow your argument more easily.

Crafting the conclusion

The conclusion is where you will summarize your argument and explain why it is important. It should also include a call to action, which is a statement that encourages the reader to take a certain action.

Start your conclusion by summarizing the main points of your argument. You should also explain why your argument is important.

Next, you should reiterate your call to action. This can be a statement that encourages the reader to further explore the topic or take a certain action.

Finally, make sure to end your conclusion on a strong note. This can be a powerful quote or a statement that wraps up the paper.

Revising and editing your term paper

Once you’ve written your paper, it’s important to take some time to revise and edit it. This is where you will make sure that your paper is clear and concise.

First, read through your paper and make sure that it flows logically. Look for any areas where the argument could be strengthened and make sure your evidence is accurate and up-to-date.

Next, read through your paper for any grammar or spelling mistakes. It’s important to make sure that your paper is free of errors before you submit it.

Finally, have someone else read your paper to get their feedback. This can be helpful in identifying any areas that need improvement.

Final tips for writing the perfect term paper

Writing a perfect term paper requires a lot of hard work and dedication. Here are a few final tips to help make the process a bit easier:

  • Start early: Don’t wait until the last minute to start writing your paper. Give yourself plenty of time to research, write, and edit your paper.
  • Stick to the structure: Make sure to follow the structure of your paper. This will help ensure that your paper flows logically.
  • Take breaks: Writing a term paper can be a long and tedious process. Make sure to take regular breaks to give your mind a rest.
  • Get help: If you’re having trouble writing your paper, don’t be afraid to ask for help. Reach out to your professor or classmates for assistance.
  • Use reliable sources: Make sure to use reliable sources when researching your topic. This will help ensure that your paper is accurate and up-to-date.
  • Proofread your paper: Take the time to read through your paper for any grammar or spelling mistakes before submitting it.

Writing a term paper can be a daunting task – but it doesn’t have to be. By following our step-by-step guide, you can easily write the perfect term paper. Just remember to start early, stay organized, and use reliable sources.

If you’re having trouble writing your term paper, AcademiaWriting.com can help. Our team of experienced writers can help you get the perfect term paper written quickly and efficiently. So, what are you waiting for? Get started on your term paper today!

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How to Research a Term Paper

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The term paper researching process

So, you wrote a great college admissions essay and were accepted at the university or college of your dreams. Now, you've been assigned your first term paper, and you don't know where to start!

The research process is an exploratory quest, a hunt for information that can be both exciting and rewarding. The word itself is derived from the French rechercher, which literally means "to investigate thoroughly." So, when embarking on writing a term paper or research paper, think of yourself as a detective. You will not only search for information but also delve into the whys and wherefores behind the subject material, seeking to provide elucidation through your term paper.

Select a topic for your term paper

Let's start at the beginning. The first step in the essay writing process is to decide on a worthy topic, choosing one that is interesting to you. Make a list of keywords—these are important words or phrases that encapsulate the essence of your topic. Good keywords will specifically describe your topic, but consider using closely related words, as well.  Use these keywords when searching print or electronic sources that you can use in your term paper.

Research your term paper topic

General-purpose reference books, such as encyclopedias and fact books, provide comprehensive summaries and suggestions for sub-topics, as well as related terminology. Although these books are not generally considered suitable sources to cite in a term paper, the bibliographies they contain can be very helpful. This initial reading may help you to narrow your interest, stimulate additional questions, and focus your research. We recommend the following general resources, as they are more global in scope:   The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World , CQ Researcher , the Political Handbook of the World, the Index to International Public Opinion, and World Opinion Update . These publications deal with particular topics, give summaries of various governments, or take other specialized approaches, which are generally considered acceptable sources to cite in a term paper.

The next step is to either narrow your topic (so you can deal with the amount of information) or to broaden it so you have enough to write about. You might have to pick a particular sub-topic and make that your area of interest, or combine certain aspects of a topic to create a narrower one. Decide the direction you want the research for your term paper to take. What are the most interesting aspects of the topic, and what do you want to learn? Be careful not to be too general. This term paper researching process will keep you from getting lost or sidetracked when searching for information.

Find suitable sources for your term paper

At this point, decide on the most likely sources of information—books, journal articles, newspapers, online databases, CD-ROM databases, interviews, etc. Dig around in the library and locate sources for your term paper. Use your library's computer access system to find books on your subject. Some topics may be so current that few, if any, books are available. If this is the case, research scholarly journals for up-to-date information and analyses. You should consult journals even for non-contemporary topics, since scholars may have unearthed new information or produced new analyses. You may also find valuable information published in the reports of a government agency, in hearings or reports of a government committee, or in the transcripts of the proceedings of a government body. The United Nations and a number of other international organizations also publish proceedings and reports.

Don't forget that when you locate the sources you want to use for your term paper, you should be trying to find answers to the questions you posed previously. Also, don't forget to make use of the reference librarian, who can help you to locate and use sources efficiently.

Get organized early! Keep track of your sources

It is very helpful to make notes about your sources on index cards or in an Excel spreadsheet . Such notes should include bibliographic information, page numbers for quotations, and source locations. This way, you can easily find the source of an idea, quote, reference, etc. Number these cards so you can link them to your term paper notes: this will make the references section of your report a snap to complete.

Remember—thoroughly peruse all the information you have gathered, making copious notes as you go. This preliminary research should answer basic factual questions, as well as interpretive ones, and should help you to refocus. Give yourself a reasonable amount of time to absorb all the information you've read.

Writing a research or term paper

In our follow-up article about writing a research paper , we explain the next steps in the term paper writing process. The article discusses your thesis statement, body of your paper, and your reference page. If you would like to learn more about essay writing, check out Scribendi's article   12 Ways to Quickly Improve Your Academic Essay Writing Skills .

Image source: Samuel Zeller/Unsplash.com

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Best Tips on How to Write a Term Paper

Best Tips on How to Write a Term Paper

Writing a Term Paper: What You Need to Know

If you've landed here by searching on Google for tips on how to write term paper, you're in the right spot! You can be upfront about your deadline and share the number of pages you need to complete with us.

This article will analyze and cover every aspect of the term paper writing process. Here, you can learn how to create an outline, structure every paragraph, and what to include in each section. After finishing the article, you can create a perfect paper yourself. But if you prefer a professional to write it instead of you, just use the magic words ' write my term paper ,' and it'll be done perfectly for you.

To write it yourself next time, let's dive in to learn every aspect of writing academic papers.

Understanding What is Term Paper

The first question we must answer to start our article is - what is term paper?! According to the definition, a term paper is a research paper you write at the end of a semester or academic year. This task will evaluate your understanding of the course material and assess your proficiency in the curriculum's essential components.

In addition to its primary goal, writing a term paper also has other purposes. It enhances your critical, analytical thinking, and writing abilities, which are valuable not only during your academic journey but also in your professional career beyond university. As you work on the parts of the document, you delve further into the subject matter and familiarize yourself with its key issues and complexities.

Depending on the course content, your professor may assign you a particular topic to write about. On other occasions, you may be free to choose a topic of your own or select a narrower theme from a more extensive list of options.

Term Paper Format

It’s imperative to grasp the meaning of a term paper format when delving into the realm of academic paper writing. A crucial initial step in formatting your paper is to consult your professor regarding specific requirements. Notably, certain term papers necessitate the inclusion of visual aids such as pictures and diagrams, as well as an abstract, while others may prefer a minimalist approach with minimal to no visual elements and no separate abstract.

The fundamental and prevalent components of the format encompass the following:

Title Page : This section contains essential information, including the author's name, the course name, the date of submission, and the instructor's name.

Abstract : An encapsulation of the paper's content, offering a concise overview.

Literature Review : This segment involves an analysis of prior research conducted by others, providing context for your study.

Methodology : In this section, the paper discusses the methods and approaches employed in the student's research.

Results : The substantive portion of the term paper, where the findings and their implications are thoroughly discussed.

Future Recommendations : This segment offers insights and guidance for those intending to pursue further study in the same field.

References List : This section compiles all the sources utilized in the research. It is essential that these sources have a correct MLA or APA format citation listed alphabetically for easy reference.

Term Paper Outline

To make any term paper writing process easier, outlining is your way out. When your term paper format is created, including writing the title page, you can start outlining your thoughts and ideas. Brainstorm the theme you're exploring, look for different ideas from various sources, further research the topic, and organize them all together.

outline

Introduction

Starting is always challenging, and beginning the writing of a research paper is no exception. Many students, and sometimes even professionals, often face difficulties with how to start a term paper or any kind of writing. Fortunately, this brief guide will explain the purpose of the term paper format and its introduction and offer helpful tips for creating a strong one.

The introduction of the term paper is where you should set up your topic and approach for your audience; it must include the following:

Introduce the topic - The intro's initial goal is to communicate the topic's significance and interest to the reader, usually with a catchy hook .

Analyze the background - Provide some background information about the theme you're exploring and why this specific topic is essential.

Define the Problem - This part specifies how your research fits in and what problem it aims to solve.

State the Thesis Statement - The introduction should end with a thesis statement, representing the position you'll provide evidence and arguments for.

Considering these tips, you can create a perfect paper, but if you don't have time and deadlines are approaching, just text us - ' write my research paper for me ' and consider it done.

In term paper writing, body paragraphs are your central part. The worth of your entire paper depends on the information you present in these sections. When you start creating your term paper outline, always remember to include these parts in your body paragraphs:

Literature Review - This part examines scholarly articles, relevant books, and other sources related to a specific issue, research area, or theory. It presents a detailed overview, assessment, and summary of these works concerning the research problem being investigated.

Methodology Section - In this section, you should describe how you conducted the research. This information enables readers to verify the accuracy and reliability of your approach. An effective methodology can increase the reader's confidence in the validity of your findings.

Results - Here, you provide what you found while analyzing the data and answer the question posed in the introduction using the data collected.

Discussion - This section involves your analysis, description, and interpretation of your findings. They explain the significance of the results and connect them back to the research question.

Writing a term paper conclusion can often be tricky. It should be clear and summarize what you've already presented in previous sections. Every term paper needs a concluding paragraph, so let's analyze what you should include there:

Restate the research topic - A concise statement can effectively reiterate the topic, but it's essential to explain why this topic is important.

Restate the thesis statement - Write your thesis statement in different words and make it just one sentence long.

Summarize the main points of the research - Include the main arguments and facts presented in your writing and remind the reader of the significance of your topic.

Concluding sentence - Create a thought-provoking concluding sentence to make an impression on readers and leave them with something to think about.     

Many students consider restating the thesis statement to be one of the most challenging parts of writing a conclusion. So, we prepared an article on how to write a thesis statement where our experts shared their tips and personal tricks of the trade.

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How to Write a Term Paper?

Prior to immersing yourself in the process of research and writing, it is imperative to prepare a term paper proposal. Essentially, it serves as a means to present and substantiate your chosen topic to your instructor, a crucial step before commencing the actual manuscript.

In your proposal, it is vital to incorporate recent studies or research findings pertaining to your selected topic, along with appropriate references to support your assertions. Clearly articulate the relevance of your chosen topic to the course through the submission of a concise article. Additionally, delineate your objectives and adeptly structure the progression of your ideas, facilitating your instructor's comprehension of the trajectory you intend to pursue in your writing.

Should you require assistance, consider the option of procuring a term paper from our proficient writers as an alternative solution!

Start with the Abstract

In the initial section addressing the art of writing term paper, your primary objective revolves around elucidating the essence of your research. However, it is advisable to compose this section after completing all subsequent components. Ensure to highlight the principal discoveries of your research, making them accessible to readers unacquainted with the subject matter. Simplicity and informativeness are key considerations.

An effectively structured abstract should encompass the following elements:

Introduction: Introduce the problem you are tackling in your paper and elucidate the significance of your chosen topic. Furthermore, expound on the practical, scientific, or theoretical objectives of your research.

Body: Emphasize the core aspects of your research and outline your investigative approach. Provide an overview of the nature of your findings.

Conclusion: Elaborate on the practical applications or implications of your results.

When composing a term paper abstract, revisit your paper and identify pivotal statements related to your research objectives, methods, findings, and conclusions. Extract these sentences, and you will have the initial draft of your abstract.

PRO TIP: Adhere to the assignment instructions, ensuring your abstract falls within the prescribed word limit of 120-250 words.

What sets the introduction apart from the abstract? The abstract encapsulates the essence of your paper, succinctly presenting its key elements and encompassing results and conclusions. Conversely, the introduction provides contextual information about the topic, introduces the proposition (or thesis statement), and outlines the primary issues to be explored in the paper.

Write an Introduction

Prepare to captivate your readers right from the outset with a compelling term paper introduction. A robust beginning can create a compelling inertia, making it difficult for them to divert their attention from your paper. So, how can you arouse their interest and sustain their engagement?

  • Seize attention: Commence with a captivating fact, a startling statement, or a thought-provoking paradox that underscores the significance of your subject matter. Initiate their curiosity from the very first sentence in your term paper.
  • Offer an overview: Provide a succinct delineation of the issue you are tackling and articulate the principal objective of your paper. Additionally, elucidate how your specific topic interconnects with broader contexts, establishing the framework for a more profound exploration.
  • Formulate the thesis statement: Express the fundamental argument or central question that your paper will address. Provide a glimpse of what lies ahead without divulging all the intricacies.

It's essential to bear in mind that the term paper introduction should be both inviting and concise. Avoid excessive examples or superfluous details that may obscure the initial impact.

Proceed to the Main Body

Once you have gathered your research results and notes, it's time to conduct a meticulous examination of your findings. Capture the essential outcomes of your research while eliminating any superfluous materials, thereby streamlining your work.

To write term paper body sections, an effective approach involves initiating the process by formulating topic sentences based on your outline. Subsequently, expand these topic sentences into full-fledged paragraphs, incorporating pertinent supporting details to reinforce your arguments.

The number of paragraphs required for your body section can vary, contingent on the specific topic and the instructions provided in the assignment. In many instances, a term paper's body entails a literature review followed by the presentation of your research results.

Here's a valuable tip for maintaining coherence and lucidity: Initiate each paragraph with a well-crafted topic sentence. This serves as a clear introduction to the central idea of the paragraph, ensuring a seamless progression of ideas throughout your paper. By employing this technique, your term paper will exhibit a well-structured organization and will be easily comprehensible for your readers.

Finish with a Conclusion

As you draw the main body of your term paper to a close, it is paramount to deliver a considerate and succinct conclusion. This conclusion should serve to recapitulate the information presented and explore the broader ramifications of your research. Here are key considerations for shaping your conclusion:

IMPORTANT NOTE: 

  • Avoid introducing any novel information in this section.
  • Summarize the final outcomes of your research.
  • Articulate the implications for future investigations.

Now, take a moment to assess your research findings by reflecting on the following inquiries:

What significance does my research hold?

How does my chosen topic intersect with other relevant subjects or domains?

Ultimately, bring all these elements together with a potent concluding sentence that leaves a lasting and resonant impression.

Upon successfully completing your initial draft and finding yourself with some remaining time, it's crucial to recognize the significance of proofreading your text. Devoting a moment to reviewing paper can yield remarkable results. After all, many professors perceive misspellings, punctuation errors, and grammatical inaccuracies as reflections of negligence, potentially overshadowing your original ideas and substantial findings. Let's elevate the quality of your text!

Begin by meticulously perusing your first draft and considering how to refine your paper for greater clarity and persuasiveness. Identify ideas that may not seamlessly fit the context and either eliminate or adapt them accordingly. Additionally, pinpoint areas where more comprehensive support is needed. To enhance the fluidity of your paper, incorporate transitional phrases or words to ensure a smooth connection of ideas.

Subsequently, once your content is logically structured, it's time to rectify any errors. Thoroughly address all grammatical, punctuation, and spelling mistakes with care.

Lastly, ensure that your paper adheres to the correct format (e.g., Chicago style format ) and layout. Verify the accuracy of page numbering and make certain that any visual elements, such as images, tables, and diagrams, are appropriately numbered and titled. Just as you do when finalizing your term paper, devote the same level of attention to these details during the proofreading process. Your dedication will culminate in a polished and impressive final paper.

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Term Paper Writing Tips

You can create the best term paper by considering all the tips and structures we provided for you, and you must now be able to craft a term paper template that can impress your professor.

To better immerse how to write a term paper, we have some additional tips you can use to practice your writing skills and make the writing process easier:

tips

  • Implement Mind Mapping Strategies - Develop 3-5 main ideas and use a mind mapping strategy to connect them and choose the one you'll explore in your paper.
  • Use Case Studies - Case studies can not only help in writing your paper, but they can also help to create a term paper proposal to make the significance of the theme more plausible.
  • Choose a Doable Topic - Pick a subject you can effectively address within the given time frame. Narrow down a topic that is captivating and inspiring to you.
  • Avoid Being Wordy - Are your sentences concise? Evaluate each one and determine if you've used a minimum number of words necessary to convey meaning.
  • Double-check and Proofread - Run a spelling-checker to eliminate errors in your paper. Ask someone else to read it for you and listen to their feedback. You can also use AI to make it read your paper and listen to how every word and sentence sounds and if anything needs to be corrected.

How to Choose Sources for Citing in Your Term Papers

Prioritizing the search for the most effective sources is of utmost importance when you write a term paper. Before delving into the writing process, it is imperative to assemble all the sources you require, as they will serve as the foundation for constructing the Literature Review chapter. But how do you discern the most credible and influential sources?

Rely on reputable databases: Look to trusted databases such as JSTOR and Google Scholar as exemplary sources of credibility. These repositories host the latest peer-reviewed articles, expediting your research process.

Verify the site's address: Pay close attention to the website's URL. Links with .gov, .org, and .edu domains typically offer reliable and authoritative information. Conversely, steer clear of sources such as news portals, blogs, and Wikipedia, as they often contain personal opinions without substantial evidence.

Do impartial research: Authors frequently imbue their work with their personal political and social beliefs. In the context of your article, prioritize sources with minimal bias. Investigate the author's background and assess their trustworthiness.

Seek most recent sources: Given the dynamic nature of many research fields, aim for sources not exceeding five years. This is particularly crucial if your paper pertains to the sciences, where up-to-date studies are paramount.

Stay on topic: Remember that your term paper essay must adhere closely to the chosen subject. Even if a source appears impressive, it is incompatible with your paper if it slightly relates to your topic.

Use Our Academic Help

Now, you have all the information to begin writing your first draft for a successful term paper. But if writing a term paper definitely isn't a thing you want to be doing right now, you can text us and your assignment will be perfectly done with no further effort on your behalf.

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Glossary of Paper Terms

Abrasion resistance.

The level at which paper can withstand continuous scuffing or rubbing.

The properties within paper that cause it to absorb liquids (inks, water, etc.) which come in contact with it.

Accordion Fold

A binding term describing a method of folding paper. When unfolded it looks like the folds of an accordion.

Acetate Proof

A transparent, acetate printing proof used to reproduce anticipated print colors on a transparent acetate sheet. Also called color overleaf proof.

Paper made in a neutral pH system, usually buffered with calcium carbonate. This increases the longevity of the paper.

Degree of acid found in a given paper substance measured by pH level. From 0 to 7 is classified acid as opposed to 7 to 14, which is classified alkaline.

Against the Grain

A right angle to which the fiber direction of a piece of paper lies. Folding with, not against, the grain is recommended.

Airdried Paper

Paper that is dried by circulating hot air around it with little or no tension or restraint on the paper. This gives the paper a hard cockle finish typical of bond papers.

Alcohol/Alcohol Substitutes

Liquids added to the fountain solution of a printing press to reduce the surface tension of water.

Aluminum Plate

A metal press plate used for moderate to long runs in offset lithography to carry the image.

Announcement Cards

Cards of paper with matching envelopes generally used for social stationery, announcements, weddings, greetings, etc.

Antique Finish

A paper finish, usually used in book and cover papers, that has a tactile surface. Usually used in natural white or creamwhite colors.

Extra space at the binding edge of a foldout, usually on a French fold, which allows folding and tipping without interfering with the copy

Acid free or neutral paper that includes a minimum of 2% calcium carbonate to increase the longevity of the paper.

Artificial Parchment

Paper produced with poorly formed formation.

A general term used to describe materials prepared and readied for print.

The tops of lower case letters such as: b, d, h and t.

Back Cylinder Pressure

Additional pressure applied through the impression cylinder assisting the image transfer to the press sheet.

The back of a bound book; also called the spine.

Printing the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side.

(1) A strip of paper, printed or unprinted, that wraps around loose sheets (in lieu of binding with a cover) or assembled pieces. (2) The operation of putting a paper band around loose sheets or assembled pieces. (3) Metal straps wrapped around skids of cartons or materials wrapped in waterproof paper, to secure the contents to the skid for shipment.

Barium Sulfate

Substance used as a standard for white, in lieu of the availability of a practical 100 percent reflecting diffuser.

Baronial Envelope

An envelope generally used with announcements.

A first color used as a background on which other colors are printed.

Manufactured paper that will be further processed as laminated, Duplex Cover, Bristol Cover, or off machine embossed papers.

In typesetting, the invisible line on which letters and numbers set.

The standard sheet size of a given grade.

Basis Weight

The weight in pounds per ream of paper cut to its basic size in inches. A metric system is used outside of North America.

Blender type machine used to pulverize pulp and for mixing additives and color to the stock.

Beater Sized

Process of adding sizing material to the pulp in the beater.

A process of perforating, folding, trimming and eventually binding a printed piece.

(1) Attaching sheets into a single unit by adhesives, sewing, stitching, metal prongs, snaps, etc. The operations that comprise collating, perforating, and folding the elements of a form into the finished product. (2) That portion or edge of a book of forms which is bound.

Binding Edge

The edge where the binding will be done.

Black Printer

In fourcolor process printing, the black plate made to give definition to neutral tones and detail.

In offset lithography, the rubbercoated fabric clamped around the blanket cylinder, which transfers the image from plate to paper.

Blanket Contamination

Unwanted matter that becomes attached to the offset blanket and interferes with print quality.

Blanket Creep

Movement of the blanket surface that comes in contact with the printing plate or paper.

Blanket Cylinder

The printing press cylinder on which the blanket is mounted.

Blanket Pull

The tack between blanket and paper.

Chemical, usually chlorine, used to whiten pulp.

Chemical treatment to brighten, whiten, purify, refine, and balance pulp fiber.

(1) In printing, printed image that runs off the edges of a page. (2) The migration of ink into unwanted areas.

Blind Embossing

A printing technique in which a design is pushed forward without foil or ink.

The sticking of piled printed sheets caused by wet ink.

Blocking Out

Eliminating portions of negatives by opaquing the image.

Enlargement from the original size.

In printing, a type of photoprint used as a proof. It can be folded to show how the finished printed product will look.

Thicker, visually heavier type vs. thin visually light type. Darker type.

Strong, durable writing paper, consisting of wood, cotton, or both, most commonly used for letterheads, stationery, business forms, etc…

Bonding Strength

The strength of the paper fibers to resistance of picking or tearing during offset printing.

A general term used to define papers that are most suitable for book manufacture.

A printed piece bound together, containing a few pages.

A technical measurement of the light reflected back from a paper.

Bristol Board

A high quality heavy weight paper, sometimes made with cotton fiber prepared or glued together, usually with a caliper thickness of 0.006" and up.

Machine trim or undesirable paper that is returned to the beaters.

Broken Carton

An open carton of paper with some of its contents removed.

Sheet thickness. High bulk sheets have fewer sheets per inch than low bulk.

Bulking Dummy

Unprinted sheets of actual paper folded in the signature size and signature number of a given job, to determine bulk.

Bursting Strength

The point to which paper can withstand pressure without rupturing.

Butted Joint

Joining two webs of paper, placing them end-to-end and pasting a strip over and under to make a continuous sheet without overlapping.

When printing, the spots of ink pigments on printing plates or press rollers, due to the vehicle carrying the ink not being able to hold the pigment in suspension.

Calcium Carbonate, CaCO 3

Chemical used as a filler.

Calender Stacks

A vertical series of steel rolls at the end of the paper machine to increase the smoothness of the paper.

Calendering

To impart a smooth finish on paper by passing the web of paper between polished metal rolls to increase gloss and smoothness.

The thickness of a sheet paper, in thousandths of an inch (points or mils).

A book bound with a hard, cover.

For paper manufacturing, the primary component of the cell walls of wood fibers.

Cellulose fiber

The fiber remaining after bleaching and pulping of wood used in making paper.

Center spread

The facing pages in the center of a bound signature.

Chain lines

The lines on laid paper parallel with the grain; also referred to as "chain marks".

Improper drying of ink. Ink vehicle has been absorbed too rapidly into the paper leaving a dry, weak pigment layer which dusts easily.

A type fonts letter, number, symbol or a blank space in typesetting.

Character count

The number of characters in a line of text, page or group of text.

Chemical Ghosting

A light duplication of a printed image on the other side of the same sheet, created by chemical reaction by the ink during the drying stages; also referred to as "Gas ghosting".

Chemical Pulp

Wood fiber cooked using chemicals producing a pulp used to manufacture numerous printing papers and paperboard products. Papers manufactured with chemical pulp are called "free-sheet" papers.

An inexpensive thick one-ply cardboard, typically made from recycled paper stock.

Chlorine and its compounds were commonly used to bleach fibers. This has been mostly eliminated. Virgin fibers are generally ECF, meaning no elemental chlorine or TCF meaning the bleaching is done with hydrogen peroxide, oxygen or ozone. Recycled fibers are generally PCF, meaning they were put back into the paper without the use of any chlorine or its compounds.

Clear Formation

Describes paper fibers that are uniformly dispersed within a sheet of paper -a characteristic of quality paper.

Close Formation

Uniform density in a sheet of paper.

Cloudy Formation

Same as cloud effect; cloudy. Opposite of close formation. Indicates unevenness and lack of uniformity of fiber structure.

Cockle Finish

A rough, uneven, hard paper finish. Most frequently manufactured in bond papers.

A color on the bluish side.

In binding, gathering sections (signatures) in sequence for binding.

Printed bars of ink colors used to monitor a print image. These bars show the amount of ink to be applied by the press, the registration, and the densities across the press sheet.

A mockup of a proposed layout used for presentations.

Color Correction

Any method to improve color rendition.

Color Fastness

The ability of dyed paper to maintain in the presence of exposure to light, heat etc.

Color Guide

Instructions attached to artwork or disc with the location, percentage, and type of color required.

Color Process Printing

Printing done using cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks, each requiring its own negative and plate. Also called process color or four-color process.

Color Proofs

Initial printed pieces pulled off the press for final approval.

Color Scanner (electronic scanner)

A scanner that makes the color separation required in full color processing printing.

Color Separation

The method used in breaking down the primary colors needed to prepare plates for printing color work.

Commercial Match

Paper manufactured to within acceptable tolerances of a sample provided to the mill.

Commodity Papers

A classification of low-quality bond and offset papers.

Composite Image

Multiple pictures images placed together to form a single, combined picture.

Comprehensive Layout

A simulation of a layout by a designer to show how the finished art work would appear.

Comprehensive Proof

Final proof presented in the format the printed piece will take.

Condensed Face or Condensed Type

A particular typeface that allows more print per line, as though the letters were squashed at their sides.

Conditioning

Allowing paper to adjust itself to the temperature and humidity of the printing plant prior to use.

Conservation

The preservation and responsible use of our natural resources to ensure they endure.

Continuous Tone

Tonal gradation without use of halftone dots.

Company that converts paper from its original form to usable products such as envelopes, label stock, announcements etc.

Correspondence Papers

Writing papers in attractive finishes, weights or colors.

Cotton Content Paper

Papers utilizing cotton linters. Today most cotton content papers are made for letterhead applications. Papers made with cotton range from 25% to 100% cotton content.

Cotton Linters

The cotton fibers that adhere to the cottonseed used to produce pulp for cotton fiber papers. As a byproduct of the cotton industry, EPA recognizes it as recovered fiber.

On a paper making machine the equipment that helps remove excess water from the moving web of paper prior to the wet press section of a paper machine.

Cover Paper

Durable, heavier weight papers, available in a variety of finishes and colors, used for the cover of pamphlets, annual reports, business cards, etc…

Specifically placed marks attached to artwork that show the area to be printed.

Resizing original photographs or illustrations to a different size.

Cross Direction

The opposite direction of the grain of the paper.

Cross Grain Fold

A fold at a right angle to the direction of the grain in the paper.

Cross Machine Direction

A line perpendicular to the direction the paper travels through the papermaking machine. Also referred to as Cross direction or Cross grain.

Undesirable distortion or waviness occurring to the paper due to the presence of excess moisture or humidity.

Papers cut 8 ½ x 11, 8 ½ x 14, or any other size 11 x 17 or smaller.

Cut to Register

Term used for watermarked letterhead papers to indicate the watermark will be cut to appear in a predetermined position on the finished sheet. Also referred to as a localized watermark.

Cutter Dust

Paper dust resulting from cutting or trimming the paper which can transfer to printing blankets causing problems during a press run.

Cyan (process blue)

One of the four-process colors.

Double-thick" describes a sheet of paper made by bonding two thicknesses of paper together resulting in an extra-stiff sheet.

Damp Streaks

Streaks caused by uneven pressing of drying during paper manufacturing.

In lithography, cloth covered, parchment paper or rubber rollers that distribute the dampening to the press plate.

Water, gum buffered acid, and various types of etches used to keep the non-image areas of the plate moist, and preventing them from accepting ink, in the lithographic printing process; also called fountain solution.

(1) A plain roll situated above the wet web of the paper to provide a smoothing action to the top surface of the paper as it passes under the roll. (2) A watermarking dandy roll is a roll of skeletal structure, sheathed in a wire cloth that has designs, letters or figures affixed to it. As the wet paper web passes under the turning watermark dandy the designs are impressed into the paper and a permanent watermark is left in the sheet.

Trade name for inks and papers containing fluorescent pigments.

The process in which the image is recessed into the paper.

On the wet end of the paper machine the straps or deckle rulers that prevent the fiber from overflowing the sides of the machine. The deckle determines how wide the paper on a particular machine will be.

Deckle Edge

Refers to the feathered edge on paper produced when fibers flow against the deckle or edge of the web. Deliberately produced for aesthetic purposes, a deckle edge is found especially on formal stationery and announcements. A deckle edge can be created by an air jet, or also by a stream of water.

A device on a web press or sheeter used to remove paper curl.

A paper decurling station on a sheeter or web press, used to remove paper curl.

A process which removes ink, toner, coatings and most fillers from recovered paper. The environmental priority is to make this process TCF, totally chlorine free.

The average amount of dirt in a specific size of paper area. Both virgin and recycled sheets have "dirt," although recycled paper has significantly higher dirt counts. The dirt should always be small enough not to interfere with the quality of the finished printed piece.

Delamination

A separation of the paper's surface.

Area of the originating press where the freshly printed sheets are piled as they leave the impression section.

Densitometer

Reflection instrument measuring the density of colored ink to determine its consistency throughout a press run.

Identifies the weight of paper compared to the volume; it is directly related to the paper's absorbency, stiffness, and opacity.

The parts of lower case letters that extend below the baseline.

A design, letters, or pattern cut in metal for stamping, embossing or for diecutting.

Die-Cutting

Male and female dies are used to cut out paper or board in desired shapes.

Pressure vessel in which wood chips are cooked to separate fibers from each other and to remove detrimental particles.

Dimensional Stability

Characteristic of paper to retain its dimensions in all directions under the stress of production and adverse changes in humidity.

Dirt in paper consists of any imbedded foreign matter or specks, which contrast in color to the remainder of the sheet.

Concave rather than flat pile of paper. Also refers to roll ends of paper that are not flat.

Distributor

Company which purchases paper from mill for resale to printers and end-users. Usually a distributor has protected or franchised product lines and territories. Inventory, warehousing, distribution and transportation of product are among the many services offered to paper buyers. Also called a merchant.

Tabbed sheets of index or other heavy stock, used to identify and separate specific sections of a book; used in loose-leaf and bound books.

Individual element of a halftone printing plate.

Dot Etching

Handwork on engravings and lithographic screened (halftone) negatives for correcting tonal values in either black-and-white or color work.

Dot Slurring

Smearing or elongation at the trailing edges of halftone dots.

When halftone dots print larger than they were supposed to print.

Dots, Halftone

The individual subdivisions of a printed surface created with a halftone screen.

Double Burning

Combining the images on two or more films onto a single film to create a single image.

Double Varnish

Two applications of press varnish.

Double-Black Halftone Printing

A means of extending the range of density available with printing ink by printing twice with black ink, using two specially prepared halftone negatives. Also called double-black duotone.

Double-Deckle Paper

A paper having parallel deckle edges.

Double-Dot Halftone

Two halftone negatives combined onto one printing plate, having greater tonal range than a conventional halftone negatives. One negative reproduces highlight and shadows, the other middle tones. This is not to be confused with duotone or double-black printing.

Double-Thick Cover Stock

A cover stock composed of two sheets of cover stock laminated together.

(1) In printing, a press problem that generally occurs when sheets make contact with the blanket twice, once just before the impression point and the second time at the impression point, resulting in a double image. At times, with certain papers, the feeder will feed two sheets instead of one, and when pressures are extreme or out of balance, the blanket may slip at the pressure point, resulting in a slur or double image. (2) In stamping, a double impression in which the second impression or "hit" does not register perfectly over the first one.

Doughnut Hickey

A printing defect consisting of a solid printed area surrounded by an unprinted area.

Duration of an unscheduled stoppage of machines or equipment (printing presses, papermaking machines, typesetting equipment, etc.), usually caused by malfunction.

Register trouble when the dot is enlarged toward the back (nongripper edge) of the sheet. See Slur.

A term used to describe an ink chemist's method of roughly determining coating or ink. The application (by a blade or a bar) of a thin film of coating or ink to a piece of paper.

Any substance used to hasten drying of ink on paper.

Wet paper passes through these large cylindrical steam heated rolls that dry paper webs. The dry-end of the paper machine.

Piercing of stacks of papers in a precision manner with round hollow drills at high speeds. Loose-leaf notebook paper is an example of drilled paper.

In printing, halftone with no screen dots in the highlights or background. Also, color not sensed by optical reading devices. Also, ink colors which will not image a photographic plate.

The color change which occurs when ink dries.

On the paper machine, it is the section where the dryers, cutters, slitters and reels are located.

Dryer (drying oven)

Oven on web offset press through which the web of printed paper passes after it leaves the final printing unit. The drying process, standard when heat-set inks are used, heats the web to about 350 degrees Fahrenheit. Either gas or electricity dries the vehicles and air blasts drive off the volatile gases.

Drying Time

The time it takes for an ink to become rub- or tack-free.

Page or set of pages assembled in the exact position, form and style desired for the finished piece of printed work. Used as a model or sample for the printer.

Two-color halftone reproduction from black-and-white original.

Laminated paper having a different color or finish on each side.

The accumulation of loose particles from the paper on the nonimage areas of the blanket. Particles are of very small size.

An ink colorant that is soluble in vehicle or solvent.

Dye Transfer

Similar in appearance to a color photograph but different in the important respect that it is produced from a transparency by printing continuous tones of color dyes.

A stable print specially sensitized on two-sided papers for proofing.

ECF Elemental Chlorine Free

Pulp bleached without the use of elemental chlorine. Generally this is virgin fiber bleached with chlorine dioxide.

E.C.H. Will Sheeter

Continuous automatic cut-size sheeter, ream wrapper, ream labeler, ream accumulator, case packer, lidder, bander and palletizer.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which publishes guidelines for minimum recycled product content for use by federal agencies for purchasing standards. Many state and local governments and businesses have voluntarily adopted these. The EPA is charged with most of the environmental responsibility for guidance, direction, monitoring and enforcement in the United States.

Electronic Color Scanner

High speed computer, which instantly calculates the necessary color correction by measuring the original copy.

Electronic Printing

In digital printing, any technology that reproduces pages without the use of traditional ink, water or chemistry.

Electrostatic Copying

Process using an intermediary plate or drum (like Xerography) or coated take-off sheet (like Electrofax ™ ) which is electrically charged to attract powder or liquid developer only to the image area.

Elliptical Dot

In halftone photography, elongated dots, which give improved gradation of tones particularly in middle tomes and vignettes - also called chain dots.

In composition, a unit of measurement exactly as wide and high as the point sizes being set. So named because the letter "M" in early fonts was usually cast on a square body.

Embossed Finish

A finish imparted to a web of paper through an embossing machine. The paper will take on a raised or depressed surface resembling wood, cloth, leather, or other pattern.

Impressing an image in relief to achieve a raised surface; either over printing or on a blank paper (called blind embossing).

In composition, one-half the width of an em.

Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)

In digital prepress, a file format used to transfer graphic images within compatible applications. A file containing structured PostScript code, comments and a screen display image.

End-Leaf Paper

Strong, fine quality papers, either plain or coated and sometimes colored or marbled used at both ends of a book. Also called sheets.

Printing by the intaglio process. Ink is applied to the paper under extreme pressure resulting in a printed surface being raised. Used for fine letterheads, wedding invitations, etc.

Fadeout Halftone

A general reduction in the overall contrast of a halftone, to allow type to be easily readable when printed over it.

Fake Duotone

A two-color reproduction, using single halftone negative, usually blank, and a halftone screen tint for the background, usually in color.

Continuous multiple ply form manufactured from a single wide web which is folded longitudinally.

In printing, distortion of paper on the press due to waviness in the paper caused by absorption of moisture at the edges of the paper, particularly across the grain.

Fast-Drying Ink

An ink that dries soon after printing.

Tendency of an ink image to spread with a fuzzy, "feather like" edge.

Feed Rollers

On a printing press, the rubber wheels that move the sheets of paper from the feed pile to the grippers.

The section of a printing press that separates the sheets and feeds them into position for printing.

Term expressing an individual’s impression of a paper’s finish and stiffness or suppleness.

Feet-Per-Minute

Abbreviated FPM, this term refers usually to the speed of a papermaking machine in terms of how many feet per minute the forming web of paper traverses the length of the machine.

Felt Finish

A finish applied to the paper at the wet end of the paper machine by using felts of a distinctive weave rather than standard or regular wove felts.

Top side of the paper, opposite from the wire side or underneath. The "right side of the paper".

Woven, endless belt made of wool, cotton or synthetic materials used to transport the paper web on the paper machine, during manufacture. Felts act as a conveyor while at the same time removing water from paper as it progresses through the paper machine.

Fiber Orientation

Refers to the alignment of the fibers in the sheet. The degree of alignment can be controlled in the paper making process.

The small strands of wood, cotton or other cellulose product that is used to make the paper. In the premium paper market all of the fiber is lignin free. Fiber before it is made into the finished product us referred to as pulp.

String-like elements that are loosened from the paper fibers during the beating process. They aid in the bonding processes when paper is being manufactured.

Fibrillation

Act of loosening the fibrillae during the mechanical process of beating the fibers in preparation for papermaking.

Minerals, such as clay and other white pigments, added to pulp to improve the opacity, smoothness, brightness, and printing capabilities of paper.

A condition in offset lithography where ink fills the area between the halftone dots or plugs up the type; also known as plugging or filling up.

Maximum width of paper that can be made on any given paper machine.

Fine Papers

Types of premium papers used for writing, printing, and cultural purposes.

The physical look and feel of the paper’s surface. These include smooth, felt, laid, linen and others.

Finishing Broke

Discarded paper resulting from any finishing operation.

First Color Down

The first color printed as the sheet passes through the press.

A strip of paper protruding from a roll or skid of paper. May be used to mark a splice in a roll of paper or used to mark off reams in a skid.

Flash Exposure

In halftone photography, the supplementary exposure given to strengthen the dots in the shadow areas of negatives.

Printing two or more colors without overlaying color dots (i.e. without color trap); individual color matching. This differs from process color, which is a blending of four colors to produce a broad range of colors.

Flatbed Press

A press on which plates are positioned along a flat metal bed against which the paper is pressed by the impression cylinder, as compared to a rotary press which prints from curved plates.

Flatbed Scanner

A device that scans images in a manner similar to a photocopy machine; the original art is positioned face down on a glass plate.

Flexography

Letterpress printing using a form of relief printing ; formally called aniline printing. Synthetic or rubber relief plates, special inks, presses procedures.

To reverse a negative or positive, to bring the underside out on top. A negative that must be flopped has emulsion on the wrong side.

The property of ink which causes it to level out when still a liquid; "short" inks have poor flow, and "long" inks have good flow.

Fluorescent Inks

Extremely brilliant inks containing fluorescent pigments.

Flush Cover

Cover of a book that has been trimmed to the same dimensions as the text papers.

Unprinted page that is part of a printed signature. It also can be a synonym for end-leaf.

An undesirable neutral density in the clear areas of a photographic film or paper, in which the image is either locally or entirely veiled by a deposit of silver. Fog may be due to flare, unsafe darkroom illumination, age, or processing conditions.

A tissue-like material in sheet or roll form covered on one side with a metallic coloring used for stamping.

Folding Endurance

A paper test which measures the number of double (back and forth) folds that can be made on a sheet of paper under tension, before it breaks.

A page that exceeds the dimensions of a single page. It is folded to page size and included in the book, sometimes bound in and sometimes tipped in (pasted).

Refers to sheet size 17x22 or larger. Also, page numbers.

The bottom of a page of printed information.

Refers to the uniformity or lack of it in the distribution of the fibers when manufacturing paper; can be observed by looking through the sheet; a good formation is uniform or "Close", while a poor formation is not.

Fountain Solution

In lithography, a solution of water, a natural or synthetic gum and other chemicals used to dampen the plate and keep non-printing areas from accepting ink.

The unit on a press that contains ink to be fed to the distributing system, and the part that feeds the fountain solution to the dampening system.

Four-Color Process

The four basic colors of ink (yellow, magenta, cyan, and black), which reproduce full-color photographs or art.

Fourdrinier

A paper machine developed by Louis Robert and financed by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier that produces a continuous web of paper; also the term for the section of the paper machine, which is a continuous "wire" or belt screen, through which the first removal of water occurs. The point of formation.

Four-Sided Trim (trim 4)

After the job is printed and folded, a trim will be taken off all four sides to remove any reference or registration marks and give a clean edge to the pile of sheets.

For Position Only (FPO)

In digital imaging, typically a low-resolution image positioned in a document to be replaced later with a higher resolution version of the same image.

Paper made with pulp created in a kraft process that has removed the lignin. Freesheet paper has more longevity than groundwood which contains lignin.(Newspaper is made with groundwood)

French Fold

A sheet printed on one side and folded first vertically and then horizontally to produce a four-page folder.

The mixture of fiber and other materials that is blended in the water suspension, or slurry, from which paper or board is made; usually about 1% solid material with 99% or the balance being water.

FSC - Forest Stewardship Council

An independent, international, environmentally and socially oriented forest certification organization. It trains, accredits and monitors third-party certifiers around the world and works to establish international forest management standards.

Fuzz (fluff)

Loose fibers projecting from a paper's surface.

Gang Printing

Grouping related jobs using same paper and inks. Grouping more than one job on a single plate.

A four-page insert, having foldouts on either side of the center spread.

Graphic Arts Technical Foundation

Collating folded signatures in consecutive order.

Gray Component Replacement

Gear Streaks

In printing, parallel streaks appearing across the printed sheet at same interval as gear teeth on the cylinder.

Each succeeding stage in reproduction from original copy.

Genuine Watermark

Watermark made with a dandy roll.

Ghost Halftone

A light halftone that may be overprinted with solid copy.

Ghost images are unwanted images that reduce print value. Mechanical ghosting develops during the delivery of the printed sheet and is traceable to on-press conditions, ink starvation, form layout, and even to the blanket itself. Chemical ghosting, which occurs during the drying process of ink on paper, is especially bothersome because the condition cannot be detected until the job has been completed.

To cover the trimmed edges of a book with gold or other metallic leaf.

Brief or magnifying glass.

An ink containing an extra quantity of varnish, which gives a glossy appearance when dry.

Glued-On Cover

A cover fastened to the text with glue.

The process of applying glue to the spine of a book to be casebound, after sewing and smashing, and before trimming.

The classification given to paper due to its unique characteristics, which includes brightness, opacity, cotton content, etc…

Grain Direction

The direction of the fibers in paper.

Term used to designate that the grain of the paper is parallel to the longest measurement of a sheet of paper. The fibers are aligned parallel to the length of the sheet.

Grain Short

Opposite of grain long. Grain of the paper runs at the right angles to the longest dimension of the sheet. Fiber alignment in grain short paper parallels the sheet’s shortest dimension.

Grainy Printing

Printing characterized by unevenness, particularly of halftones.

The basis weight of paper stated in metric terms of grams per square meter and expressed as g/m 2 . Thus a sheet of paper 17 x 22 with a basis weight of 20 lbs. For 500 sheets would be expressed metrically as 75 g/m 2 . To convert from basis weight to grams per square meter (g/m 2 ), multiply basis weight by 1406.5 (a constant factor) and divide by the number of square inches in base sheet.

Graphic Designer

A person in the graphic arts who puts together art, text, and other visuals to produce professional printed results.

An intaglio printing process in which the image area is etched below the surface of the printing plate and is transferred directly to the paper by means of pressure.

Gray Balance

The dot values or densities of cyan, magenta, and yellow that produce a neutral gray.

The number of gray values that can be distinguished by a color separation filter-usually 2 8 or 256.

A strip of standard gray tones, ranging from white to black, placed at the side of original copy during photography to measure tonal range and contrast (gamma) obtained.

A row of clips that holds a sheet of paper as it speeds through the press.

Gripper Edge

Leading edge of a sheet of paper as it passes through the printing press.

Gripper Margin

Unprintable back edge of a sheet of paper on which grippers bear, usually ½ inch or less.

Paper made from pulp created in one of several processes that use virtually the whole tree. Sometimes chemical and heating process are used in the pulping. Groundwood paper retains the lignin from the trees, which causes the paper to yellow and deteriorate relatively quickly.

Gross Weight

The total weight of merchandise and shipping container.

The edge of a printed sheet at right angles to the gripper edge, which travels along a guide on the press or folder. This edge, like the gripper edge, should never be altered or mutilated between the printing and folding operations. It is the shorter edge of the sheet.

Guide Marks

A method of using crossline marks on the offset press plate to indicate trim, centering of the sheet, centering of the plate, etc.; these are sometimes called register marks .

Guide Roller

Sometimes called a cocking roller. Located on the roll stand between the roll of paper and the dancer roll . Can be cocked to compensate for certain paper roll conditions.

The side the press uses to guide the sheet to the exact side toward the operator; also known as operator or control side.

Device that is used to cut or trim stacks of paper to the desired size.

Gum Streaks

Streaks, particularly in halftones, produced by uneven gumming of plates which partially desensitizes the image.

In platemaking, the process of applying a thin coating of gum to the non-printing areas of a lithographic plate.

The blank space or inner margin on a press sheet from printing area to binding.

Hairline Register

Register within ± ½ row of dots.

In photography, a blurred effect, resembling a halo, usually occurring in the highlight areas or around bright objects.

Half Binding

A style of binding wherein the shelf-back and the corners are bound in a different material from that used on the sides.

Halftone Negative Artwork (screened negative)

The negative film produced when continuous-tone artwork is shot through a halftone screen.

Halftone Positive Artwork (screened positive)

A photographic positive containing a halftone image.

Halftone Screen

An engraved glass through which continuous tone copy is photographed and reduced to a series of dots for halftone printing.

The reprographic technique that simulates continuous tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size or in spacing, thus generating a gradient-like effect. "Halftone" can also be used to refer specifically to the image that is produced by this process.

Handmade Finish

Paper with a rough finish resembling handmade paper.

A halftone dot characterized by a sharp, clean cut edge.

Another term for casebound.

Hardcover (casebound, edition binding)

Nonflexible book binding made of thick, glazed board.

Paper that has been treated with a large amount of size to increase its resistance to moisture. Slack-sized is the opposite.

Wood from deciduous trees having short fibers.

The amount allowed for the top trim.

A small strip of silk or cotton used for decoration at the top of a book between the sheets and the cover. In hand binding, a real tape to which the signatures are sewn.

On a paper machine, the box that dispenses the appropriate amount of furnish (pulp) into the papermaking process.

The top of a page of text which can be a chapter heading, title line, etc…

Head-to-Head Imposition

An imposition which requires that pages be laid out with the top of a page (head) positioned across the top of the page (head) opposite it on the form.

Head-to-Tail Imposition

An imposition which requires that pages be laid out with the top of a page (head) positioned across the from the bottom (tail) of the page opposite on the form.

Heat-Set Inks

Inks used in high-speed web offset. They set rapidly under heat and are quickly chilled.

In offset, spots or imperfections in the printed image traceable to such things as dirt on the press, dried ink skin, paper particles, dust, etc…

A paper (normally book paper) specifically manufactured to retain a thickness not found in papers of the same basis weight. Frequently used to give thickness to a book with minimal amount of pages.

High Contrast

In photography, describes a reproduction in which the difference in darkness between neighboring areas is greater than in the original.

High Finish

A term referring to a paper that has a smooth, hard finish applied through calendering or other processes.

High Key Picture

A continuous tone photo made up of predominantly highlight (white) areas.

Highlight Halftone

The lightest or whitest parts in a photograph represented in a halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or the absence of all dots.

High-Speed Printer

Computer which prints in excess of 300 lines per minute.

The flexible joint where the covers of a hardbound book meet the spine, permitting the covers to open without breaking the spine of the book or breaking the signatures apart.

An impression from a stamping die.

A term referring to papers that retain much of the resinous ink components on the surface of the sheet rather than absorbing them into a fiber network. Papers with too much holdout cause problems with setoff.

In color, the main attribute of a color which distinguishes it from other colors. See Chroma.

Moisture condition of the air. Relative humidity is the percent of moisture relative to the actual amount which air at any given temperature can retain without precipitation.

Hydra Pulper

Vat with a special type of agitator used to hydrate and prepare pulp for papermaking.

A papermaking process that involves beating the pulp so as to increase its ability to hold water and produce a paper with the proper moisture content.

Hydrophilic

Describes paper with an affinity for water.

Hydrophobic

Describes paper that tends to be water repellent.

Hygroscopic

Describes paper that readily absorbs moisture.

Imitation Parchment

Paper made with irregular distribution of fibers.

In digital imaging, an imagesetter capable of outputting a film flat with 4, 8 or more pages in imposed position.

Impression Cylinder

In printing, the cylinder on a printing press against which the paper picks up the impression from the inked plate in direct printing, or the blanket in offset printing.

Pressure of type of blanket as it comes in contact with paper.

To print other information on a previously printed piece by running it through a press again.

An auxiliary printing unit, usually employing rubber letterpress plates; imprints copy on top side of web and permits imprint copy to be changed while press is running at full speed.

Mailing permit imprints that are preprinted on envelopes, mailing cartons, etc.

Ink Absorption

Extent of ink penetration into paper.

The degree with which paper will absorb ink.

Ink Dot Scum

On aluminum plates, a type of oxidation scum characterized by scattered pits that print sharp, dense dots.

A metal drum, either solid or cored; a part of an inking mechanism; used to break down the ink and transfer it to the form rollers.

Ink Fountain

In printing presses, the device which stores and supplies ink to the inking rollers.

Ink Holdout

An important printing paper quality - the ability to keep ink on top of the paper's surface. An inked image printed on paper with a high degree of ink holdout will dry by oxidation rather than absorption.

Ink Jet Printing

In digital printing, a plateless printing system that produces images directly on paper from digital data using streams of very fine drops of dyes which are controlled by digital signals to produce images on paper.

Ink Receptive

Having the property of being wet by greasy ink, in preference to water.

Ink Resistance

Resistance to the penetration of the ink vehicle; also called ink hold-out.

Inking Mechanism

On a printing press, the ink fountain and all the parts used to meter, transfer, break down, distribute, cool or heat, and supply the ink to the printing members. Also called inking system.

Denotes a production line of machinery, as required for the more or less complete manufacturing of a given product.

A printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication or another printed piece.

Type or design etched into a metal plate as opposed to raised letters as in letterpress.

The extreme strength, degree or amount of ink.

Interleaves (slip sheets)

Paper inserted between sheets as they come off the printing press to prevent transfer of wet ink from one to the other. Also, accessory sheets between parts in a form.

To align sheets of paper into a compact pile.

The flexible hinge where the cover of a casebound book meets the spine, permitting the cover to open without breaking the spine of the book or breaking apart the signatures; also called a hinge.

Proper name for the beater on the paper machine. In the Jordan, the pulp is pulverized, causing the pulp and water to mix in a uniform manner.

Junior Carton

A package of reamed sealed, cut size paper packed 8 to 10 reams per carton.

Fitting a line of type to both margins.

A method in composition of changing the spacing between type; brings the type closer together.

In color printing, the plate used as a guide for the register of other colors. It normally contains the most detail.

In artwork, an outline drawing of finished art to indicate the exact shape, position and size for such elements as halftones, line sketches, etc…

Kiss Impression

Printing performed with only slight pressure. The normal procedure for quality printing.

Kiss Pressure

The minimum pressure at which proper ink transfer is possible.

Partial cut through.

Kraft Process

A chemical pulping process that cooks down the tree to remove lignin, retaining the fibers for paper making. Free sheet papers are made in the kraft process.

Label Paper

Paper used for labeling applications. It may or may not have pressure sensitive adhesive backing added to the sheet.

Laid Dandy Roll

A dandy roll made for the purpose of imparting a laid finish to paper. It is composed of wires running parallel to the roll’s axis and attached to the frame by evenly spaced chain wires that encircle the circumference of the roll. The laid wires are affixed on top of the transverse chain wires, rather than being wove over and under them.

Term describes the finish imparted by a dandy roll which features wires parallel to its axis that impress the paper during manufacture to produce a permanent watermark. The wires which produce the laid effect are situated parallel on the dandy roll and are not interwoven with the traverse chain wires which encircle the dandy roll’s circumference, meaning the cross direction.

Paper that is developed by fusing one or more layers of paper together to the desired thickness and quality.

The slightly extended areas of printing surfaces in color plates, which make for easier registration of color.

Lap Register

A register achieved by overlaying a narrow strip of the second color over the first color, at the points of joining.

Last Color Down

The last color printed.

The drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece. In platemaking, a sheet indicating the settings for a step-and-repeat machine.

Layout Sheet

The imposition form; it indicates the sequence and positioning of negatives on the flat, which corresponds to printed pages on the press sheet. Once the sheet is folded, pages will be in consecutive order.

In composition, rows of dashes or dots to guide the eye across the page. Used in tabular work, programs, tables of contents, etc…

The ability of an ink to flow.

Letterpress Printing

Also known as relief typographic printing, letterpress printing employs the use of type or designs cast or engraved in relief (raised) on a variety of surfaces which can include metal, rubber, and wood. Opposite of intaglio printing, in letterpress printing the ink is applied to the raised printing surface. Non-printing areas or spaces are recessed. Impressions are made in various ways. On a platen press the impressions are made by pressure against a flat area of type or plate. Flat-bed cylinder press printing uses the pressure of a cylinder rolling across a flat area of type or plate to create the impression. A rotary web press uses a plate that has been stereotyped (molded into a curved form) which presses against another cylinder carrying the paper.

The evenness of a paper determined by the fiber distribution.

Library Binding

A book bound in accordance with the standards of the American Library Association, having strong endpapers , muslin-reinforced end signatures, sewing with four-cord thread, cotton flannel backlining, and covers of Caxton buckram cloth, with round corners.

Maximum number of sheets handled by operator of guillotine cutting machine or by paper handler loading paper for printing.

Lightfastness

The degree to which a paper or printed piece will resist a change in color when exposed to light.

The "glue" that binds the cells of the tree and creates its structure. This product is removed in the kraft process. Approximately one third of the tree is lignin.

Likesidedness

Noticeably similar side-to-side color and finish of a sheet of paper.

Any copy suitable for reproduction without using a halftone screen.

Line Drawing

A drawing containing no grays or middle tones. In general, any drawing that can be reproduced without the use of halftone techniques.

Line Negative

A negative made from line copy.

Linear Paper

A watermarked sheet with lines to guide the user.

Linen Finish Paper

A paper embossed to have a surface resembling linen cloth.

The material which is pasted down on the backbone (spine) of a book to be casebound, after it has been sewn, glued off, and then rounded. It reinforces the glue and helps hold signatures together.

Small fuzzy particles in paper.

The allowance for overlap of one-half of the open side edge of a folded section, needed for sewn and saddlestitch binding, for feeding the sections; also called lap.

Lithographic Image

An ink-receptive image on the lithographic press plate; the design or drawing on stone or a metal plate.

Lithographic Papers

See offset papers

Lithography

A generic term for any printing process in which the image area and the nonimage area exist on the same plane (plate) and are separated by chemical repulsion.

Localized Watermark

Achieved by arranging the design on the dandy roll to leave a watermark at a predetermined place on the sheet.

A mark or symbol created for an individual, company, or product that translates the impression of the body it is representing into a graphic image.

Paper made with the machine direction in the longest sheet dimension.

An ink that has good flow on ink rollers of a press. If the ink is too long, it breaks up into filaments on the press, and causes flying as on a newspaper press.

Degree of permanence.

To fold a sheet lengthwise in the direction of the grain.

A popular style of binding, in which the spine binding material is not glued to the binding edge of the sheets.

Loose Register

Color that fits "loosely"; positioning (register) is not critical.

Refers to papers somewhat thinner than the usual papers of the same weight, having a smooth surface, and which is a "thin" sheet.

Low-Key Picture

A continuous tone photo made up of predominantly shadow areas of the same tone.

Symbol in the paper industry designating 1,000. Usually used to designate 1,000 sheets or two reams of fine paper.

Machine Direction

Establishes the grain direction, which is always parallel with the travel of the paper over the wire.

Machine Dried

Process of drying paper on the paper machine as opposed to air drying the paper after removal from the machine.

Machine Finish

Finish that is obtained while the paper is on the paper machine. Expressed as M.F. Different finishes are obtained by the number of times paper is passed through the rollers, either dry or wet.

Hue of a subtractive primary and a 4-color process ink. It reflects or transmits blue and red light and absorbs green light.

Magenta Screen

A dyed contact screen, used for making halftones.

In printing presses, all work done prior to running; adjusting the feeder, grippers, side guide, putting ink in the fountain, etc. Also, in letterpress, the building up of the press form, so that the heavy and light areas print with the correct impression.

Making Order

A paper that is not available off the supplier’s shelf, but they will produce it when ordered. Making orders for special sizes, colors and weights of paper are subject to small minimums.

The unprinted area around the edges of a page. The margins as designated in book specifications refer to the remaining margins after the book has been trimmed.

In color separation photography, an intermediate photographic negative or positive used in color correction. In offset lithography, opaque material used to protect open or selected areas of a printing plate during exposure.

Mechanical Pulp

In papermaking, groundwood pulp produced by mechanically grinding logs or wood chips. It is used mainly for newsprint and as an ingredient of base stock for lower grade publication papers.

Metallic Inks

Ink containing metal substances, used to produce special printed output.

The tonal range between highlights and shadows of a photograph or reproduction.

Paper which is brand-named by the manufacturer as opposed to the merchant house, which is known as a "private brand".

Mixed Office Waste

Wastepaper generated from offices, such as letters, memos, invoices, etc. which are collected and sorted for paper qualities. This is the major source of post consumer fiber used in recycled papers.

Geometric pattern caused when two screened images are superimposed at certain angles. Occurs when making a halftone from a halftone image.

Moisture Content

Refers to the amount of moisture found in a sheet of paper. Average amount ranges from 5 to 8%. This figure varies from sheet to sheet since paper will emit or absorb moisture according to the condition of the surrounding atmosphere. Moisture loss is realized in the form of shrinkage, which begins at the edges of the paper and moves across the grain causing the sheet to tighten and curl.

Printed in one color only.

In Artwork, several photographs combined to form a composite illustration.

Mottled Finish

Finish, which exhibits high and low spots, or glossy and dull areas on the printed sheet.

Mullen Tester

Device that measures the bursting strength of paper. Sometimes referred to as the pop test or pop tester.

In photography, film containing an image in which the values of the original are reversed so that the dark areas in the subject appear light on the film and vice versa.

Offset papers manufactured with a pH of 6.0 to 8.0 on a scale of .0 to 14.0. Neutral pH factors are built into paper as a minimum value, to increase stability and improve permanence for use in printing of archival records.

Nominal Weight

Refers to the basis weight of the paper. Unless otherwise stipulated by the mill and customer, a tolerance of plus or minus 5% is allowed when calculating the nominal weight.

Non-Impact Printers

Forms an image without impact.

In binding, a booklet bound on the short dimension.

Pertaining to equipment not under direct control of the central processing unit.

Off-Press Proofs

Proofs made by photomechanical or digital means in less time and at lower cost than press proofs.

See set-off. In printing, the process of using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate. Short for offset lithography.

Offset Lithography (photolithography, offset)

The most common form of lithographic printing in which the image area and the nonimage area exist on the same plane (plate), separated by chemical repulsion. To print, the ink is "offset" (transferred) from the plate onto a rubber blanket and then to the paper.

Offset Paper

Coated or uncoated paper specifically for offset printing.

Offset Press (sheet fed)

Indirect rotary press with plate cylinder, blanket cylinder and an impression cylinder.

Offset Printing

Process of printing utilizing a lithographic plate on which the images or designs are ink receptive while the remainder of the plate is water receptive. Ink is transferred from the plate to a rubber blanket on the printing press and this rubber blanket transfers the image to paper. It is sometimes referred to as offset lithography or photo-offset.

One-Up, Two-Up, etc

Printing one (two, three, etc.) impressions of a job at a time.

A lightweight, cockle finish paper used for making copies of correspondence.

Pertaining to equipment under direct control of the central processing unit of a computer.

The amount of "show through" in a sheet from one side to the other. The higher the opacity the less likely that the printing on one side will be visible from the other side.

The more opaque a sheet of paper is, the less transparent it is. High opacity in printing papers is a good characteristic as print from the other side of a printed leaf has less "show-through".

An ink that conceals all color beneath it.

Open End Envelope

An envelope that opens on the short dimension.

Optical Brightness

Optical brighteners or fluorescent dyes are extensively used to make high, bright blue-white papers. They absorb invisible ultraviolet light and convert to visible light, falling into the blue to violet portion of the spectrum, which is then reflected back to our eyes.

Optical Whitener

A dye that is added to the fiber stock or applied to the paper surface at the size press to enhance its brightness.

Orange Peel

A granular surface on coated or printed paper that looks like orange peel.

Out-of-Register

(1) Descriptive of pages on both sides of the sheet which do not back up accurately. (2) Two or more colors are not in the proper position when printed; register does not "match."

Out-of-Round Rolls

Paper rolls that are not suitable for the web offset press because they are not perfectly round and will cause uneven feeding tension.

Out-of-Square

Refers to paper that has been trimmed improperly thus causing the corners to be less or more than 90 degrees. This leads to difficulty during the printing process and often results in misregister of the printed piece. Also called off-square.

Outline Halftone (silhouette halftone)

A halftone image which is outlined by removing the dots that surround it.

Overhang Cover

A cover larger in size than the pages it encloses.

Describes printing when too much ink has been used, resulting in heavy print that tends to blur toward the back of the press sheet.

Overpacking

Packing the plate or blanket to a level that is excessively above the level of the cylinder bearer.

Overpressure

Too much pressure, causing ink to tend to plug letters, especially halftone dots.

Overprinting

Double printing; printing over an area that already has been printed.

Quantity of paper that is manufactured beyond the quantity specified. In printing, copies printed in excess of the specified quantity.

A chemical reaction which hardens the ink vehicle and makes the film of ink reasonably rub-proof . The process of combining with oxygen.

In printing presses, the paper or other material used to underlay a press blanket or plate, to bring the surface to the desired height; the method of adjusting squeeze pressure.

Packing Gauge

a device for determining the relationship between the height of the plate or blanket, and the cylinder bearers.

Padding Glue

A flexible glue used in padding loose sheets.

The number of flexes a book page can withstand before loosening from the binding.

Page Makeup

In stripping, assembly of all elements to make up a page. In digital imaging, the electronic assembly of page elements to compose a complete page with all elements in place on a video display terminal and on film or plate.

Page Proofs

Initial impression of a page pulled for checking purposes before the entire job is run.

Pages-Per-Inch (ppi)

In book production, the number of pages contained in a one-inch stack of paper.

In computerized typesetting, the process of performing page makeup automatically.

The collection of colors or shades available to a graphic system or program.

A wooden platform with stringers wide enough to allow a fork lift to drive into it and lift; used to pack cartons for shipment, if specified by the customer. Pallets are usually not reusable.

Pantone Matching System

Paper machine.

Machine on which paper is manufactured, dried, wound on rolls and slit to appropriate lengths.

Paper Surface Efficiency

Measure of the printability of a sheet of paper which is dependent upon the amount of ink the paper absorbs, the smoothness of its surface, and the evenness of its caliper.

A paper-covered book; also called paperback or soft cover.

A paper used for greeting cards, stationery, etc…which is distinctive from regular stock in that special watermarks and embossing may be used.

Paraded Watermark

(See watermark).

Parallel Fold

Any series of folds in sequence, made in parallel fashion.

Paste Drier

In inkmaking, a type of dryer, usually a combination of drying compounds.

Pasted grades are those grades of paper or paperboard made up of layers pasted together. The process is machine operation used to combine sheets of the same or different papers into a single thickness.

PCF - Process Chlorine Free

Our 100% post consumer recycled papers are manufactured from sustainable raw materials and are processed using chlorine-free practices.

Quick-Set Inks

Those inks that set-up faster and dry faster, usually from top to bottom. These inks are used when sheets have to be sent back through the press faster than normal drying time will allow.

Printing with four half-tone images at different screen angles using four different colors. Usually the four colors would have a color slant or cast towards a selected tone or color; for example a sepia-tone or overall brown slant or cast.

Quarter Tone

In printing, a printing dot that has a percentage that is close to the 25% printing dot size.

Today it is usually referred to as cotton fiber paper. It is made from cotton cuttings and linters.

Pulp made by disintegrating new or old cotton or linen rags and cleaning and bleaching fibers.

Random Watermark

Five hundred sheets of printing paper.

Ream Marked

Pile of paper is ream marked by the insertion of small slips of paper or "ream markers" at intervals of every 500 sheets.

Ream Marker

Piece of rectangular shaped paper used to mark off the reams in a stack of paper.

Ream Weight

Weight of a given ream of paper.

Ream Wrapped

Paper which has been separated into reams and individually packaged or wrapped.

Scrap paper collected for remanufacturing into recycled paper. EPA’s definition for recovered is the most widely accepted and does not include scrap paper created in the initial papermaking process, but does include scrap created in a mill after the paper comes off the paper machine. Printing waste and envelope trip are also recovered fiber.

Recycleable

This means the product can be recycled. This applies to most paper even if it is coated, waxed or other wise treated.

Paper made at least in part from recovered fibers. There is no universally acceptable definition so requirements vary by specific circumstances. EPA requires post consumer content in recycled papers purchased by federal agencies. But the FTC does not require post-consumer content in papers labeled recycled. Most US governments and companies use the EPA standards, but there is no requirement. In Canada most companies use the terra-choice definition for recycle which does require minimum levels of post-consumer fiber.

In printing inks, varnishes, solvents, oily or greasy compounds used to reduce the consistency for printing. In photography, chemicals used to reduce the density of negative or positive images or the size of halftone dots (dot etching).

The mechanical treatment of pulp fibers to develop their papermaking properties.

Reflection Copy

In photography, illustrative copy that is viewed and must be photographed by light reflected from its surface. Examples are photographs, drawings, etc…

In printing, register is the placement of two or more images on the same paper in such a manner as to make them in perfect alignment with each other. When a printing job is in exact register succeeding forms or colors can be printed in the correct position relative to the images already printed on the sheet.

Register Mark

Mark placed on a form to assist in proper positioning of after-printing operations. Two short lines at right angles are called an angle mark. Also, bulls-eye marks placed on camera-ready copy to assist in registration of subsequent operations.

Registration

Alignment of one element of a form in relation to another. Also, alignment of printed images upon the same sheet of paper.

Relative Humidity (RH)

The amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere expressed as a percentage of the maximum that could be present at the same temperature.

Repeatability

The ability to keep photo film and the images thereon in proper register. Repeatability is usually measured in micrometers.

A term referring to printing again from standing negatives.

Chemicals that slow setting time of printing inks.

When the background is completely printed, and the design area is left unprinted.

Equipment which slits and rewinds paper webs into smaller rolls.

Right Side of Paper

The felt side of a sheet, also the side on which the watermark, if any, may be read.

Right-Angle Fold

Term used for two or more folds that are at 90 degree angles to each other.

Right-Read Image

Image similar to the original or intended final copy.

Stiffness, resistance to bending.

Web of paper. Paper wound around a core or shaft to form a continuous roll or web of paper.

Roller Stripping

In lithography, a term denoting that the ink does not adhere to the metal ink rollers on a press.

A size added to paper to make it water resistant.

Rotary Press

Printing press in which the plate is wrapped around a cylinder. There are two types, direct and indirect. Direct presses print with a plate cylinder and an impression cylinder. Indirect rotary presses (sheet-fed offset presses) combine a plate cylinder, a blanket cylinder and an impression cylinder.

Rotogravure

Intaglio process. The image is below the surface of the plate. (Letterhead image is raised the offset image is flat)

1) Ink on printed sheets, after sufficient drying, which smears or comes off on the fingers when handled. (2) Ink that comes off the cover during shipment and transfers to other covers or to the shipping carton or mailer; also called Scuffing.

In printing, an ink that has reached maximum dryness and does not mar with normal abrasion.

Rule Weight

Thickness of lines; hairline rule; medium rule (½ point); heavy rule (1 point).

Runnability

Paper’s performance on a press and its ability to withstand the stresses of a running press unaltered. Not the same as printability.

Saddle Stitch

Binding process for pamphlets or booklets, which works by stapling through the middle fold of the sheets (saddle wire).

Saddle Wire Binding

To fasten a booklet by wiring the middle fold of the printed sheets of paper.

Absence of the short cross line at the ends of the stroke of a Roman letter.

Optical scanner, also electric device used in making color separation.

Point-by-Point electronic scanning of color separations under computer control.

Schopper's Tester

An instrument for testing the folding endurance of paper.

Score/Scoring

The process and the resulting line or crease mechanically impressed in the paper to facilitate folding while guarding against cracking of paper and board. Scoring is essential when heavyweight papers are to be folded.

The ruling used to determine the dots per unit area in developing tonal values in the printed piece. Screens from which letterpress halftones of photographs are made range from 60 lines-per-inch for printing on newsprint to 300 lines for printing on coated paper and premium uncoated paper. Offset halftones for printing on most surfaces range from 133 lines to 200 lines.

Screen Angles

In color reproduction, angles at which the halftone screens are placed with relation to one another, to avoid undesirable moire patterns. A set of angles often used is: black 45°, magenta 75°, yellow 90°, cyan 105°.

Screen Process Printing

This printing process uses a screen of fine-mesh silk (thus the common name silk screen printing) taughtly stretched across a frame. A squeegee drawn across the screen forces ink through the open image areas which are cut-out by hand using lacquered tissue prior to its adherence to the silk. Special photographic negatives are adhered to the screen when faithful reproduction of intricate designs are sought.

Screen Range

The density difference between the highlight and shadow areas of copy that a halftone screen can reproduce without a flash exposure.

Screen Ruling

The number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.

Screened Print

A print made from continuous-tone copy that was screened during exposure.

A halftone film having a uniform dot size over its area, and rated by its approximate printing dot size value, such as 20 percent, 50 percent, etc.; also called screen tint.

See rub-off, The disrupted appearance of an ink film as a result of abrasion to either the wet or dry ink film.

A term referring to the press plate picking up ink in the nonprinting areas for a variety of reasons, basically due to spots or areas not remaining desensitized.

Term often applied to cut size sheets which are packaged "ream sealed", 500 sheets to the package.

Process of allowing paper to adjust to atmospheric conditions of the plant in which it will be used.

Secondary Fiber

A term used for wastepaper, also referred to as paper stock.

A cover that matches the inside text pages.

Semi-Concealed Cover

A cover for mechanical binding that is a single piece scored and slotted or punched for combining with the mechanical binding device, formatting a closed backbone on bound units.

Sensitivity Guide

A narrow, calibrated continuous tone gray scale with each tone scale numbered.

Short cross line at the ends of the stroke of a Roman letter.

In platemaking, the distance from the front edge of the press plate to the image area, to allow for clamping to the cylinder and also for the gripper margin.

The undesirable transfer of ink from freshly printed sheets of paper to another. (Also called off-set).

Set-Up Sheet

A sheet drawn in Plate Prep on the Craftsman table from computer specifications; used as a master for the layout and positioning of pages on the job for which it was drawn.

A popular style of bookbinding; in which the signatures are gathered in sequence and then sewn individually in 8s, 16s, or 32s. The sewing threads are visible at the center of each signature.

Sewn-On Tapes

Strips of reinforcing cloth sewn to the spine of the book sections and extending slightly past the edge of the spine; used to strengthen the binding of a casebound book.

The darkest parts in a photograph, represented in a halftone by the largest dots.

To decrease in color strength, as when halftone dots become smaller; opposite of dot spread or dot gain.

A photographic term for perfectly defined detail in an original, negative and reproduction.

To cut a slight trim from bound books or paper, printed or blank.

Term which may be applied to a single sheet, a grade of paper, or a description of paper, i.e. coated, uncoated, offset, letterpress, etc.

Sheet Delamination

Directly related to poor surface strength in that if the sheet has poor surface strength, delamination will occur in the printing process. Sheet delamination could also create a problem of a blanket smash. If the delamination is large enough and thick enough, as the press continues to run, it will create a depression in the blanket, so that when the delamination buildup is removed from the blanket the depression will remain, rendering the blanket unusable. These defects pertain to both sheet-fed and web-fed equipment.

In paper manufacture, rotary unit over which the web of paper passes to be cut into sheets. In printing, rotary knife at the delivery end of web press that slices press lengths.

Any printing press requiring paper in a sheet form as opposed to printing in rolls.

The process of cutting a roll or web of paper into sheets.

To print one side of a sheet of paper with one plate, then turn the sheet over and print the other side with another plate using same gripper and opposite side guide.

(1) A slip case for holding bound volumes of a set. (2) The copper (or nickel) duplicate of type or engravings produced in the plating tanks on impressions in wax or other molding mediums.

Sheridan Saddle Stitcher-Trimmer

A machine used to gather, cover, stitch, and trim saddle stitch books.

Undercooked wood particles that are removed from the pulp before manufacture of paper begins. Sometimes shives will appear as imperfections in the finished sheets.

Short-Grained Paper

Paper in which the predominant fiber orientation is parallel to the shortest sheet dimension.

Show-Through

In printing, the undesirable condition in which the printing on the reverse side of a sheet can be seen through the sheet under normal lighting conditions.

Decrease in the dimensions of a sheet of paper or loss incurred in weight between the amount of pulp used and paper produced.

On sheet-fed presses, a guide on the feed board to position the sheet sideways as it feeds into the front guides before entering the impression cylinder.

A method of binding in which the folded signatures or cut sheets are stitched with wire along and through the side, close to the gutter margin. Pages cannot be fully opened to a flat position; also called side wire.

Section of book obtained by folding a single sheet of printed paper in 8, 12, 16 or 32 pages.

Halftones from which the screen around any part of the image has been removed.

Silk-Screen

Print from a stencil image maker where the ink is applied by squeegee through a silk screen.

Silk-Screen Printing

Another name for screen process printing

Size or Sizing

Additive substances applied to the paper either internally through the beater or as a coating that improves printing qualities and resistance to liquids. Commonly used sizes are starch and latex.

Part of the paper machine, near the end, where sizing agents are added.

Container holding sizing material during the tub sizing process.

(1)A reusable platform support, made of wood, on which sheets of paper are delivered, and on which printed sheets or folded sections are stacked. Also used to ship materials, usually in cartons which have been strapped (banded) to the skid. (2)A quantity of paper, usually about 3000 lbs., skid-packed.

A paper that is slightly sized and therefore will be somewhat water resistant.

Slip-Sheeting

Placing pieces of paper between folded sections prior to trimming four sides, to separate completed books.

A sharp disk which cuts a paper into pre-determined widths.

Cutting printed sheets into two or more sections by means of cutting wheels on a folder.

Slur-Gauge (The GATF Slur Gauge)

A combination dot gain and slur indicator supplied in positive or negative form. It is a quality control device that shows at a glance dot gain or dot loss. It also demonstrates whether the gain or the loss occurs in contacting, platemaking, proofing or on the press.

The smearing or elongation of halftone dots or type and line images at their trailing edges.

Watery suspension of pigments, etc…which is used in coating or papermaking.

Smashed or Weak Blanket

An area of a blanket that is no longer firm and resilient, and that gives a light impression in the center of a well printed area. Usually caused by physical damage of the blanket at impression.

Smashing (nipping, compressing)

The binding operation following sewing in which the folded and sewn sheets are compressed to tighten the fold free of air to make the front and back of the sheets the same thickness.

A press condition in which the impression is slurred and unclear, because too much ink was used or sheets were handled or rubbed before the ink was dry.

Smooth Finish

A finish on paper that has been made smooth by passing through various rollers.

Smoothing Press

Prior to reaching the driers, the paper web is smoothed, if necessary, by two rolls working together.

The flatness of a sheet of paper, which generally determines the crispness of the image printed upon it.

Smyth Sewing

A method of fastening side-by-side signatures so that each is linked with thread to its neighbor, as well as saddlesewn through its own centerfold. Smyth-sewn books open flat. The stitching is on the back of the fold.

A camera term describing halation or fringe around the edge of a dot which is excessive and almost equals the area of the dot itself.

A term that describes the consistency of lithographic inks.

Another term for paperback or paperbound books.

Wood from coniferous trees having long fibers.

An area completely covered with ink, or the use of 100% of a given color. In composition, type set without space ( leading ) between the lines.

Intervals between lines of type.

Spec'd (specified)

Spec'd copy gives details of items such as paper, bindery techniques, type, etc., which have been determined for a given job.

Specialty Papers or Boards

Paper or board that is manufactured, or subsequently converted, for a specific use. These grades usually cannot be used for anything other than their intended special purpose.

The designer or printing production worker who determines the types of paper to be used under various circumstances.

Spectrophotometer

Sophisticated instrument that measures color across a visible spectrum and produces data describing the color of a given sample in terms of the three parameters in color space.

The complete range of colors in the rainbow, from short wavelengths (blue) to long wavelengths (red).

Backbone of a book.

Spiral Binding

Wires in a spiral form inserted through specially punched holes along the binding edge.

An overlapping joint used to join the ends of webs together.

Tab or marker giving the location of a splice.

Split Fountain

A technique for simultaneously printing two colors from the same ink fountain.

Smallest visible point that can be displayed or printed. The smallest diameter of light that a scanner can detect, or an image-setter or printer can image. Dot should not be confused with spot.

Spot Varnish

Press varnish applied to a portion of the sheet, as opposed to an overall application of the varnish.

Spotting Out

Fine opaquing such as in removing pinholes or other small transparent defects in a negative; also called Opaquing.

Spray Powder

A powder used at press to prevent setoff (offset) of wet ink; also called anti-offset spray.

Square Halftone (square-finish halftone)

A halftone whose four sides are straight and perpendicular to one another.

Square Sheet

A sheet which is equally strong and tear resistant with and against the grain.

A term used to describe paper that has been seasoned so that the moisture content is the same as the air surrounding it.

Device attached to delivery conveyor to collate, compress and bundle signatures.

Pressing a design onto a book cover using metal foil, colored foil, or ink, applied with metal dies.

Standards (paper)

Terms used to indicate the manufactured specifications of a paper. Includes color, basis weight, sheet dimensions, and grain direction.

Material used as a sizing agent for paper. Usually made from corn.

Static Electricity

An electrical charge frequently found in paper which is too dry or which has been affected by local atmospheric conditions.

Static Neutralizer

In printing presses , an attachment designed to remove the static electricity from the paper to avoid ink setoff and trouble with feeding the paper.

Steel Engraving

An engraved plate used in relief printing.

Step-and-Repeat

Technique of affixing multiple images on a film or plate to extremely close tolerances.

In multiple imposition on a lithographic press plate, the procedure of repeating the exposure of a flat by stepping it along the gripper edge; side-by-side exposure.

In multiple imposition on a lithographic press plate, the procedure of repeating the exposure of a flat by stepping it back from the gripper edge of the plate; up-and-down exposure.

An ink with too much body.

Property of paper and paperboard to resist bending.

Stitched Book

A popular method of sewing the signatures of a book together by stitching all the sheets at one time, either through the center of the inserted sheets or side-stitched from front to back. A very strong style of binding but not flexible as compared with sewing.

Use of wire fastenings as a permanent fastening for continuous forms.

Stochastic Screening

A digital screening process that converts images into very small dots (14-40 microns) of equal size and variable spacing. Second order screened images have variable size dots and variable spacing. Also called Frequency Modulated (FM) screening.

General term with many meanings. (1) Paper or board that is on hand in inventory. (2) Paper or board that has been designated for a particular use and only awaits the printing or converting process. (3) Pulp which has been processed to a state where dilution is the only step necessary for it to be made into paper or board. (4) At any stage in manufacture wet pulp is referred to as stock. (5) Wastepaper.

Stock Sizes

Standard sizes of paper or board.

Stock Weights

Weights of papers stocked by mills and merchants.

Stocking Items

Papers manufactured in popular sizes, weights, colors, etc. on a regular basis to maintain adequately stocked inventories in mill warehouses.

Stocking Merchant

Paper distributor that stocks in his own warehouse facilities enough paper to immediately fill anticipated orders in the market. This eliminates the delay of ordering from the paper manufacturer, taking delivery, and delivering to the customer.

Stopping Out

An application of opaque to photographic negatives; also the application of special lacquer to protect areas in positives in dot etching; staging of halftone plates during relief etching; protecting certain areas of deep-etched plates so that no ink will be deposited on the protected areas.

Stream Feeder

A type of press feeder that keeps several sheets of paper, overlapping each other, moving toward the grippers.

Describes the "give" of a sheet of paper when it is subjected to tensile pressure.

Stretch Resistance

Stretch properties are essential for paper to fold well and to resist stress in use. Stretch resistance is measured on tensile testing instruments.

Penetration of printing ink into a sheet of paper.

Strike-Through

Penetration of printing ink through a sheet of paper.

String and Button Envelope

An envelope made with two reinforced paper buttons, one on the flap and the other on the back of the envelope. To close, a string which is locked under the flap button is wound alternately around the two buttons.

Substance Weight

Same as basis weight .

A rubber suction cup on machine feeding devices.

Suction Box

Device that removes water from the paper machine by a suction action located beneath the wire at the wet end.

Suction Feed

A term applied to suction grippers which feed paper.

Alkaline process of cooking pulp also known as the kraft process. Wood chips are cooked to a high brightness without fiber degradation in a substance of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfide.

Acid process of cooking pulp. Wood chips are cooked in a solution of bisulphite.

Super Calender

Off machine calender rolls that heat and iron paper to provide a high gloss finish.

Super Calendering

Alternating rolls of highly polished steel and compressed cotton in a stack. During the process the paper is subjected to the heated steel rolls and "ironed" by the compressed cotton rolls. It imparts a high, gloss finish to the paper. Super calender stacks are not an inherent part of the paper machine whereas the calender rolls are.

Surface Plate

One of the two basic types of lithographic press plates; a colloid image is formed on the light-sensitized metal plate by the action of actinic light passing through photographic negatives.

Surface Sized

Term applied to paper that has been sized by applying a sizing agent when the web of paper is partially dry. Purpose is to increase resistance to ink penetration.

Surface Texture

The relative roughness, smoothness or unevenness of the paper surface.

An additional printing over the design areas of previously printed matter to produce such overprints as "Sale," "$1.98" "Sample," etc. Also called overprint.

Same as sample book. A grouping of papers, usually in bound form, that displays the weights, colors, finishes and other particulars of a collection of papers to aid in the selection of grades.

Abbreviation indicating that the paper has been guillotine trimmed on all four sides. Literal translation: trimmed four sides.

During binding, the cutting or adhering of tabs on the edges of pages.

The pulling power or separation force of ink causing picking or splitting of weak papers.

Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)

A file format for graphics suited for representing scanned images and other large bitmaps. TIFF is a neutral format designed for compatibility with all applications. TIFF was created specifically for storing grayscale images, and it is the standard format for scanned images such as photographs-now called TIFF/IT.

A test to determine the tearing resistance of paper.

TCF - Totally Chlorine Free

Includes both virgin and post-consumer fibers that are bleached without any chlorine containing compounds.

Tearing Strength

The ability of a paper to resist tearing when subjected to rigorous production demands of manufacturing, printing, binding and its conversion from flat sheets into envelopes, packaging materials, etc.

Tensile Strength

Tensile strength relates to the stress and strain to which paper is subjected in its many end use applications. It is defined as the maximum force required to break a paper strip of a given width under prescribed laboratory conditions. Tensile strength is usually defined as pounds-per-inch width of the testing strip, or as kilograms per 15-millimeter width. Tensile strength is measured in both the grain and cross-grain directions, however, it is always greater in the grain direction.

A general term applied to various grades of printing paper designed for deluxe printed booklets, programs, announcements and advertising.

Thermography

Letterpress printing in which a special ink, while still wet, is dusted with a resinous powder. Then the sheets are baked fusing the powder with the ink, giving it a raised effect.

Thermomechanical Pulp

Made by steaming wood chips prior to and during refining, producing a higher yield and stronger pulp than regular groundwood.

Measurement in thousandths of an inch.

Shading of an area in a form.

Printing plate with customized surfaces to print solid colors or patterns, stipple line or dot arrangements in tints of inks. Tint blocks are also used to deepen colors in an illustration.

An all-over color tint on the press sheet in the nonimage area of the sheet, caused by ink pigment dissolving in the dampening solution.

Titanium Dioxide

Chemical substance used as loading or coating material to increase the whiteness and brightness of a sheet and contribute to its opacity.

Permissible degree of variation from a pre-set standard.

Characteristic of paper. A slightly rough paper which permits acceptance of ink readily.

Designates the felt side of a sheet of paper. The top side of a sheet is the side not against the wire during manufacture. (2) In paperboard, the top is the side that exhibits the best quality.

Tub sizing of paper which has previously been beater sized.

Translucency

Allowing light, but not detailed shapes, to pass through; semitransparent.

Translucent Papers

Papers that will allow information to be seen through them but not totally clear like acetate.

Transparency

Photographic positive mounted in a clear or transparent image.

Transparent Ink

A printing ink which does not conceal the color beneath. Process inks are transparent so that they will blend to form other colors.

The ability to print a wet ink film over previously printed ink. Dry trapping is printing wet ink on dry paper or over dry ink. Wet trapping is printing wet ink over previously printed wet ink.

Excess of the paper allowed a printed sheet for gripper and bleed.

Trim Margin

The margin of the open side, away from the bind; also called thumb, face or outside margin.

In printing, marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the page where to cut or trim.

The final size of a printed piece after trimming.

Trimmed Size

The final size of a printed piece after all bleeds and folds have been cut off.

Machine equipped with a guillotine blade that can cut paper to the desired size.

Tub-Sized (surface-sized)

Sizing added to the surface of paper by passing a web through a tub or bath of sizing, removing the excess, and drying.

Head to foot printing.

Twin-Wire Machine

A paper machine with two wires instead of one producing paper with less two-sidedness.

Two-Sheet Detector

In printing presses, a device for stopping or tripping the press when more than one sheet attempts to feed into the grippers.

Two-Sidedness

In paper, the property denoting difference in appearance and printability between its top (felt) and bottom (wire) sides.

Printing the same page or group of pages from two sets of plates, thereby producing two impressions of the same matter at one time.

Two-Up Binding

Printing and binding in such a way that two books are bound as one, then cut apart into separate books.

A design of letters of the alphabet intended to be used in combination.

Paper not treated to bleaching; it has a light brown hue.

Paper that has not been coated.

Undercolor Removal

To improve trapping and reduce ink costs in the process color web printing, color separation films are reduced in color in areas where all three colors overprint and the black film is increased an equivalent amount in these areas.

Term refers to an order produced or delivered that is less than the quantity specified by the customer. Allowances are permitted in trade practices for under-runs.

Undertrimmed

Trimmed to a size smaller than the specified trim size.

Being uniform in the structure of the paper, the color and finish.

Refers to the combination of inking, plate and impression operations to print each color. A 4-color press has 4 printing units each with its own inking, plate and impression functions.

Ultra Violet radiation method of drying process color inks on high-speed multicolor offset presses.

The drying of UV inks by a light reaction, rather than by heat and/or oxidation.

In printing, solventless inks that are cured by UV radiation. They are used extensively in screen printing, narrow web letterpress and flexographic printing.

Thin, protective coating applied to a printed sheet of paper for protection or improved appearance.

The liquid part of an ink that gives it flow, enabling it to be applied to a surface.

Term usually applied to a paper finish that exhibits a toothy surface which is very similar to eggshell or antique finishes. A vellum finish is relatively absorbent to provide good ink penetration.

Vellum Paper

Very strong, good quality cream colored or natural paper made to impersonate calfskin parchment. Also, the term is often applied to the finish of paper rather than a grade of paper. Stationery is often referred to as vellum. Also, translucent paper used by architects and artists are often referred to as Velum.

Halftone whose background gradually fades away to blend with the surface of the paper.

Paper made from the fibers in their first use, usually from wood pulp.

Virkotyping

Another name for thermography or raised printing.

Broad term that encompasses the properties of tack and flow as applied to inks.

Deterioration of part of image area on plate during printing.

Color of ink falling in the red-orange-yellow family.

Operation between ink/color changes. Time required between ink color changes.

Water Ball Roller

A roller which runs in the fountain solution pan.

Water Fountain

The metal trough on a lithographic press which holds the dampening solution.

Water in Ink

A press condition of too much water, which breaks down ink.

Water Resistance

Quality of a sheet of paper to resist penetration by water from one surface to the other.

Waterless Plate

In platemaking, printing on a press using special waterless plates and no dampening system.

A term referring to the impression of a design, pattern or symbol in a sheet while it is being formed on the paper machine wire. It appears in the finished sheet as either a lighter or darker area than the rest of the paper. Two types of watermarks are available. A shaded watermark is produced by a dandy roll located at or near the suction box on the Fourdrinier. The desired design is pressed into the wire covering the surface of the dandy roll similar to an intaglio engraving. As the wet pulp moves along the web the dandy roll presses down and creates an accumulation of fibers, thus the watermark is seen as being darker than the rest of the sheet.   The second type of watermark, called a wire mark, is accomplished by impressing a dandy roll with a raised surface pattern into the moving paper web in a similar manner to the shaded mark. This creates an area with less fiber making it lighter and more translucent.   Watermarks come in a variety of placement styles. Random, the least expensive to create, is a watermark that appears repetitively throughout the sheet in no particular order. A localized watermark is one that appears in a predetermined position on each sheet. Paraded watermarks appear in a line, either vertically or horizontally on each sheet. A staggered watermark pattern consists of several watermarks on each sheet in a predetermined fashion. (See dandy roll)

Characteristic of a pile of sheets when the outer edges retain more moisture from the air than the center does or when the center retains more moisture then the outer edges do. It is a form of paper curl.

A warping, "wave like" effect in paper which is the result of the edges of the sheet having picked up moisture and expanded to a larger size.

Roll of paper used in web or rotary presses and most often folded, pasted and converted in one continuous form. Also a ribbon of paper as it unwinds from a roll and threads through the press.

Break in a roll of paper while it is on the machine during manufacturing or while on the printing press during production.

Web Offset Paper

Paper that is made to be printed in a continuous manner from a roll. It can be coated or uncoated and must be strong enough to withstand the rigors of web offset printing at high speeds.

An offset press that uses web paper as opposed to sheet fed paper.

Web Tension

Amount of pull applied in direction of the travel of a web of paper by the action of a web-fed press.

Weight Tolerance

Acceptable degree of variation in a paper's shipped weight, usually within 5 percent of the paper's nominal weight.

Well-Closed Formation

Bonding of fibers in a sheet that provides an overall uniformity. Opposite of wild.

Hard sized.

Water or dampness on the edge of the roll can weld or bond the paper together, which will then break on the infeed, a problem easily determined by the press crew.

Wet Rub Test

A test of the moisture resistance of paper.

Wet Strength

The strength retained by a sheet when completely wetted with water; generally, tensile strength.

The beginning of a paper machine that involves a slurry of fibers, fillers, and other additives and is most likely the most critical process area for successful production of the high quality and consistent end product.

Wet-End Finish

Category of finishes such as antique, eggshell, vellum applied to the wet paper web by machine rolls and the presses at the wet end of the papermaking machine.

Wet-Strength

Wet strength is measured most accurately as the percentage ratio of wet-tensile strength to dry-tensile strength. Example: a paper containing 30% wet strength actually possesses 30% of its original dry-tensile strength.

Wet-Strength Papers

Once wet, ordinary papers lose most of their original dry-strength properties. Wet strength papers possess properties that resist disintegration and rupture when saturated with water. Papers are classified wet strength when they retain 15% or more of their dry-tensile strength. Superior quality wet strength papers may retain as much as 50% or more dry strength following immersing in water. Wet strength papers range in weight from tissue to paperboard.

Wetting Agent

A material capable of lowering the surface tension of water and water solutions and increasing their wetting powers.

Whiteness of pulp and paper is generally indicated by its brightness.

Water that has been used in the papermaking process that is milky in color.

(See Distributor)

Unit at the end of the paper machine that takes the paper web from the reel, trims it, winds it into rolls and slits it to make smaller rolls if desired.

At the wet end of the paper machine, a copper, bronze or synthetic screen that receives the suspension of water and fiber from the head-box. The wire moves the suspension along to the dry end of the machine. The wire terminates at the couch roll at which point the paper web is 90% water and can be transferred to the wet felt. In business forms, to stitch or fasten sheets to form a book or fastened set; may be side or saddle wired.

Wire Binding

A continuous double series of wire loops running through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet.

On the bottom or wire side of the paper, these are impressed traces of the machine wire.

Opposite of felt side, this is the side of the paper that was against the wire during manufacture. A watermark will read backward from this side of the sheet.

With the Grain

Parallel to the direction in which the paper fibers lie.

Woodfree Pulp

Chemical pulp.

Work and Turn

To print one side of a sheet of paper then turn the sheet over from left to right and print the second side. The same gripper and plate are used for both sides.

Work and Tumble

To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn it over from gripper to back using the same side guide and plate to print the second side.

Finish characterized by the impressions of a felt dandy roll covered in woven wire and without laid lines.

A dandy roll without a watermarked design.

(1) Creases in paper occurring during printing or folding. (2) In inks, the uneven surface formed during drying.

Writing Paper

A general term applied to papers used for writing purposes.

Wrong-Read Image

A mirror image such as that appearing on the blanket in offset printing.

Copying process that uses a selenium surface and electrostatic forces to form an image.

Yankee Dryer

A device that dries paper as it comes off the wet end of the papermaking machine by pressing one side against a cylinder that steam-heats it and imparts a glazed finish at the same time.

Hue off a subtractive primary and a 4-color process ink. It reflects red and green light and absorbs blue light.

Describes a transformation inherent to all vegetable fibers which is caused by aging. Paper made of vegetable fibers will turn various degrees of yellow as its environment couples with aging to produce this phenomenon. Yellowing is very evident in groundwood papers and only a few hours in direct sunlight is enough to yellow newspaper.

Zig-Zag Folding

Folding used with continuous forms with alternating position (head and foot). Commonly used to convert roll paper to easily managed flat-back.

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How to Write a Term Paper

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A term paper is a research project written by students over an academic term, typically accounting for a significant part of a grade. It is intended to describe an event, a concept, or argue a point. The paper is usually original research involving a detailed study of a subject, requiring a considerable amount of preparation and effort.

The length and complexity of a term paper can vary but it's generally more comprehensive and detailed than regular academic essays. It usually includes an introduction, body, conclusion, and a bibliography citing the sources used.

Writing a term paper can be a piece of cake if you know how to properly structure it and where to begin. Browse this guide and learn how to write a term paper worth a A+.

Discover How to Write a Term Paper & What It Is

Students who earn Cs (70 per cent equivalent) do obtain degrees, but they barely get valuable, interesting job offers. Tell Granny to get ready with the magnets: we are about to start our amazing academic adventure! What is a term paper ? It is an effective method to increase the overall great point average and professional skills every student should not ignore. What is a term paper? Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines the word this way: “A major written assignment in a school/college course representative of a student's achievement during a semester.” No matter which is your personal answer to “what is a termpaper,” it is the last chance to fix the final course grade. There will be no other chance to improve the academic performance as it is the final assignment to pop up during the semester. The need to learn how to write a term paper appears closer to of the educational year’s finish; try to be ahead of your class by reviewing the steps to writing a term paper earlier! Or you can simply get the best term paper writing service .

Accepted Essay’s Format

How to write an outline for a term paper? Do not bother – have a look at the helpful guide prepared by the talented scholars to understand what the main parts of the good final projects are! Here are five main parts of this process. Please do not be confused with five paragraph essay. Term paper help can get your assignment written in half a day, by the way.

Brief (1/3 of A4 page) description of the written work. Wonder how to write an abstract ? Write down what the topic is, reasons to discuss it (how it is related to the core college discipline/major), and your results.

Introduction

What is a termpaper without a powerful introduction? It does not make any sense; stick to the following checklist to avoid missing an important introduction element: 

Buy term papers online if that doesn't seem interesting for you at the moment. 

In this section, list the results of the experiment (trying to solve the problem) and the obstacles faced on the way while trying to answer every related question.

In the final part, the student is willing to do whatever they think is relevant. In personal words, it is important to explain what the findings mean, make a summary of the main points, draw some conclusions, & interpret the role of the findings in the context of the studied subject. The outline will prevent the student from falling off the topic, forgetting the next item in the line to discuss. Need some help with it? Call online academic writing services to allow them explain how to write a term paper by developing the most powerful essay!

“What Is a Term Paper?” on the Essay Examples

To understand a topic better, it is critical to have great examples in front of your nose. You may know how to write a term paper, having an idea of the outline, but choosing a good topic might be a challenge. A topic reflects the title, which is the face of your writing. Do not hope that your teachers/professors will give a list of great topics every time the end of the semester is closer. Modern instructors prefer to leave freedom of choice to their students. Many ways exist to help with the choice of topic:

If you decide to pick one of the sources as your primary source of information, do not forget to cite the quotes. It is important to add a Reference list on the last page. The basic rule of choosing the appropriate topic is to have the one, which fulfills the purposes of the college course and is the subject of the student’s interest. It makes no sense to select the topic you do not know at the advanced level. It is important to understand the criteria of choosing a topic to realize how to write a term paper. In case your head goes spinning from all the new information, simply shop for custom written term papers and call it a day.

Selecting the Topic: Criteria

What length are you planning to handle? What is a termpaper regarding of volume? It is not a typical argumentative, narrative essay ; a project of this type is a lengthy document, which contains no less than 5-10 pages. If your teacher asks for the certain amount of words, leave the word count to your Microsoft Word app. If writing huge pieces does not inspire you, try to select narrower topics. Take into account the length and plan how many words you plan to include into each part. Resources: school, college, or community libraries are no longer the best places to look for the relevant information. The modern world offers high technologies! Go to the Internet, open Google, type whatever you wish to research, and you will get millions of results. Remember: every source requires a reference. These are the top resources that will help to write a great term paper: 

The final page of your essay should contain a full Bibliography made of the cited sources. The last thing to think about is the complexity level. It is better to avoid topics you are not expert in; try choosing something you know from your personal experience & life examples, what can be explored in details. In case of any questions, professionals working in the field of your study may help. Teachers put extra credits to the works with interviews & surveys. Do not use primary sources only! Wish to learn how to write a history term paper, biology lab report , art movie review, capstone project , or how to write a dissertation in psychology? Buy a ready solution online!

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Glossary of Paper Terms

All paper-related terms explained.

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A standard sheet size used to establish basis weight for a given grade of paper. The standard size varies, depending upon the grade or type of paper and is related to the traditional end usage.

The weight in pounds per ream of paper cut to its basic size. A standard ream is defined as 500 sheets.

Durable, strong writing paper originally used for bonds, now used for letterhead and other stationary.

Brightness is the percentage of light at a certain wavelength (457 nanometers) that is reflected from the surface of the paper and is related to how light or dark the sheet appears. High brightness papers give greater contrast with black inks and a more vivid appearance of ink colors. Low brightness papers are traditionally used in book printing or limited use read and dispose.

Heavyweight or thick paper (usually 6pt or higher) commonly used for filing or mailing.

A measure of the strength of paper to withold pressure.

The thickness of a sheet of paper, expressed as thousands of an inch, or points. 

Collectively, a set of two or more papers that are engineered to transfer images through applied pressure from the top sheet to one or more sheets below, without the use of a carbon sheet.

Paper that is meant to be used as a base material to be altered through a conversion process to create another paper product.  Examples include envelopes, paper bags, tablets and forms.

Also referred to as card stock; a heavyweight paper designed to be used as booklet, magazine covers or brochures.

The tendancy for a sheet of paper to bend, either by design (as in the case of office papers) or undesirably (due to improper balance of moisture within the sheet).

The printing technique whereby documents or images are transmitted using a electronic file transferred from a computer to or other digital storage device to the printer, either a digital press or an inkjet device. Digital printing is best suited for smaller runs.

Paper made specifically for the purpose of converting into envelopes. 

The means by which a particular basis weight can be compared to another paper with a differing basic size. It is the basis weight expressed in terms of a different basic size. 

The characteristics of the surface of a paper meant to convey smoothness or texture. Examples include Smooth, Super Smooth, Vellum, Wove and Antique.

The number of double folds a paper will withstand without rupture, under constant tension.

Formation is judged by transmitting light through the sheet and looking at its structure and degree of uniformity. Paper with good formation prints with less mottling and has more uniform opacity.

Paper that contains less than 10% groundwood or mechanical pulp.

Refers to the alignment of fibers in the direction of their flow on the paper machine. Folding and scoring work best when done in the paper’s grain direction. Grain also affects tear strength, stiffness and dimensional stability.

A sheet of paper in which the fibers are aligned parallel to the long edge. A longer dimension noted last indicates grain long — 11″ x 17″.

A sheet of paper in which the fibers are aligned parallel to the short edge. A shorter dimension noted last indicates grain short — 17″ x 11″.

A heavyweight card stock typically used for folders and cards.

Refers to the printing technology where a digital image is reproduced through the spraying of microscopic liquid ink (or dye) droplets onto the surface of the paper.

A strong paper made from sulfate pulp and typically used to make envelopes and bags.

Paper suitable for checks or other business documents that can be printed with magnetic ink. Documents can then be read by data processing equipment through magnetic ink character recognition.

This is the amount of moisture contained by paper, expressed as a percentage of its total weight. Uniform moisture is a necessity in all grades of paper. 

The process by which multiple impressions of an original image are produced by transferring inks from a plate to rubber blankets or rollers, then to the surface of the print media. Offset printing is best suited to larger runs.

The ability of paper to obstruct light transmission and the show-through of printing. It is particularly important in two-sided printing. It also affects readability and overall appearance. Opacity is improved by scattering, absorbing or reflecting light. Fillers such as titanium dioxide and calcium carbonate scatter light, while blue and violet dyes absorb it. 

Paper characterized by a high level of opacity and a minimum amount of show-through.

Refers to the resistance paper has to air permeation. A higher number means less porosity.

The extent to which the a particular sheet performs with regard to ink receptivity, uniformity, smoothness, compressibility and opacity.

Fiber derived from previously manufactured and consumed paper, having been discarded after its original use life.

The amount of moisture in the air expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount of moisture the air could hold at a given temperature. Ideal printing conditions call for a RH at 45%.

The extent to which paper can run in printing, converting and other processing equipment, without jamming, breaking or otherwise causing mechanical failure.

Internal sizing in the paper affects absorbency, strength and permanence. External sizing improves resistance to water, ink and other fluids, seals down surface fibers and improves surface strength. Typical sizing agents are rosin, glue, gelatin starch resins, waxes, etc.

The evenness or lack of contour in the surface of an uncoated sheet.

The extent to which paper resists bending.

A quality measured by tests for burst, tear, tensile and folding strength, in which each measures the ability of the paper to withstand forces in different directions.

A heavy, durable card stock commonly used for tags, cards, menus and folders.

The Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, a well-regarded professional organization who has established recognized technical standards and testing procedures pertaining to the manufacture and use of pulp and paper.

A measure of the amount of force  required to tear paper.

The maximum force required to break a strip of paper.

The widest sheet of finished paper that can be made on a paper machine or the unneeded waste cut from a roll of paper during converting. Waste is minimized by utilizing the fullest width of the sheet possible (trimming), into finished goods.

A paper finish characterized by a slightly rough or toothy surface. Vellum finish should not be confused with vellum paper, which is a transluscent paper used primarily for drafting.

Fiber derived from a wood source used for the first time in paper making, not recycled.

The extent to which the surface of the paper reflects light of all wavelengths throughout the visible spectrum.

A smooth, even paper finish that displays no texture.

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Term paper definition

Term paper, as defined by the Cambridge Dictionary, is the main research paper written by a student for a particular class or subject during the academic year. A term paper needs to be well-researched and written with technical proficiency. In order to effectively demonstrate your understanding of a particular course, this academic writing assignment must be well-written, analytical, and organized, which can be quite difficult for the majority of students. Essentially, a long, research-based assignment on a particular topic is a term paper.

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How to write a term paper?

Term papers typically include between 15 and 25 pages since any less is regarded as being incompetent and any more is excessive for any professor to read. Ideally, you should be able to choose the topic for your term paper, but avoid using topics professors find boring (You have better chances with a term paper entirely about the British term for toilet paper). Most term papers aim to assess your ability to construct and defend your arguments as well as situate yourself within a specific theoretical framework. So, your term paper outline should look like this:

  • Cover page: Format the text that includes your name, the course number, the name of your teacher, and the due date.
  • Abstract: Typically less than a page long and describes your work. It explains to readers the purpose of the term paper, the problem at hand, and why you thought the topic was fascinating or significant enough to write about.
  • Introduction: The issue that will be discussed should be stated in the introduction. Write about the importance of the subject or issue at hand and how you intend to discuss or solve it.
  • Body: The essential ideas from your research should be included in the text's body. Give background information about the subject so that the reader can comprehend the discussion.
  • Results: Describe the reasons behind your beliefs about your subject based on your research. Bring everything you've been saying together with what you said in the introduction.
  • Discussion: Conclude by summarizing and drawing a conclusion regarding the subject at hand, that encourages the reader to carry out further research on the topic.

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We completely understand if you are struggling with your college papers, and we are here to solve this. We are a team specializing in writing term papers and other assignments for college students and all other types of customers who need a helping hand in its making. We cover a great range of topics, offer perfect quality work, always deliver on time and aim to leave our customers completely satisfied with what they ordered. The ordering process is fully online, and it goes as follows:

  • Select the topic and the deadline of your term paper.
  • Provide us with any details, requirements, statements that should be emphasized, etc.
  • Leave the email address, where your completed order will be sent to.
  • Select your prefered payment type, sit back and relax!

With lots of experience on the market, professionally degreed writers, online 24/7 customer support and incredibly low prices, you won't find a service offering a better deal than ours.

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Quantum Physics

Title: error correction of parity-encoding-based annealing through post-readout decoding.

Abstract: Lechner, Hauke, and Zoller proposed a parity-encoded spin-embedding scheme for quantum annealing (QA) with all-to-all connectivity to avoid the issue of limited connectivity in near-term QA hardware and to enable the implementation thereof using only geometrically local interactions between spins fabricated on the planar substrate. Nevertheless, the redundant encoding of logical information, i.e., using a large number of spins to embed the logical information, increases the computational cost and reduces the efficiency. In this study, we show through Monte Carlo simulation that this redundant encoding may be exploited to solve the problems of the inefficiency and computational cost of the parity-encoded scheme by incorporating appropriate decoding, namely classical post-processing, of the spins to retrieve the logical information. Our findings open up the possibility of parity-encoded schemes for realizing the QA with near-term quantum technologies.

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2 more candidates file papers to run for us senate in pennsylvania.

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Stay up to speed on all the latest local and national political news.

Two more candidates filed paperwork Thursday to appear on Pennsylvania's primary ballots for U.S. Senate as Democratic Sen. Bob Casey runs for a fourth term and Democrats try to maintain a majority in the narrowly divided chamber.

Video above: Headlines from WGAL News 8 Today.

Brandi Tomasetti, a Republican from Lancaster County, and William Parker, a Democrat from Allegheny County, both filed paperwork before a court-ordered deadline.

Both Parker and Tomasetti had gone to court to challenge the state election office's rejection of the paperwork they had filed by the Feb. 13 deadline set in state law. In court, the state dropped its objections.

In addition to Casey, previously filed candidates are David McCormick, the ex-hedge fund CEO who is endorsed by the state Republican Party and narrowly lost the 2022 GOP primary to Dr. Mehmet Oz, and perennial candidate Joe Vodvarka, a retired spring manufacturer from the Pittsburgh area who is making his fifth bid for U.S. Senate and second as a Republican.

The primary election is April 23.

Parker, who developed a mobile vending app, has lost primary races for Allegheny County executive and U.S. Congress in the last two years.

Tomasetti, a former municipal government employee, is a first-time candidate.

Vodvarka's petitions are being challenged in court, with a hearing scheduled for March 5.

The Senate candidates in Pennsylvania will share a ticket with candidates for president next year in a state that is critical to whether Democrats can maintain control of the White House and the Senate.

Casey is a stalwart of Pennsylvania’s Democratic Party — the son of a former two-term governor and Pennsylvania’s longest-ever serving Democrat in the Senate.

McCormick, 58, was heavily recruited to run again by the party establishment and has deep pockets, high-level connections in business and support from big Republican donors.

A race between Casey and McCormick could be one of the nation’s most expensive and closely watched in a year when Democrats have a difficult 2024 Senate map that requires them to defend incumbents in red states and multiple swing states.

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Journal of Materials Chemistry C

Stable and self-healing perovskite for high-speed underwater optical wireless communication.

Greenlight experiences minimal attenuation in water, rendering it indispensable for underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC). Among green light emitters, perovskite materials stand out due to their exceptional optical properties and cost-effectiveness, serving as reliable alternatives to easily manufactured green light sources. However, in underwater environments, perovskites are susceptible to structural damage, which can lead to communication device failures. In this study, we introduce an innovative perovskite-based UWOC system, where the perovskite light source possesses the ability to autonomously self-repair. We achieve this by implementing F-ion modification on CsPbBr3 QWs, significantly enhancing perovskite thermal stability. Subsequently, we incorporate CsPbBr3:F QWs into an all-dipole fluorine, imparting self-healing properties to the device. This results in the creation of a robust system capable of withstanding underwater conditions. This system can seamlessly integrate into a UWOC setup, achieving high-speed underwater communication. Remarkably, the device not only sustains stable operation in underwater environments for over a week but also fully restores communication speed after self-repair from complete breakage. Our innovative design provides substantial support for the future development of perovskite-based underwater communication technology and optoelectronics devices.

  • This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry C HOT Papers

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X. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Kuai, Z. Shi, C. Li, Z. Hu, Z. Cao and S. Li, J. Mater. Chem. C , 2024, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/D3TC04809H

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  • Nation & World
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Two more candidates file papers to run for U.S. Senate in Pennsylvania

HARRISBURG, Pa. (AP) — Two more candidates filed paperwork Thursday to appear on Pennsylvania’s primary ballots for U.S. Senate as Democratic Sen. Bob Casey runs for a fourth term and Democrats try to maintain a majority in the narrowly divided chamber.

Brandi Tomasetti, a Republican from Lancaster County, and William Parker, a Democrat from Allegheny County, both filed paperwork before a court-ordered deadline.

Both Parker and Tomasetti had gone to court to challenge the state election office’s rejection of the paperwork they had filed by the Feb. 13 deadline set in state law. In court, the state dropped its objections.

In addition to Casey, previously filed candidates are David McCormick, the ex-hedge fund CEO who is endorsed by the state Republican Party and narrowly lost the 2022 GOP primary to Dr. Mehmet Oz, and perennial candidate Joe Vodvarka, a retired spring manufacturer from the Pittsburgh area who is making his fifth bid for U.S. Senate and second as a Republican.

The primary election is April 23.

Parker, who developed a mobile vending app, has lost primary races for Allegheny County executive and U.S. Congress in the last two years.

Tomasetti, a former municipal government employee, is a first-time candidate.

Vodvarka’s petitions are being challenged in court, with a hearing scheduled for March 5.

The Senate candidates in Pennsylvania will share a ticket with candidates for president next year in a state that is critical to whether Democrats can maintain control of the White House and the Senate.

Casey is a stalwart of Pennsylvania’s Democratic Party — the son of a former two-term governor and Pennsylvania’s longest-ever serving Democrat in the Senate.

McCormick, 58, was heavily recruited to run again by the party establishment and has deep pockets, high-level connections in business and support from big Republican donors.

A race between Casey and McCormick could be one of the nation’s most expensive and closely watched in a year when Democrats have a difficult 2024 Senate map that requires them to defend incumbents in red states and multiple swing states.

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Term Paper From Start to Finish

    A term paper, a crucial component of your college education, is often assigned towards the conclusion of a semester. It's a vehicle through which educators gauge your comprehension of the course content. Imagine it as a bridge between what you've learned in class and your ability to apply that knowledge to real-world topics.

  2. How to Write a Term Paper in 5 Steps

    Write with Grammarly What is a term paper? A term paper is a piece of academic writing in which a student demonstrates their knowledge of a topic of study. Term papers constitute a large portion of the final grade, making them a serious assignment.

  3. 52 Synonyms & Antonyms for PAPER

    On this page you'll find 107 synonyms, antonyms, and words related to paper, such as: cardboard, disposable, insubstantial, paper-thin, papery, and wafer-thin. From Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2013 by the Philip Lief Group. Advertisement Browse Cookies, terms, & privacy Follow us Get the Synonym of the Day every day!

  4. Term Paper

    Term paper is a type of academic writing assignment that is typically assigned to students at the end of a semester or term. It is usually a research-based paper that is meant to demonstrate the student's understanding of a particular topic, as well as their ability to analyze and synthesize information from various sources.

  5. How to Write a Term Paper: Step-by-Step Guide With Examples

    A term paper is a written assignment given to students at the end of a course to gauge their understanding of the material. Term papers typically count for a good percentage of your overall grade, so of course, you'll want to write the best paper possible. Luckily, we've got you covered.

  6. Term Paper: Outline, Format and Writing Tips HandMadeWriting

    A term paper is a critical and analytical report on the topic or subject that you covered within the course of studies. It usually consists of two separate but equally important aspects: your own thoughts about the topic and a demonstration of your understanding of the existing literature.

  7. How to Write a Good Term Paper (Updated for 2021)

    View 120,000+ High Quality Essay Examples Learn-by-example to improve your academic writing Sign Up Now! Why Are Term Papers Different from Essays? When you write a term paper, you will usually be expected to do research, and show what other people have written about the subject. However, a term paper should also show independent thought.

  8. Term paper

    A term paper is a research paper written by students over an academic term, accounting for a large part of a grade. Merriam-Webster defines it as "a major written assignment in a school or college course representative of a student's achievement during a term". [1]

  9. Term Paper: Definition, Outline and Examples

    A term paper is a longer type of research-based homework on a particular topic. Term papers range from 15 to 25 pages because any less is considered lazy and any more is too much for any professor to read (trust me, I teach at a university).

  10. How to Write a Good Term Paper (Format, Structure, Outline)

    A term paper is a research document that you write after a semester or year of work. This assignment helps you determine your understanding of the course content and the aspects required by the curriculum. Writing a term paper has other purposes as well. Working on your task, you delve deeper into the discipline, get acquainted with its main ...

  11. How to Write a Term Paper Step-by-step Guide with Examples

    A term paper is a piece of academic writing where students must provide an interpretation of data that has been collected through part of the course or a certain time period. The main purpose is to show how the subject has been understood and what lessons have been learned. This is precisely where a term paper helps achieve all of that.

  12. Understanding the Basics: How to Write a Term Paper

    What Is a Term Paper? A term paper is a written project required at the end of a semester. It is designed to evaluate a student's knowledge and understanding of a particular subject. Typically, it takes the form of a discussion or analysis of an assigned topic.

  13. PAPER Synonyms: 83 Similar and Opposite Words

    Definition of paper 1 as in document a piece of paper with information written or to be written on it handed in the correct papers Synonyms & Similar Words Relevance document form sheet blank filing instrument writ 2 as in newspaper a publication that appears at regular intervals we get the paper every morning Synonyms & Similar Words newspaper

  14. Write the Perfect Term Paper

    A term paper is an academic paper that is usually written at the end of the school year. It requires students to conduct thorough research on a given topic and compile their findings into a well-structured paper. It often requires students to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the subject matter. The length of a term paper can vary.

  15. How to Write a Term Paper: Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

    There is a term paper outline example: Introduction. The objective of this section is to uncover the purpose of your term paper. Here you will tell the reader about the problems of research and formulate a thesis statement; paper body. Write a few paragraphs, each of which can reveal a new aspect.

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    Style. The prose style of a term paper should be formal, clear, concise, and direct. Don't try to sound "academic" or "scientific.". Just present solid research in a straightforward manner. Use the documentation style prescribed in your assignment or the one preferred by the discipline you're writing for.

  17. How to Research a Term Paper

    Find suitable sources for your term paper. At this point, decide on the most likely sources of information—books, journal articles, newspapers, online databases, CD-ROM databases, interviews, etc. Dig around in the library and locate sources for your term paper. Use your library's computer access system to find books on your subject.

  18. How to Write a Term Paper: Outline, Format, & Writing Tips

    According to the definition, a term paper is a research paper you write at the end of a semester or academic year. This task will evaluate your understanding of the course material and assess your proficiency in the curriculum's essential components. In addition to its primary goal, writing a term paper also has other purposes.

  19. Paper Making Glossary: Your Guide to Paper Terminology

    A paper machine developed by Louis Robert and financed by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier that produces a continuous web of paper; also the term for the section of the paper machine, which is a continuous "wire" or belt screen, through which the first removal of water occurs. The point of formation.

  20. Term Paper: 5 Components of Successful Writing and Structuring

    A term paper is a research project written by students over an academic term, typically accounting for a significant part of a grade. It is intended to describe an event, a concept, or argue a point. The paper is usually original research involving a detailed study of a subject, requiring a considerable amount of preparation and effort.

  21. Glossary of Paper Terms

    Glossary of Paper Terms All paper-related terms explained. Basic Size A standard sheet size used to establish basis weight for a given grade of paper. The standard size varies, depending upon the grade or type of paper and is related to the traditional end usage. Basis Weight The weight in pounds per ream of paper …

  22. single word requests

    Cockled. That is the paper conservator's technical term for wavy or rippled paper. See e.g. Laura Schell paper conservator: Cockling Warped and wavy (cockled) paper may be restored to a planar condition by controlled humidification and flattening.

  23. Buying a Term Paper Online

    Term paper, as defined by the Cambridge Dictionary, is the main research paper written by a student for a particular class or subject during the academic year. A term paper needs to be well-researched and written with technical proficiency.

  24. [2402.08839] Error correction of parity-encoding-based annealing

    Lechner, Hauke, and Zoller proposed a parity-encoded spin-embedding scheme for quantum annealing (QA) with all-to-all connectivity to avoid the issue of limited connectivity in near-term QA hardware and to enable the implementation thereof using only geometrically local interactions between spins fabricated on the planar substrate. Nevertheless, the redundant encoding of logical information, i ...

  25. Two more candidates file papers to run for U.S. Senate in Pa

    Updated: 7:09 AM EST Feb 23, 2024. Two more candidates filed paperwork Thursday to appear on Pennsylvania's primary ballots for U.S. Senate as Democratic Sen. Bob Casey runs for a fourth term and ...

  26. Stable and self-healing perovskite for high-speed underwater optical

    Greenlight experiences minimal attenuation in water, rendering it indispensable for underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC). Among green light emitters, perovskite materials stand out due to their exceptional optical properties and cost-effectiveness, serving as reliable alternatives to easily manuf Journal of Materials Chemistry C HOT Papers

  27. Two more candidates file papers to run for U.S. Senate in Pennsylvania

    HARRISBURG, Pa. (AP) — Two more candidates filed paperwork Thursday to appear on Pennsylvania's primary ballots for U.S. Senate as Democratic Sen. Bob Casey runs for a fourth term and ...

  28. A Profitable Day Trading Strategy For The U.S. Equity Market

    The validity of day trading as a long-term consistent and uncorrelated source of income for traders and investors is a matter of debate. In this paper, we endeavored to answer this question by conducting a thorough analysis of the profitability of Opening Range Breakout (ORB) strategies, with a particular focus on the 5-minute ORB.